The London Gazette
The London Gazette is one of the official journals of record of the British government, the most important among such official journals in the United Kingdom, in which certain statutory notices are required to be published. The London Gazette claims to be the oldest surviving English newspaper and the oldest continuously published newspaper in the UK, having been first published on 7 November 1665 as The Oxford Gazette; this claim is made by the Stamford Mercury and Berrow's Worcester Journal, because The Gazette is not a conventional newspaper offering general news coverage. It does not have a large circulation. Other official newspapers of the UK government are The Edinburgh Gazette and The Belfast Gazette, apart from reproducing certain materials of nationwide interest published in The London Gazette contain publications specific to Scotland and Northern Ireland, respectively. In turn, The London Gazette carries not only notices of UK-wide interest, but those relating to entities or people in England and Wales.
However, certain notices that are only of specific interest to Scotland or Northern Ireland are required to be published in The London Gazette. The London and Belfast Gazettes are published by TSO on behalf of Her Majesty's Stationery Office, they are subject to Crown copyright. The London Gazette is published each weekday, except for bank holidays. Notices for the following, among others, are published: Granting of royal assent to bills of the Parliament of the United Kingdom or of the Scottish Parliament The issuance of writs of election when a vacancy occurs in the House of Commons Appointments to certain public offices Commissions in the Armed Forces and subsequent promotion of officers Corporate and personal insolvency Granting of awards of honours and military medals Changes of names or of coats of arms Royal Proclamations and other DeclarationsHer Majesty's Stationery Office has digitised all issues of the Gazette, these are available online; the official Gazettes are published by The Stationery Office.
The content, apart from insolvency notices, is available in a number of machine-readable formats, including XML and XML/RDFa via Atom feed. The London Gazette was first published as The Oxford Gazette on 7 November 1665. Charles II and the Royal Court had moved to Oxford to escape the Great Plague of London, courtiers were unwilling to touch London newspapers for fear of contagion; the Gazette was "Published by Authority" by Henry Muddiman, its first publication is noted by Samuel Pepys in his diary. The King returned to London as the plague dissipated, the Gazette moved too, with the first issue of The London Gazette being published on 5 February 1666; the Gazette was not a newspaper in the modern sense: it was sent by post to subscribers, not printed for sale to the general public. Her Majesty's Stationery Office took over the publication of the Gazette in 1889. Publication of the Gazette was transferred to the private sector, under government supervision, in the 1990s, when HMSO was sold and renamed The Stationery Office.
In time of war, despatches from the various conflicts are published in The London Gazette. People referred to are said to have been mentioned in despatches; when members of the armed forces are promoted, these promotions are published here, the person is said to have been "gazetted". Being "gazetted" sometimes meant having official notice of one's bankruptcy published, as in the classic ten-line poem comparing the stolid tenant farmer of 1722 to the lavishly spending faux-genteel farmers of 1822: Notices of engagement and marriage were formerly published in the Gazette. Gazettes, modelled on The London Gazette, were issued for most British colonial possessions. History of British newspapers Iris Oifigiúil The Dublin Gazette – in Ireland London Gazette index Official Journal of the European Union List of government gazettes London and Belfast Gazettes official site Great Fire of London 1666 – Facsimile and transcript of London Gazette report
William Eliot, 2nd Earl of St Germans
William Eliot, 2nd Earl of St Germans, known as William Elliot until 1823, was a British diplomat and politician. Eliot was born at Port Eliot, the third son of Edward Craggs-Eliot, 1st Baron Eliot and his wife Catherine, he was educated at Pembroke College, taking an M. A. in 1786. From November 1791 until 1793 he was a Secretary of Legation at Berlin, from 1793 to 1794 Secretary of Embassy and Minister Plenipotentiary at The Hague and from 1796 Minister Plenipotentiary to the Elector Palatine and to the Diet of Ratisbon. Eliot sat as Tory Member of Parliament for St Germans from 1791 to 1802 and for Liskeard from 1802 to 1823, he served as a Lord of the Admiralty from 1800 to 1804, as Parliamentary Under-Secretary of State for Foreign Affairs from 1804 to 1805 and as one of the Lords Commissioners of the Treasury from 1807 to 1812. In 1823 he entered the House of Lords. Lord St Germans married four times. On 30 November 1797 at Trentham, Staffordshire to Lady Georgiana Augusta Leveson-Gower. Georgiana was the daughter of 1st Marquess of Stafford.
They had one son and three daughters: Edward Granville Eliot, 3rd Earl of St Germans Lady Caroline Georgina Eliot Lady Susan Caroline Eliot Lady Charlotte Sophia Eliot On 13 February 1809 at Heytesbury, Wiltshire, to Letitia A'Court, with no issue. On 7 March 1812 at the Earl of Powis' House, Berkeley Square, London, to Charlotte Robinson, with no issue. On 30 August 1814 at Walton, with no issue, he was succeeded by his eldest son. Hansard 1803–2005: contributions in Parliament by the Earl of St Germans
Alexander Gordon, 4th Duke of Gordon
Alexander Gordon, 4th Duke of Gordon, KT, styled Marquess of Huntly until 1752, was a Scottish nobleman, described by Kaimes as the "greatest subject in Britain", was known as the Cock o' the North, the traditional epithet attached to the chief of the Gordon clan. Alexander Gordon was born at Gordon Castle, Fochabers, on 18 June 1743, the eldest son of Cosmo Gordon, 3rd Duke of Gordon, his wife, Lady Catherine Gordon, daughter of the 2nd Earl of Aberdeen, he was educated at Eton and possibly at Harrow. He succeeded as 4th Duke of Gordon in 1752, his younger brother was Lord George Gordon. He was elected as a Scottish representative peer in 1767, he was appointed a Knight of the Thistle in 1775 and was created a Peer of Great Britain as Baron Gordon of Huntley, of Huntley in the County of Gloucester, Earl of Norwich, in the County of Norfolk, in 1784. His new titles were not universally popular, he was thought to have taken designations. The Scots Peerage described the Gordon of Huntley peerage as "an absurd specimen of Peerage topography.
The village of Huntley, four miles from Newent in Gloucestershire, had no connection with the Gordon family or with the town of Huntly in North Britain." George Edward Cokayne in The Complete Peerage says the following with regard to the Duke's choice of Norwich for his Earldom: "His great-grandmother was the daughter of the 5th Duke of Norfolk and 1st Earl of Norwich, but though that title had become extinct in 1777, the representation thereof did not vest in the issue of that lady."He was Keeper of the Great Seal of Scotland from 1794 to 1806 and from 1807 to 1827. Between 1793 and 1827, he was Chancellor of Aberdeen. In addition, he was Lord Lieutenant of Aberdeenshire until 1808, he received the Order of the Thistle from King George III on 11 January 1775. The Dictionary of National Biography described him thus: "At the time of his marriage the Duke was reputed one of the handsomest men of his day." He raised the 92nd Regiment of Foot in 1794 for the French Revolutionary Wars. He was responsible for establishing the new village of Fochabers as well as those of Tomintoul and Portgordon in Banffshire.
He is credited as the founder of the Gordon Setter breed of dog, having popularised a 200-year-old breed during the 18th century and formalised its breed standard in 1820. He was an enthusiastic supporter and patron of the music of William Marshall, a Scottish fiddler and composer, famous for his many strathspeys, who acted as steward of the Gordon household. Gordon married firstly on 23 October 1767 at Ayton, Scottish Borders and again at Mr. Fordyce's house in Argyll Street, Jane, the daughter of Sir William Maxwell, 3rd Baronet of Monreith, by his wife, daughter of William Blair, of Blair, Ayrshire. Jane was described by the diarist Sir Nathaniel Wraxall as a celebrated beauty. From 1787 she was part of the social centre of the Tory party and was described in the Female Jockey Club of 1794 as possessing "an open ruddy countenance, quick in repartée, no one excelling her in performing the honours of the table, her society is courted", it went on to say. She resided for some years in Edinburgh, but refused to renew her residence at George Square, because it was "a vile dull place".
The Hon. Henry Erskine is said to have written the following lines to her: "That is, quoth he, as if the Sun should say, A vile dark morning this – I will not rise to-day." The Duke and Duchess's marriage was tempestuous from the start and neither made any particular effort to be faithful to the other. For some years before her death she was bitterly estranged from the Duke. While the Duchess circulated at the centre of society, the Duke lived in retirement at Gordon Castle. Elizabeth Grant mentions "The great width of the Spey, the bridge at Fochabers, the peep of the towers of Gordon Castle from amongst the cluster of trees that concealed the rest of the building....the Duke lived disreputably in this solitude, for he was little noticed, and, I believe, preferred seclusion."The Duchess is best remembered for placing the King's shilling between her teeth to help recruitment to the Gordon Highlanders which were founded by her husband. However, she possessed a capacity for match-making, unrivalled.
Of her five daughters, three were married to Dukes, one to a Marquess. The Duchess of Gordon died at Pulteney's Hotel, Middlesex, on 14 April 1812 and was buried at her beloved Kinrara near Aviemore. After her death Alexander married at the Kirk of Fochabers in July 1820, Jane Christie, a native of Fochabers and was aged about 40. Alexander had had four children by her. After their marriage she lived not at the castle, but at a town house in Fochabers, she claimed that by residing at the Castle, which the Duke had rebuilt and enlarged none of his friends would visit him. One of the Duke's illegitimate sons, Colonel Charles Gordon, was given the property of Glasterim near Port Gordon. Curiously, Colonel Gordon had been a great favourite with the late Duchess. Elizabeth Grant described Colonel Gordon as "much beloved by Lord Huntly, whom he exceedingly resembled, so might have done better for himself and all belonging to him, had not the Gordon brains been of the lightest with him."Jane died on 17 June 1824.
The Duke himself died at Mount Street, Berkeley Square, on 17 June 1827, was buried in Elgin Cathedral. He was succeeded by his son George Gordon, 5th Du
Thomas Egerton, 2nd Earl of Wilton
Thomas Egerton, 2nd Earl of Wilton GCH, PC, known as Thomas Grosvenor until 1814, was a British nobleman and Tory politician. He served as Lord Steward of the Household in 1835 in Sir Robert Peel's first administration. Wilton was the second son of Robert Grosvenor, 1st Marquess of Westminster and his wife Lady Eleanor Egerton, daughter of Thomas Egerton, 1st Earl of Wilton. Richard Grosvenor, 2nd Marquess of Westminster was his elder brother and Robert Grosvenor, 1st Baron Ebury, his younger brother. In 1814, at the age of 14, he succeeded to the earldom of Wilton according to a special remainder on the death of his maternal grandfather, he assumed by sign manual the surname of Egerton in lieu of Grosvenor in 1821. He inherited Heaton Park through his maternal grandfather. Lord Wilton took his seat in the House of Lords on his twenty-first birthday in 1820. In January 1835 he was appointed Lord Steward of the Household in the Tory administration of Sir Robert Peel and the following February he was admitted to the Privy Council.
However, the government fell in April 1835 and Lord Wilton was never to return to office. Lord Wilton was a leading sportsman. Considered an expert horseman, he established the Heaton Park Races in 1827, he was interested in yachting, was a founding member of the Royal Mersey Yacht Club in 1844. He was Commodore of the Royal Yacht Squadron from 1849 to 1881. In this capacity, he was most notable for inviting members of the New York Yacht Club to race in the Royal Yacht Squadron regatta open to all nations around the Isle of Wight on 22 August 1851; the N. Y. Y. C. yacht America won the event and its silver trophy was subsequently renamed the America's Cup. Lord Wilton was inducted into the America's Cup Hall of Fame in 2001 in a ceremony at the Royal Yacht Squadron during the America's Cup Jubilee. Lord Wilton was a composer, he composed the anthem "O Praise the Lord, all ye heathen", a hymn titled "Hymn to Eros", as well as several other vocal compositions. Lord Wilton married firstly Lady Mary Stanley, daughter of the Edward Smith-Stanley, 12th Earl of Derby, in 1821.
They had eleven children, of: Lady Eleanor Egerton. Thomas Egerton, Viscount Grey de Wilton. Lady Mary Egerton. Lady Margaret Egerton. Arthur Egerton, Viscount Grey de Wilton. Lady Elizabeth Egerton, she married Dudley FitzGerald-de Ros, 24th Baron de Ros in 1853. Arthur Egerton, 3rd Earl of Wilton. Lady Katherine Grey Egerton, she married son of Thomas Coke, 1st Earl of Leicester. Lady Emily Egerton. Seymour Egerton, 4th Earl of Wilton, he married daughter of William Russell. They were parents of Arthur Egerton, 5th Earl of Wilton. Lady Alice Magdalene Grey Egerton, she married 5th Baronet. After his first wife's death in December 1858 Lord Wilton married secondly Isabella Smith in September 1863, they had no children. Lord Wilton died in March 1883, aged 82, was succeeded in the earldom by his third but eldest surviving son Arthur; the Countess of Wilton died in January 1916. Egerton family Duke of Westminster
The Lord Steward or Lord Steward of the Household, in England, is an important official of the Royal Household. He is always a peer; until 1924, he was always a member of the Government. Until 1782, the office carried Cabinet rank; the Lord Steward receives his appointment from the Sovereign in person and bears a white staff as the emblem and warrant of his authority. He is the first dignitary of the court. In the House of Lords Precedence Act 1539, an Act of Parliament for placing of the lords, he is described as the grand master or lord steward of the king's most honourable household, he presided at the Board of Green Cloth, until the Board of Green Cloth disappeared in the reform of local government licensing in 2004, brought about by the Licensing Act 2003. In his department are the Treasurer of the Household and Comptroller of the Household, who rank next to him; these officials were peers or the sons of peers and Privy Councillors. They sat at the Board of Green Cloth, carry white staves, belong to the ministry.
The offices are now held by Government whips in the House of Commons. The duties which in theory belong to the Lord Steward and Comptroller of the Household are in practice performed by the Master of the Household, a permanent officer and resides in the palace. However, by the Coroners Act 1988, the Lord Steward still appoints the Coroner of the Queen's Household; the Master of the Household is a white-staff officer and was a member of the Board of Green Cloth but not of the ministry, among other things he presided at the daily dinners of the suite in waiting on the sovereign. He is not named in the Black Book of Edward IV or in the Statutes of Henry VIII and is entered as master of the household and clerk of the green cloth in the Household Book of Queen Elizabeth, but he has superseded the lord steward of the household, as the lord steward of the household at one time superseded the Lord High Steward of England. In the Lord Steward's department were the officials of the Board of Green Cloth, the Coroner, Paymaster of the Household, the officers of the Royal Almonry.
Other offices in the department were those of the Cofferer of the Household, the Treasurer of the Chamber, the Paymaster of Pensions, but these, with six clerks of the Board of Green Cloth, were abolished in 1782. The Lord Steward had three courts besides the Board of Green Cloth under him—the Lord Steward's Court, superseded in 1541 by the Marshalsea Court, the Palace Court; the Lord Steward or his deputies administered the oaths to the members of the House of Commons. In certain cases the lords with white staves are the proper persons to bear communications between the Sovereign and the Houses of Parliament. Sir Thomas Rempston 1399–1401 Thomas Percy, 1st Earl of Worcester 1401–1402 William Heron, Lord Say 1402–1404 Sir Thomas Erpingham 1404 Sir John Stanley 1405–1412 Sir Thomas Erpingham 1413–1417 Sir Walter Hungerford 1413–1421 Robert Babthorp 1421–1424 Sir Walter Hungerford 1424–1426 Sir John Tiptoft 1426–1432 Robert Babthorp 1432–1433 William de la Pole, 1st Marquess of Suffolk 1433–1446 Ralph Boteler, 1st Baron Sudeley 1447–1457 John Beauchamp, 1st Baron Beauchamp 1457–1461 William Neville, 1st Earl of Kent 1461–1463 John Tiptoft, 1st Earl of Worcester 1463–1467 Henry Bourchier, 1st Earl of Essex 1467–1470 Thomas Stanley, 1st Earl of Derby 1471–?1485 The Lord FitzWalter 1485–aft.
1486 The Lord Willoughby de Broke 1488–1502 The Earl of Shrewsbury 1502–1538 The Earl of Sussex 1538–1540? The Duke of Suffolk 1541–1544 The Lord St John 1544–1551 The Duke of Northumberland 1551–1553 The Earl of Arundel 1553–1568 The Earl of Pembroke 1568–1570 no Lord Steward appointed 1570–1588 The Earl of Leicester 1587–1588 no Lord Steward appointed 1588–1603 The Earl of Nottingham 1603–1618 The Duke of Richmond 1618–1623 The Marquess of Hamilton 1623–1625 The Earl of Pembroke 1625–1630 none 1630–1640 The Earl of Arundel and Surrey 1640–1644 The Duke of Richmond 1644–1655 none 1655–1660 The Duke of Ormonde 1660–1688 The Duke of Devonshire 1689–1707 The Duke of Devonshire 1707–1710 The Duke of Buckingham and Normanby 1710–1711 The Earl Poulett 1711–1714 The Duke of Devonshire 1714–1716 The Duke of Kent 1716–1718 The Duke of Argyll 1718–1725 The Duke of Dorset 1725–1730 The Earl of Chesterfield 1730–1733 The Duke of Devonshire 1733–1737 The Duke of Dorset 1737–1744 The Duke of Devonshire 1744–1749 The Duke of Marlborough 1749–1755 The Duke of Rutland 1755–1761 The Earl Talbot 1761–1782 The Earl of Carlisle 1782–1783 The Duke of Rutland 1783 The Earl of Dartmouth 1783 The Duke of Chandos 1783–1789 The Duke of Dorset 1789–1799 The Earl of Leicester 1799–1802 The Earl of Dartmouth 1802–1804 The Earl of Aylesford 1804–1812 The Marquess of Cholmondeley 1812–1821 The Marquess Conyngham 1821–1830 The Duke of Buckingham and Chandos 1830 The Marquess Wellesley 1830–1833 The Duke of Argyll 1833–1834 The Earl of Wilton 1835 The Duke of Argyll 1835–1839 The Earl of Erroll 1839–1841 The Earl of Liverpool 1841–1846 The Earl Fortescue 1846–1850 The Marquess of Westminster 1850–1852 The Duke of Montrose 1852–1853 The Duke of Norfolk 1853–1854 The Earl Spencer 1854–1857 The Earl of St Germans 1857–1858 The Marquess of Exeter 1858–1859 The Earl of St Germans 1859–1866 The Earl of Bessborough 1866 The Duke of Marlborough 1866–1867 The Earl of Tankerville 1867–1868 The Earl of Bessborough 1868–1874 The Earl Beauchamp 1874–1880 The Earl Sydney 1880–1885 The Earl of Mount Edgcumbe 1885–1886 The Earl Sydney 1886 The Earl of Mount Edgcumbe 1886–1892 The Marquess of Breadalbane 1892–1895 The Earl of Pembroke 1895–1905 The Earl of Liverpool 1905–1907 The Earl Beauchamp 1907–1910 The Earl
Sir Charles Hamilton, 2nd Baronet, of Trebinshun House
Admiral Sir Charles Hamilton, 2nd Baronet KCB was a British naval officer and governor of Newfoundland. Hamilton was born the eldest son of John Hamilton, a Captain in the Royal Navy who had distinguished himself at the Battle of Quebec in 1775. Charles began his naval career at the age of nine on Hector, he attended the Royal Naval Academy at Portsmouth from 1777 to 1779. He commanded a number of vessels in the Royal Navy and was a member of the British parliament several times between 1790 and 1812 while still serving in the Royal Navy, he became the 2nd baronet Hamililton of Trebinshun on his father's death in 1784. From 1818 to 1823 he served as resident governor for the colony of Newfoundland. During this period, he oversaw the reconstruction of St. John's following fires in 1818 and 1819. Although he was charged with promoting agriculture, he was soon discouraged by the poor soils of the island; the economy of the island was depressed due to decreased demand for Newfoundland cod and Hamilton encouraged diversification of the fisheries to include whales and salmon.
Hamilton was promoted to admiral on 22 July 1830, was awarded KCB in 1833. He died at the family home at Iping, West Sussex in 1849, he had married the daughter of George Drummond, a banker of Stanmore, Middlesex. Their only son, Sir Charles John James Hamilton, 3rd Baronet became an Army officer. Lady Hamilton painted a well-known portrait of Demasduwit called Mary March, a Beothuk woman captured in 1818. Governors of Newfoundland List of people of Newfoundland and Labrador O'Byrne, William Richard. "Hamilton, Charles". A Naval Biographical Dictionary. John Murray – via Wikisource. Biography at Government House The Governorship of Newfoundland and Labrador
Victoria was Queen of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland from 20 June 1837 until her death. On 1 May 1876, she adopted the additional title of Empress of India. Victoria was the daughter of Prince Edward, Duke of Kent and Strathearn, the fourth son of King George III. Both the Duke and the King died in 1820, Victoria was raised under close supervision by her mother, Princess Victoria of Saxe-Coburg-Saalfeld, she inherited the throne at the age of 18, after her father's three elder brothers had all died, leaving no surviving legitimate children. The United Kingdom was an established constitutional monarchy, in which the sovereign held little direct political power. Victoria attempted to influence government policy and ministerial appointments. Victoria married her first cousin Prince Albert of Saxe-Coburg and Gotha in 1840, their nine children married into royal and noble families across the continent, tying them together and earning her the sobriquet "the grandmother of Europe". After Albert's death in 1861, Victoria avoided public appearances.
As a result of her seclusion, republicanism temporarily gained strength, but in the latter half of her reign, her popularity recovered. Her Golden and Diamond Jubilees were times of public celebration, her reign of 63 years and seven months was longer than that of any of her predecessors and is known as the Victorian era. It was a period of industrial, political and military change within the United Kingdom, was marked by a great expansion of the British Empire, she was the last British monarch of the House of Hanover. Her son and successor, Edward VII, initiated the House of Saxe-Coburg and Gotha, the line of his father. Victoria's father was Prince Edward, Duke of Kent and Strathearn, the fourth son of the reigning King of the United Kingdom, George III; until 1817, Edward's niece, Princess Charlotte of Wales, was the only legitimate grandchild of George III. Her death in 1817 precipitated a succession crisis that brought pressure on the Duke of Kent and his unmarried brothers to marry and have children.
In 1818 he married Princess Victoria of Saxe-Coburg-Saalfeld, a widowed German princess with two children—Carl and Feodora —by her first marriage to the Prince of Leiningen. Her brother Leopold was Princess Charlotte's widower; the Duke and Duchess of Kent's only child, was born at 4.15 a.m. on 24 May 1819 at Kensington Palace in London. Victoria was christened by the Archbishop of Canterbury, Charles Manners-Sutton, on 24 June 1819 in the Cupola Room at Kensington Palace, she was baptised Alexandrina after one of her godparents, Emperor Alexander I of Russia, Victoria, after her mother. Additional names proposed by her parents—Georgina and Augusta—were dropped on the instructions of Kent's eldest brother, the Prince Regent. At birth, Victoria was fifth in the line of succession after the four eldest sons of George III: George, the Prince Regent; the Prince Regent had no surviving children, the Duke of York had no children. The Duke of Clarence and the Duke of Kent married on the same day in 1818, but both of Clarence's legitimate daughters died as infants.
The first of these was Princess Charlotte, born and died on 27 March 1819, two months before Victoria was born. Victoria's father died in January 1820. A week her grandfather died and was succeeded by his eldest son as George IV. Victoria was third in line to the throne after York and Clarence. Clarence's second daughter was Princess Elizabeth of Clarence who lived for twelve weeks from 10 December 1820 to 4 March 1821 and, while Elizabeth lived, Victoria was fourth in line; the Duke of York died in 1827. When George IV died in 1830, he was succeeded by his next surviving brother, Clarence, as William IV, Victoria became heir presumptive; the Regency Act 1830 made special provision for Victoria's mother to act as regent in case William died while Victoria was still a minor. King William distrusted the Duchess's capacity to be regent, in 1836 he declared in her presence that he wanted to live until Victoria's 18th birthday, so that a regency could be avoided. Victoria described her childhood as "rather melancholy".
Her mother was protective, Victoria was raised isolated from other children under the so-called "Kensington System", an elaborate set of rules and protocols devised by the Duchess and her ambitious and domineering comptroller, Sir John Conroy, rumoured to be the Duchess's lover. The system prevented the princess from meeting people whom her mother and Conroy deemed undesirable, was designed to render her weak and dependent upon them; the Duchess avoided the court because she was scandalised by the presence of King William's illegitimate children. Victoria shared a bedroom with her mother every night, studied with private tutors to a regular timetable, spent her play-hours with her dolls and her King Charles Spaniel, Dash, her lessons included French, German and Latin, but she spoke only English at home. In 1830, the Duchess of Kent and Conroy took Victoria across the centre of England to visit the Malvern Hills, stopping at towns and great country houses along the way. Similar journeys to oth