The United Kingdom the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland, sometimes referred to as Britain, is a sovereign country located off the north-western coast of the European mainland. The United Kingdom includes the island of Great Britain, the north-eastern part of the island of Ireland, many smaller islands. Northern Ireland is the only part of the United Kingdom that shares a land border with another sovereign state, the Republic of Ireland. Apart from this land border, the United Kingdom is surrounded by the Atlantic Ocean, with the North Sea to the east, the English Channel to the south and the Celtic Sea to the south-west, giving it the 12th-longest coastline in the world; the Irish Sea lies between Great Ireland. With an area of 242,500 square kilometres, the United Kingdom is the 78th-largest sovereign state in the world, it is the 22nd-most populous country, with an estimated 66.0 million inhabitants in 2017. The UK is constitutional monarchy; the current monarch is Queen Elizabeth II, who has reigned since 1952, making her the longest-serving current head of state.
The United Kingdom's capital and largest city is London, a global city and financial centre with an urban area population of 10.3 million. Other major urban areas in the UK include Greater Manchester, the West Midlands and West Yorkshire conurbations, Greater Glasgow and the Liverpool Built-up Area; the United Kingdom consists of four constituent countries: England, Scotland and Northern Ireland. Their capitals are London, Edinburgh and Belfast, respectively. Apart from England, the countries have their own devolved governments, each with varying powers, but such power is delegated by the Parliament of the United Kingdom, which may enact laws unilaterally altering or abolishing devolution; the nearby Isle of Man, Bailiwick of Guernsey and Bailiwick of Jersey are not part of the UK, being Crown dependencies with the British Government responsible for defence and international representation. The medieval conquest and subsequent annexation of Wales by the Kingdom of England, followed by the union between England and Scotland in 1707 to form the Kingdom of Great Britain, the union in 1801 of Great Britain with the Kingdom of Ireland created the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland.
Five-sixths of Ireland seceded from the UK in 1922, leaving the present formulation of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland. There are fourteen British Overseas Territories, the remnants of the British Empire which, at its height in the 1920s, encompassed a quarter of the world's land mass and was the largest empire in history. British influence can be observed in the language and political systems of many of its former colonies; the United Kingdom is a developed country and has the world's fifth-largest economy by nominal GDP and ninth-largest economy by purchasing power parity. It has a high-income economy and has a high Human Development Index rating, ranking 14th in the world, it was the world's first industrialised country and the world's foremost power during the 19th and early 20th centuries. The UK remains a great power, with considerable economic, military and political influence internationally, it is sixth in military expenditure in the world. It has been a permanent member of the United Nations Security Council since its first session in 1946.
It has been a leading member state of the European Union and its predecessor, the European Economic Community, since 1973. The United Kingdom is a member of the Commonwealth of Nations, the Council of Europe, the G7, the G20, NATO, the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development and the World Trade Organization; the 1707 Acts of Union declared that the kingdoms of England and Scotland were "United into One Kingdom by the Name of Great Britain". The term "United Kingdom" has been used as a description for the former kingdom of Great Britain, although its official name from 1707 to 1800 was "Great Britain"; the Acts of Union 1800 united the kingdom of Great Britain and the kingdom of Ireland in 1801, forming the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland. Following the partition of Ireland and the independence of the Irish Free State in 1922, which left Northern Ireland as the only part of the island of Ireland within the United Kingdom, the name was changed to the "United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland".
Although the United Kingdom is a sovereign country, Scotland and Northern Ireland are widely referred to as countries. The UK Prime Minister's website has used the phrase "countries within a country" to describe the United Kingdom; some statistical summaries, such as those for the twelve NUTS 1 regions of the United Kingdom refer to Scotland and Northern Ireland as "regions". Northern Ireland is referred to as a "province". With regard to Northern Ireland, the descriptive name used "can be controversial, with the choice revealing one's political preferences"; the term "Great Britain" conventionally refers to the island of Great Britain, or politically to England and Wales in combination. However, it is sometimes used as a loose synonym for the United Kingdom as a whole; the term "Britain" is used both as a synonym for Great Britain, as a synonym for the United Kingdom. Usage is mixed, with the BBC preferring to use Britain as shorthand only for Great Britain and the UK Government, while accepting that both terms refer to the United K
Admiral Sir Edward Thornbrough, GCB was a senior, long-serving veteran officer of the British Royal Navy during the late eighteenth and early nineteenth century. He saw action in the American Revolutionary War, the French Revolutionary Wars and the Napoleonic Wars, being wounded several times and once captured by American forces after a shipwreck. During the wreck, his conduct towards American prisoners aboard his ship was considered so exemplary that the American authorities released him without parole or exchange. During the conflict, Thornbrough won praise for taking his frigate into the thick of the action at the Glorious First of June, towing the shattered HMS Bellerophon to safety after she was isolated by several French ships of the line. Thornbrough became a senior admiral in both the Channel Fleet and the Mediterranean Fleet under Cuthbert Collingwood, who held him in high esteem, he retired in 1818 and settled in Devon with his third wife, dying in 1834. Thornbrough was born in the son of Commander Edward and Mary Thornbrough.
With a father in the Navy, young Edward's career was destined given his close proximity in his early life to the sea. Thornbrough joined his father at sea in 1761, as captain's servant on HMS Arrogant, spent two years in the Mediterranean becoming used to the sea. Aged nine in 1763, he attended school whilst being on the books of HMS Firm, he returned to the sea in 1768 aboard HMS Temeraire with his father. The ship was commanded by Edward Le Cras. Thornbrough would marry two of Le Cras's daughters. Temeraire was guardship at Portsmouth, in the time of peace this was a monotonous duty. Thornbrough therefore moved around several ships to broaden his education, traveling to Gibraltar and spending time on HMS Albion, he moved to HMS Captain with his father and in 1771 they sailed for Boston. For two more years the ship acted as guardship in the American port and provided a floating headquarters for Admiral John Montagu. Thornbrough performed a brief independent cruise in HMS Cruizer, but the service was otherwise uneventful and he returned to Britain with Captain in 1774.
In 1775, at the outbreak of the American Revolutionary War, Thornbrough returned to North America in the sloop HMS Falcon as second in command. Falcon participated in the bombardment of rebel positions during the Battle of Bunker Hill, in August Thornbrough was badly wounded in a failed attempt to seize an American schooner from Cape Ann harbour. Invalided to Britain, Thornbrough recovered in 1776 and joined the frigate HMS Richmond off the Eastern Seaboard. In 1779 he escorted a convoy to Newfoundland. Returning to Europe in 1780, Thornbrough joined the frigate HMS Flora and in her participated in the capture of the French frigate Nymphe after a long and bloody action; as consequence of his part in this engagement, Thornbrough was promoted to commander and took over the hired vessel HMS Britannia escorting a convoy to New York City. On arrival, Thornbrough was again promoted to post captain and took over captaincy of the frigate HMS Blonde. In 1782, Blonde attempted to tow her to Halifax, Nova Scotia.
During the operation the ship became lost in fog and Blonde was wrecked on a rocky islet whilst the brig continued to Halifax. On the islet, Thornbrough made sure that the American prisoners from the brig were given the same standards of treatment as the British sailors; when the survivors were rescued by two American ships a few days the American authorities were so impressed with his behaviour that they conveyed him to New York and released him without conditions as a reward. Returning to Britain, Thornbrough was to be given the ship of the line HMS Egmont, but the end of the war prevented this; the ten years of peace following the American war resulted in many officers entering semi-retirement on half-pay. Thornbrough however was given the prize frigate HMS Hebe and had Prince William Henry on board as a lieutenant. Although the Prince was a notoriously difficult officer to serve alongside, Thornbrough became friends with his subordinate, whose patronage would help him with his future career.
Thornbrough married Ann Le Cras in 1784, Prince William requested that their first son was to be named after him. The son would become Lieutenant William Henry Thornbrough, but died in 1798 aged 14; the couple would have another son, Edward Le Cras Thornbrough, who became an admiral and four daughters. In 1784, Thornbrough's father died. In 1790 during the Spanish armament, Thornbrough took over HMS Scipio. At the outbreak of the French Revolutionary Wars, Thornbrough requested and received command of the frigate HMS Latona. In November 1793, Thornbrough engaged several French ships of the line in a vain attempt to delay them until British warships could arrive to challenge them. In May 1794, Latona was a scout for the Channel Fleet under Lord Howe during the Atlantic campaign of May 1794; the campaign resulted in the Glorious First of June, when Latona was used as a repeating ship to relay Howe's signals down the British line. In the action however, Thornbrough was called on to take his diminutive ships through the battle lines to rescue the shattered HMS Bellerophon, being pounded by several large French ships.
Latona not only reached Bellerophon, but drove off the French battleships with her small broadsides and took the dismasted Bellerophon in tow to safety, all without suffering a casualty. Thornbrough took command of the ship of the line HMS Robust with the Channel Fleet, participated in the ill-fated 1795 invasion of Quiberon Bay with French Royalist forces; the operation was a failure and Robust was engaged in its desperate evacuation. Three
Carmarthen (UK Parliament constituency)
Carmarthen was the name of a parliamentary constituency in Wales which returned one Member of Parliament to the House of Commons of the Parliament of the United Kingdom between 1542 and 1997. It was named Carmarthen Boroughs from 1832 to 1918. At its abolition in 1997 it was replaced by the new Carmarthen East and Dinefwr constituency and by Carmarthen West and South Pembrokeshire; because the seat contained mining areas in the valley of the River Gwendraeth, much countryside and a high proportion of Welsh speakers, it was fertile territory for the Labour Party, the Conservatives and Plaid Cymru alike. Although the Conservatives never won the seat, they came within 1200 votes of doing so in 1983. Carmarthen is notable as the first constituency to elect a Plaid Cymru MP, Gwynfor Evans, at a 1966 by-election. Evans was involved in one of the closest General Election results in February 1974, when he lost to the Labour candidate by only three votes; the constituency shot to fame in the following election in October 1974 as the only seat in the country to see its turnout rise on that of February 1974.
Until 1832, it was a borough constituency consisting of the town of Carmarthen. Between 1832 and 1918 it was a district of boroughs constituency, consisting of Carmarthen itself and Llanelli, was sometimes called "The Carmarthen Boroughs". In 1918, the borough was abolished, but the name was transferred to one of the divisions of the county of Carmarthenshire; the constituency was made up of the whole of the county of Carmarthenshire except for the urban area around Llanelli. Notable towns were Carmarthen itself and Llandeilo. In 1997, the Boundary Commission for Wales recommended an extra seat for Dyfed; this led to the seat being split two to one between Carmarthen East & Dinefwr and Carmarthen West & South Pembrokeshire. Morris' death caused a by-election. Nevill resigned. Cowell-Stepney resigned. Williams resigned after being appointed causing a by-election. Lewis Morris was Liberal candidate but retired before the poll. Carmarthen by-election, 1941 Labour: Moelwyn Hughes elected unopposed. Robert Beatson, A Chronological Register of Both Houses of Parliament D Brunton & D H Pennington, Members of the Long Parliament Cobbett's Parliamentary history of England, from the Norman Conquest in 1066 to the year 1803 The Constitutional Year Book for 1913 F W S Craig, British Parliamentary Election Results 1832–1885 J Holladay Philbin, Parliamentary Representation 1832 – England and Wales
Thomas Foley (Royal Navy officer)
Admiral Sir Thomas Foley GCB was a Royal Navy officer and "Hero of the Battle of the Nile". He was the second son of landowner John Foley of Ridgeway, the Foley family's ancestral estate in the parish of Llawhaden near Narberth and the nephew of Captain Thomas Foley, who accompanied George Anson, 1st Baron Anson on his voyage around the world, he entered the Royal Navy in 1770, during his time as midshipman, saw a good deal of active service in the West Indies against American privateers. Promoted lieutenant in 1778, he served under Admiral Keppel and Sir Charles Hardy in the Channel, with Rodney's squadron was present at the defeat of De Langara off Cape St Vincent in 1780, at the relief of Gibraltar. Still under Rodney's command, he went out to the West Indies, took his part in the operations which culminated in the victory of 12 April 1782. In the French Revolutionary War he was engaged from the first; as flag-captain to Admiral John Gell, afterwards to Sir Hyde Parker, Foley took part in the siege of Toulon in 1793, the action of Golfe Jouan in 1794, the two fights off Toulon on 13 April and 13 July 1795.
At St Vincent he was flag-captain to the second in command on Britannia. After the battle he was transferred to the Goliath, in which he was sent out in the following year to reinforce Nelson's fleet in the Mediterranean; the part played by the Goliath in the Battle of the Nile was brilliant. She led the squadron round the French van, this manoeuvre contributed not a little to the result of the day. Whether this was done by Foley's own initiative, or intended by Horatio Nelson, has been a matter of controversy, his next important service was with Nelson in the Baltic. At the beginning of 1801, Nelson was promoted to Vice Admiral of the Blue and after a few months, he took part as the second in command in the Battle of Copenhagen; the Elephant carried Foley acted as his chief-of-staff. During the action Nelson's commander, Sir Hyde Parker, who believed that the Danish fire was too strong, signaled for him to break off the action. Nelson ordered. Legend has it that Nelson turned to his flag captain and said: "You know, Foley, I only have one eye - I have the right to be blind sometimes" and holding his telescope to his blind eye said "I do not see the signal!"
Nelson's action was approved in retrospect. Foley was one of Nelson's "Band of Brothers". Nelson himself was a sea-officer par excellence, yet there were many who struggled and were wounded as as he. This could not develop a close relationship among the men. Nelson himself was aware of the brotherhood which had arisen. In his biography of Nelson, David Howarth makes this clear: "... Nelson's famous phrase, "I had the happiness to command a band of brothers'... After his first great victory, Nelson called his captains'my darling children', none was the least embarrassed by that. Under Jervis, the captains of the Mediterranean fleet were becoming a brotherhood, bonded by skill, mutual respect and a common cause. Maybe they had not thought of it in that way before, and the concept - so suitable to his nature - became an important, conscious element in his conduct of the war." An amusing illustration of the affection Nelson inspired in his captains, of the half maternal care they exercised over the fragile and stunted body of their famous leader, is supplied by a letter from Nelson himself to Ball, written from Kioge Bay in 1801.
He was racked with the Baltic cold, wroth, as was common with him, with the still chillier winds which blew from the Admiralty Board: "But," he says, "all in the fleet are so kind to me that I should be a wretch not to cheer up. Foley has put me under a regimen of milk at four in the morning; that picture of one sea veteran administering warm milk to his admiral at four o'clock in the morning is amusing enough. Ill-health obliged Foley to decline Nelson's offer of the post of Captain of the Fleet; therefore it was Foley's fellow "brother" Thomas Hardy, present at Nelson's death. From 1811 to 1815, Foley commanded in the Downs from his flagship Monmouth, at the peace was made KCB. Sir Thomas Foley rose to be full admiral and GCB, he died while serving as Commander-in-Chief, Portsmouth in 1833. He was married on 31 Jul 1802 to Lady Lucy Anne FitzGerald, she was the youngest surviving daughter of James FitzGerald, 1st Duke of Leinster and Lady Emily Lennox. Her mother was the great-granddaughter of Charles II, King of England and Ireland and his mistress Louise de Kérouaille, Duchess of Portsmouth.
Lucy was the favourite sister of Lord Edward FitzGerald, one of the ill-fated leaders of the Irish Rebellion of 1798, was herself an active participant in the rebellion. She worked as a conduit, clandestinely transmitting letters between the Revolutionary Committee in Dublin and their agents in Paris. A biographer of Lord Edward wrote of Lucy that she "most resembled him in her strong sense of the ludicrous and her passionate love for justice." She wrote in 1798 of her hope for Irish liberation in an address to the Irish nation that wasn’t published until many years later: Irishmen, Countrymen, it is Edward FitzGerald's sister who addresses you: it is a woman but that woman is his sister: she would therefore die for you as he did... Yes, this is the moment, the precious moment which must either stamp with Infa
Jamaica is an island country situated in the Caribbean Sea. Spanning 10,990 square kilometres in area, it is the third-largest island of the Greater Antilles and the fourth-largest island country in the Caribbean. Jamaica lies about 145 kilometres south of Cuba, 191 kilometres west of Hispaniola. Inhabited by the indigenous Arawak and Taíno peoples, the island came under Spanish rule following the arrival of Christopher Columbus in 1494. Many of the indigenous people died of disease, the Spanish transplanted African slaves to Jamaica as labourers; the island remained a possession of Spain until 1655, when England conquered it and renamed it Jamaica. Under British colonial rule Jamaica became a leading sugar exporter, with its plantation economy dependent on African slaves; the British emancipated all slaves in 1838, many freedmen chose to have subsistence farms rather than to work on plantations. Beginning in the 1840s, the British utilized Chinese and Indian indentured labour to work on plantations.
The island achieved independence from the United Kingdom on 6 August 1962. With 2.9 million people, Jamaica is the third-most populous Anglophone country in the Americas, the fourth-most populous country in the Caribbean. Kingston is the country's capital and largest city, with a population of 937,700. Jamaicans have African ancestry, with significant European, Indian and mixed-race minorities. Due to a high rate of emigration for work since the 1960s, Jamaica has a large diaspora in Canada, the United Kingdom, the United States. Jamaica is an upper-middle income country with an average of 4.3 million tourists a year. Jamaica is a Commonwealth realm, with Elizabeth II as its queen, her appointed representative in the country is the Governor-General of Jamaica, an office held by Sir Patrick Allen since 2009. Andrew Holness has served as Prime Minister of Jamaica since March 2016. Jamaica is a parliamentary constitutional monarchy with legislative power vested in the bicameral Parliament of Jamaica, consisting of an appointed Senate and a directly elected House of Representatives.
The indigenous people, the Taíno, called the island Xaymaca in Arawakan, meaning the "Land of Wood and Water" or the "Land of Springs". Colloquially Jamaicans refer to their home island as the "Rock." Slang names such as "Jamrock", "Jamdown", or "Ja", have derived from this. The Arawak and Taíno indigenous people, originating in South America, first settled on the island between 4000 and 1000 BC; when Christopher Columbus arrived in 1494, there were more than 200 villages ruled by caciques. The south coast of Jamaica was the most populated around the area now known as Old Harbour; the Taino still inhabited Jamaica when the English took control of the island in 1655. The Jamaican National Heritage Trust is attempting to locate and document any evidence of the Taino/yamaye. Today, few Jamaican natives remain. Most notably among some Maroon communities as well as within some communities in Cornwall County, Jamaica Christopher Columbus claimed Jamaica for Spain after landing there in 1494, his probable landing point was Dry Harbour, called Discovery Bay, St. Ann's Bay was named "Saint Gloria" by Columbus, as the first sighting of the land.
One and a half kilometres west of St. Ann's Bay is the site of the first Spanish settlement on the island, established in 1509 and abandoned around 1524 because it was deemed unhealthy; the capital was moved to Spanish Town called St. Jago de la Vega, around 1534. Spanish Town has the oldest cathedral of the British colonies in the Caribbean; the Spanish were forcibly evicted by the English at Ocho Rios in St. Ann. In the 1655 Invasion of Jamaica, the English, led by Sir William Penn and General Robert Venables, took over the last Spanish fort on the island; the name of Montego Bay, the capital of the parish of St. James, was derived from the Spanish name manteca bahía, alluding to the lard-making industry based on processing the numerous boars in the area. In 1660, the population of Jamaica was about 4,500 1,500 black. By the early 1670s, as the English developed sugar cane plantations and "imported" more slaves, black people formed a majority of the population; the colony was shaken and destroyed by the 1692 Jamaica earthquake.
The Irish in Jamaica formed a large part of the island's early population, making up two-thirds of the white population on the island in the late 17th century, twice that of the English population. They were brought in as indentured labourers and soldiers after the conquest of Jamaica by Cromwell's forces in 1655; the majority of Irish were transported by force as political prisoners of war from Ireland as a result of the ongoing Wars of the Three Kingdoms at the time. Migration of large numbers of Irish to the island continued into the 18th century. Jews were expelled from Spain in 1492 and forcibly converted to Christianity in Portugal, during a period of persecution by the Inquisition; some Spanish and Portuguese Jewish refugees went to the Netherlands and England, from there to Jamaica. Others were part of the Iberian colonisation of the New World, after overtly converting to Catholicism, as only Catholics were allowed in the Spanish colonies. By 1660, Jamaica had become a refuge for Jews in the New World attracting those, expelled from Spain and Portugal.
An early group of Jews arrived in 1510, soon after the son of Christopher Columbus settled on the island. Working as merchants and traders, the
Thomas Cochrane, 10th Earl of Dundonald
Admiral Thomas Cochrane, 10th Earl of Dundonald, Marquess of Maranhão, GCB, ODM, OSC, styled Lord Cochrane between 1778 and 1831, was a British naval flag officer of the Royal Navy and radical politician. He was a daring and successful captain of the Napoleonic Wars, leading Napoleon to nickname him Le Loup des Mers, he was successful in all his naval actions. He was dismissed from the Royal Navy in 1814 following a controversial conviction for fraud on the Stock Exchange, he helped organise and lead the rebel navies of Chile and Brazil during their respective successful wars of independence through the 1820s. While in charge of the Chilean Navy, Cochrane contributed to Peruvian Independence through the Freedom Expedition of Perú, he was asked to help the Greek Navy but was prevented by events from having much impact. In 1832, he was pardoned by the Crown and reinstated in the Royal Navy with the rank of Rear Admiral of the Blue. After several more promotions, he died in 1860 with the rank of Admiral of the Red, the honorary title of Rear-Admiral of the United Kingdom.
His life and exploits inspired the naval fiction of 19th- and 20th-century novelists the figures of C. S. Forester's Horatio Hornblower and Patrick O'Brian's protagonist Jack Aubrey. Thomas Cochrane was born at Annsfield, near Hamilton, South Lanarkshire, the son of Archibald, Lord Cochrane, who became, in October 1778, The 9th Earl of Dundonald, his wife, Anna Gilchrist, she was the daughter of Captain James Gilchrist and Ann Roberton, the daughter of Major John Roberton, 16th Laird of Earnock. Thomas, Lord Cochrane, as he himself became in October 1778, had six brothers. Two served with distinction in the military: William Erskine Cochrane of the 15th Dragoon Guards, who served under Sir John Moore in the Peninsular War and reached the rank of major. Lord Cochrane was descended from lines of Scottish aristocracy and military service on both sides of his family. Through his uncle, Admiral Sir Alexander Cochrane, the sixth son of The 8th Earl of Dundonald, Cochrane was cousin to his namesake, Admiral of the Fleet Sir Thomas John Cochrane.
Sir Thomas J. Cochrane had a naval career and was appointed as Governor of Newfoundland and Vice-Admiral of the United Kingdom. By 1793 the family fortune had been spent, the family estate was sold to cover debts. Lord Cochrane spent much of his early life in Culross, where his family had an estate. Through the influence of his uncle Alexander Cochrane, he was listed as a member of the crew on the books of four Royal Navy ships starting when he was five years old; this common practice called false muster was a means of acquiring the years of service required for promotion, if and when he joined the Navy. His father secured him a commission in the British Army at an early age, but Cochrane preferred the Navy, he joined it in 1793 upon the outbreak of the French Revolutionary Wars. On 23 July 1793, aged 17, Cochrane joined the navy as a midshipman, spending his first months at Sheerness in the 28-gun sixth-rate frigate HMS Hind commanded by his uncle Captain Alexander Cochrane, he transferred to the 38-gun fifth rate HMS Thetis under his uncle's command.
While aboard Thetis, he next served at the North America station. In 1795, he was appointed acting lieutenant; the following year on 27 May 1796, he was commissioned lieutenant after passing the examination. After several transfers in North America and a return home in 1798, he was assigned as 8th Lieutenant on Lord Keith's flagship HMS Barfleur in the Mediterranean. During his service on Barfleur, Cochrane was court-martialled for showing disrespect to Philip Beaver, the ship's first lieutenant; the board reprimanded him for flippancy. This was the first public manifestation of a pattern of Cochrane being unable to get along with many of his superiors, subordinates and colleagues in several navies and Parliament those with whom he had much in common and who should have been natural allies, his behaviour led to a long enmity with Admiral of the Fleet The 1st Earl of St Vincent. In February 1800, Cochrane commanded the prize crew taking the captured French vessel Généreux to the British base at Mahón.
The ship was lost in a storm, with Cochrane and his brother Archibald going aloft in place of crew who were ill. Cochrane was promoted to commander and took command of the brig sloop HMS Speedy on 28 March 1800; that year, a Spanish warship disguised as a merchant ship captured him. He escaped by flying a Danish flag and fending off a boarding by claiming that his ship was plague-ridden. On another occasion, he was being chased by an enemy frigate and knew that it would follow him in the night by any glimmer of light from Speedy, so he placed a lantern on a barrel and let it float away; the enemy frigate followed Speedy escaped. In February 1801 at Malta, Cochrane got into an argument with a French Royalist officer at a fancy dress ball, he had come dressed as a common sailor, the Royalist mistook him for one. This argument led to Cochrane's only duel. Cochrane wounded the French officer with a pistol was himself unharmed. One of his most notable exploits was the capture of the Spanish xebec frigate El Gamo on 6 May 1801.
El Gamo carried 319 men, compared with Speedy's 14 guns and 54 men. Cochrane flew an American flag and approached so to El Gamo that her guns could not depress to fire on Speedy's hull; the Spanish tried to board and take over the ship but, whenever they were about to board, Cochrane pulled away and fired on the concentrated boarding parties with his ship's guns. Ev
James Gambier, 1st Baron Gambier
Admiral of the Fleet James Gambier, 1st Baron Gambier, was a Royal Navy officer. After seeing action at the capture of Charleston during the American Revolutionary War, he saw action again, as captain of the third-rate HMS Defence, at the battle of the Glorious First of June in 1794, during the French Revolutionary Wars, gaining the distinction of commanding the first ship to break through the enemy line. Gambier went on to be a Lord Commissioner of the Admiralty and First Naval Lord and served as Governor of Newfoundland. Together with General Lord Cathcart, he oversaw the bombardment of Copenhagen during the Napoleonic Wars, he survived an accusation of cowardice for his alleged inaction at the Battle of the Basque Roads. Born the second son of John Gambier, the Lieutenant Governor of the Bahamas and Deborah Stiles, a Bermudian, Gambier was brought up in England by his aunt, Margaret Gambier, her husband, Admiral Charles Middleton, 1st Baron Barham, he was a nephew of Vice-Admiral James Gambier and of Admiral Lord Barham and became an uncle of the novelist and travel writer Georgiana Chatterton.
Gambier entered the Navy in 1767 as a midshipman on board the third-rate HMS Yarmouth, commanded by his uncle, serving as a guardship in the Medway, followed him to serve on board the 60-gun fourth-rate HMS Salisbury in 1769 where he served on the North American Station. He transferred to the 50-gun fourth-rate HMS Chatham under Rear Admiral Parry, in 1772, in the Leeward Islands. Gambier was placed on the sloop HMS Spy and was posted to England to serve on the 74-gun third-rate HMS Royal Oak, a guardship at Spithead, he was commissioned as a lieutenant on 12 February 1777, in which rank he served successively in the sloop Shark, the 24-gun frigate HMS Hind, the third-rate HMS Sultan under Vice-Admiral Lord Shuldham, in HMS Ardent under his uncle's flag. Lord Howe promoted Gambier to commander on 9 March 1778 and gave him command of the bomb ship HMS Thunder, promptly dismasted and surrendered to the French, he was taken prisoner for a short period and, after having been exchanged, he was made a post captain on 9 October 1778 and appointed to the 32-gun fifth-rate HMS Raleigh and saw action at the capture of Charleston in May 1780 during the American Revolutionary War.
He was appointed commander of fifth-rate HMS Endymion, cruising in British waters in the year. In 1783, at the end of the War, he was placed on half-pay. In February 1793 following the start of the French Revolutionary Wars, Gambier was appointed to command the 74-gun third-rate HMS Defence under Lord Howe. By faith an evangelical, he was regarded as an intensely religious man, nicknamed Dismal Jimmy, by the men under his command; as captain of the Defence Gambier saw action at the battle of the Glorious First of June in 1794, gaining the distinction of commanding the first ship to break through the enemy line and subsequently receiving the Naval Gold Medal. Gambier was appointed to the Board of Admiralty led by Earl Spencer in March 1795. Promoted to rear-admiral on 1 June 1795, he became First Naval Lord in November 1795. Promoted to vice-admiral on 14 February 1799, Gambier left the Admiralty after the fall of the first Pitt ministry in February 1801 and became third-in-command of the Channel Fleet under Admiral William Cornwallis, with his flag in the 98-gun second-rate HMS Neptune.
He went on to be governor and commander-in-chief of Newfoundland Station in March 1802. In that capacity he gave property rights over arable land to local people allowing them to graze sheep and cattle there and ensured that vacant properties along the shore could be leased to local people, it was around that time that he bought Iver Grove in Buckinghamshire. Gambier returned to the Admiralty as a Lord Commissioner of the Admiralty and First Naval Lord on the Admiralty Board led by Viscount Melville when the second Pitt ministry was formed in May 1804. Promoted to full admiral on 9 November 1805, Gambier left the Admiralty in February 1806, he returned for a third tour as First Naval Lord on the Admiralty Board led by Lord Mulgrave when the Second Portland Ministry was formed in April 1807. In May 1807 Gambier volunteered to command the naval forces, with his flag in the second-rate HMS Prince of Wales, sent as part of the campaign against Copenhagen during the Napoleonic Wars. Together with General Lord Cathcart, he oversaw the bombardment of Copenhagen from 2 September until the Danes capitulated after three days.
Prizes included eighteen ships of the line, twenty-one frigates and brigs and twenty-five gunboats together with a large quantity of naval stores for which he received official thanks from Parliament, on 3 November 1807 a peerage, becoming Baron Gambier, of Iver in the County of Buckingham. In 1808 Gambier was appointed to command the Channel Fleet. In April 1809 he chased a squadron of French ships that had escaped from Brest into the Basque Roads, he called a council of war in which Lord Cochrane was given command of the inshore squadron, who subsequently led the attack. Gambier refused to commit the Channel Fleet after Cochrane's attack, using explosion vessels that encouraged the French squadron to warp further into the shallows of the estuary; this action resulted in the majority of the French fleet running aground at Rochefort. Gambier was content with the blockading role played by the offshore squadron. Admiral Sir Eliab Harvey, who had commanded "Fighting Temeraire" at the Battle of Trafalgar, believed they had missed an opportunity to inflict further damage upon the French fleet.
He told Gambier "I never saw a man so unfit for the command of a fleet as Your Lordship." Cochrane threatened to