The United Kingdom the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland, sometimes referred to as Britain, is a sovereign country located off the north-western coast of the European mainland. The United Kingdom includes the island of Great Britain, the north-eastern part of the island of Ireland, many smaller islands. Northern Ireland is the only part of the United Kingdom that shares a land border with another sovereign state, the Republic of Ireland. Apart from this land border, the United Kingdom is surrounded by the Atlantic Ocean, with the North Sea to the east, the English Channel to the south and the Celtic Sea to the south-west, giving it the 12th-longest coastline in the world; the Irish Sea lies between Great Ireland. With an area of 242,500 square kilometres, the United Kingdom is the 78th-largest sovereign state in the world, it is the 22nd-most populous country, with an estimated 66.0 million inhabitants in 2017. The UK is constitutional monarchy; the current monarch is Queen Elizabeth II, who has reigned since 1952, making her the longest-serving current head of state.
The United Kingdom's capital and largest city is London, a global city and financial centre with an urban area population of 10.3 million. Other major urban areas in the UK include Greater Manchester, the West Midlands and West Yorkshire conurbations, Greater Glasgow and the Liverpool Built-up Area; the United Kingdom consists of four constituent countries: England, Scotland and Northern Ireland. Their capitals are London, Edinburgh and Belfast, respectively. Apart from England, the countries have their own devolved governments, each with varying powers, but such power is delegated by the Parliament of the United Kingdom, which may enact laws unilaterally altering or abolishing devolution; the nearby Isle of Man, Bailiwick of Guernsey and Bailiwick of Jersey are not part of the UK, being Crown dependencies with the British Government responsible for defence and international representation. The medieval conquest and subsequent annexation of Wales by the Kingdom of England, followed by the union between England and Scotland in 1707 to form the Kingdom of Great Britain, the union in 1801 of Great Britain with the Kingdom of Ireland created the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland.
Five-sixths of Ireland seceded from the UK in 1922, leaving the present formulation of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland. There are fourteen British Overseas Territories, the remnants of the British Empire which, at its height in the 1920s, encompassed a quarter of the world's land mass and was the largest empire in history. British influence can be observed in the language and political systems of many of its former colonies; the United Kingdom is a developed country and has the world's fifth-largest economy by nominal GDP and ninth-largest economy by purchasing power parity. It has a high-income economy and has a high Human Development Index rating, ranking 14th in the world, it was the world's first industrialised country and the world's foremost power during the 19th and early 20th centuries. The UK remains a great power, with considerable economic, military and political influence internationally, it is sixth in military expenditure in the world. It has been a permanent member of the United Nations Security Council since its first session in 1946.
It has been a leading member state of the European Union and its predecessor, the European Economic Community, since 1973. The United Kingdom is a member of the Commonwealth of Nations, the Council of Europe, the G7, the G20, NATO, the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development and the World Trade Organization; the 1707 Acts of Union declared that the kingdoms of England and Scotland were "United into One Kingdom by the Name of Great Britain". The term "United Kingdom" has been used as a description for the former kingdom of Great Britain, although its official name from 1707 to 1800 was "Great Britain"; the Acts of Union 1800 united the kingdom of Great Britain and the kingdom of Ireland in 1801, forming the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland. Following the partition of Ireland and the independence of the Irish Free State in 1922, which left Northern Ireland as the only part of the island of Ireland within the United Kingdom, the name was changed to the "United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland".
Although the United Kingdom is a sovereign country, Scotland and Northern Ireland are widely referred to as countries. The UK Prime Minister's website has used the phrase "countries within a country" to describe the United Kingdom; some statistical summaries, such as those for the twelve NUTS 1 regions of the United Kingdom refer to Scotland and Northern Ireland as "regions". Northern Ireland is referred to as a "province". With regard to Northern Ireland, the descriptive name used "can be controversial, with the choice revealing one's political preferences"; the term "Great Britain" conventionally refers to the island of Great Britain, or politically to England and Wales in combination. However, it is sometimes used as a loose synonym for the United Kingdom as a whole; the term "Britain" is used both as a synonym for Great Britain, as a synonym for the United Kingdom. Usage is mixed, with the BBC preferring to use Britain as shorthand only for Great Britain and the UK Government, while accepting that both terms refer to the United K
Elizabeth II is Queen of the United Kingdom and the other Commonwealth realms. Elizabeth was born in London as the first child of the Duke and Duchess of York King George VI and Queen Elizabeth, she was educated at home, her father acceded to the throne on the abdication of his brother King Edward VIII in 1936, from which time she was the heir presumptive. She began to undertake public duties during the Second World War, serving in the Auxiliary Territorial Service. In 1947, she married Prince Philip, Duke of Edinburgh, a former prince of Greece and Denmark, with whom she has four children: Charles, Prince of Wales; when her father died in February 1952, she became head of the Commonwealth and queen regnant of seven independent Commonwealth countries: the United Kingdom, Australia, New Zealand, South Africa and Ceylon. She has reigned as a constitutional monarch through major political changes, such as devolution in the United Kingdom, Canadian patriation, the decolonisation of Africa. Between 1956 and 1992, the number of her realms varied as territories gained independence and realms, including South Africa and Ceylon, became republics.
Her many historic visits and meetings include a state visit to the Republic of Ireland and visits to or from five popes. Significant events have included her coronation in 1953 and the celebrations of her Silver and Diamond Jubilees in 1977, 2002, 2012 respectively. In 2017, she became the first British monarch to reach a Sapphire Jubilee, she is the longest-lived and longest-reigning British monarch as well as the world's longest-reigning queen regnant and female head of state, the oldest and longest-reigning current monarch and the longest-serving current head of state. Elizabeth has faced republican sentiments and press criticism of the royal family, in particular after the breakdown of her children's marriages, her annus horribilis in 1992 and the death in 1997 of her former daughter-in-law Diana, Princess of Wales. However, support for the monarchy has been and remains high, as does her personal popularity. Elizabeth was born at 02:40 on 21 April 1926, during the reign of her paternal grandfather, King George V.
Her father, the Duke of York, was the second son of the King. Her mother, the Duchess of York, was the youngest daughter of Scottish aristocrat the Earl of Strathmore and Kinghorne, she was delivered by Caesarean section at her maternal grandfather's London house: 17 Bruton Street, Mayfair. She was baptised by the Anglican Archbishop of York, Cosmo Gordon Lang, in the private chapel of Buckingham Palace on 29 May, named Elizabeth after her mother, Alexandra after George V's mother, who had died six months earlier, Mary after her paternal grandmother. Called "Lilibet" by her close family, based on what she called herself at first, she was cherished by her grandfather George V, during his serious illness in 1929 her regular visits were credited in the popular press and by biographers with raising his spirits and aiding his recovery. Elizabeth's only sibling, Princess Margaret, was born in 1930; the two princesses were educated at home under the supervision of their mother and their governess, Marion Crawford.
Lessons concentrated on history, language and music. Crawford published a biography of Elizabeth and Margaret's childhood years entitled The Little Princesses in 1950, much to the dismay of the royal family; the book describes Elizabeth's love of horses and dogs, her orderliness, her attitude of responsibility. Others echoed such observations: Winston Churchill described Elizabeth when she was two as "a character, she has an air of authority and reflectiveness astonishing in an infant." Her cousin Margaret Rhodes described her as "a jolly little girl, but fundamentally sensible and well-behaved". During her grandfather's reign, Elizabeth was third in the line of succession to the throne, behind her uncle Edward and her father. Although her birth generated public interest, she was not expected to become queen, as Edward was still young. Many people believed he would have children of his own; when her grandfather died in 1936 and her uncle succeeded as Edward VIII, she became second-in-line to the throne, after her father.
That year, Edward abdicated, after his proposed marriage to divorced socialite Wallis Simpson provoked a constitutional crisis. Elizabeth's father became king, she became heir presumptive. If her parents had had a son, she would have lost her position as first-in-line, as her brother would have been heir apparent and above her in the line of succession. Elizabeth received private tuition in constitutional history from Henry Marten, Vice-Provost of Eton College, learned French from a succession of native-speaking governesses. A Girl Guides company, the 1st Buckingham Palace Company, was formed so she could socialise with girls her own age, she was enrolled as a Sea Ranger. In 1939, Elizabeth's parents toured the United States; as in 1927, when her parents had toured Australia and New Zealand, Elizabeth remained in Britain, since her father thought her too young to undertake public tours. Elizabeth "looked tearful", they corresponded and she and her parents made the first royal transatlantic telephone call on 18 May.
In September 1939, Britain entered the Second World War. Lord Hailsham suggested that the two princesses should be evacuated to Canada to avoid the frequent aerial bombing; this was rejected by Elizabeth's mother. I won't leave wit
Allen Michael Chastanet is a Saint Lucian businessman and politician, Prime Minister of Saint Lucia since June 2016. He is the political leader of the United Workers Party, as well as the parliamentary representative for Micoud South constituency, he served from 2006 to 2011 as Saint Lucia's Minister for Tourism and Civil Aviation. In 1979, Chastanet graduated from high school at Stanstead College, he holds a B. A. degree from Bishop's University and an MSc degree from American University. Chastanet worked as vice president of marketing and sales for Air Jamaica, he is the managing director of the Coco Palm Hotel. Chastanet was Minister for Tourism and Civil Aviation and a member of the Saint Lucian Senate from 2006 to 2011. Chastanet unsuccessfully ran for a parliament seat for Soufriere Constituency in the 2011 general election. In 2013, he was elected leader of the opposition United Workers Party. Chastanet won the parliament seat for Micoud South constituency in the 2016 general election, he was sworn in as Prime Minister on 7 June 2016.
Allen Chastanet is the son of businessman Michael Chastanet. Allen Chastanet is married to attorney-at-law Raquel DuBoulay-Chastanet, they have two children. List of foreign ministers in 2017 List of current foreign ministers
George F. L. Charles Airport
George F. L. Charles Airport is the smaller of the two airports in Saint Lucia, the other being Hewanorra International Airport, it is located 2 km north of the capital city. George F. L. Charles Airport is managed by the Saint Lucia Seaports Authority, its runway runs parallel to a pristine beach, Vigie Beach, a popular tourist attraction. The airport was renamed on 4 August 1997 in honor of Saint Lucia politician Sir George Frederick Lawrence Charles. On average, George F. L. Charles Airport handles 32,000 flights per year carrying 394,000 passengers. Most of these flights operate with turboprop aircraft such as the ATR 72-500 or the Bombardier Dash 8; the airport has no scheduled jet service. All jet service into St. Lucia, including transatlantic flights, operates via Hewanorra International Airport, on the southeast portion of the island; the airport had jet service flown by Caribair which in 1970 was operating McDonnell Douglas DC-9-30 jetliners with nonstop flights to Barbados and Pointe-a-Pitre, Guadeloupe with direct service to Antigua, Port of Spain, San Juan, Puerto Rico, St. Croix and St. Thomas.
The airport houses the George Charles Outstation of the Eastern Caribbean Civil Aviation Authority, General Aviation Services, the Island Flyers Club. The airport offers an RNAV and NDB approach only on Runway 9. Landings on Runway 27 are visual. On 8 November 2015, a Beechcraft Model 99, registered N7994H, veered off the runway into a grassy area at George F. L. Charles Airport after the aircraft's right landing gear malfunctioned; the sole occupant of the aircraft, the pilot, was not harmed. Following the incident, Hummingbird Air suspended all operations, the Eastern Caribbean Civil Aviation Authority launched an investigation
Stephenson King was the sixth Prime Minister of Saint Lucia. He is the son of Grafton King. Vincent and Marie Bernadette Satney, a seamstress from the village of Choiseul, he represents the constituency of Castries North for the United Workers Party in the House of Assembly of Saint Lucia. Although himself reelected in his constituency, his UWP party suffered defeat in the 28 November 2011 general elections, his early infant and primary education was attained at the Methodist Primary Schools. He gained entry into the Seventh Day Adventist Academy, where he pursued his secondary level studies. Following the completion of his secondary education, King gained employment at the former St. Lucia Co-operative Bank Ltd, where he served for two and a half years, he resigned in 1981 to accept an offer from the law firm of Floissac and Giraudy, where he served for seven years as Accountant, Trade Marks Clerk/Paralegal. In 1981 following the inaugural youth conference of the United Workers Party, King was elected the President of the Party’s Youth Arm.
In 1982 after having participated in the election campaign of that year he was appointed a City Councilor of the Castries City Council and a Board Member of the St. Lucia Housing Authority, serving in both capacities for 5 years. During that period he formed and became the founding President of the Rotaract Club of Saint Lucia, resigning in 1987 when he entered elective politics. Stephenson entered the political fray on the island when he was nominated as the candidate for the Castries North-East Constituency. In the first election on 6 April 1987 he got 2,411 votes against former Prime Minister Michael Pilgrim of the St Lucia Labour Party 1772 and Oswald Augustin of the Progressive Labour Party received 846 votes. In the second election on April 30, 1987 he polled 2,731 votes to Pilgrim's 2,549 votes and Augustin's 375 votes, he was appointed as a Cabinet Minister, serving as the Minister for Community Development, Social Affairs, Youth and local Government. He faced the electorate again in 1992 against lawyer Wilkie Larcher of the St Lucia Labour Party.
He was able to register a bigger victory this time polling 3,511 to Larcher's 2,009. Following the election he was appointed to the Cabinet as the Minister for Health, Local Government and Broadcasting, he would succumb in the tumultuous defeat of the United Worker's Party in the 1997 election where he was defeated by George Odlum on a St Lucia Labour Party ticket. The results of the election show Odlum overcoming the incumbent 3960 to 2604, the lowest number of votes King would gain in an election, he took a nine-year sabbatical from elective politic although remaining Chairman of the party for most of this period. Following a short-lived struggle between himself and Cybelle Cenac for that right King received the endorsement of the United Workers Party in 2006 to contest the General Elections as the Candidate for Castries North, he would defeat the sitting Minister of Agriculture at the polls, which saw his United Worker's Party return to office. The UWP won a majority of seats in the 2006 election, a new government under Compton was sworn in on 19 December 2006.
King was named Minister for Labour Relations. Compton's illness in May 2007 prompted King to be named Acting Prime Minister. In a cabinet reshuffle in early June 2007, he became Minister of Finance, External Affairs, Home Affairs, National Security, Labor and Broadcasting. In an ironic twist, King assumed the mantle while a few months earlier he had been seen as a Lewis loyalist in the party's leadership race. Compton died on 7 September 2007, King announced his death on 8 September. King was subsequently sworn in as Prime Minister by Governor-General Pearlette Louisy on 9 September; the ten UWP members of the House of Assembly agreed on King's designation as Prime Minister. King reshuffled the cabinet on 12 September. In addition to Prime Ministership, he assumed the roles of External Affairs, Home Affairs and National Security. King held the modified portfolio of Minister of Finance, Economic Affairs, Economic Planning and National Development. Earlier in 2008 Prime Minister King came under pressure, first from opposition leader Dr. Kenny Anthony and from his own parliamentary wing, to dismiss Economic Planning Minister Ausbert D'Auvergne.
He acquiesced and returned Choiseul representative Rufus Bousquet to his cabinet, defusing the impasse. King dismissed the representative of Central Castries and Minister of Housing Richard Frederick from cabinet in 2011, following a scandal created by the revocation of his visitors and diplomatic visas by the United States Government; the King administration suffered defeat in the 2011 general elections on 28 November 2011, obtaining only 6 out of 17 seats in Parliament. King married Rosella Nestor, his longtime partner in a wedding ceremony in Miami on Saturday 29 November 2008. Office of the Prime Minister of Saint Lucia Biography available in Prime Ministers of Saint Lucia
Saint Lucia is a sovereign island country in the West Indies in the eastern Caribbean Sea on the boundary with the Atlantic Ocean. The island was called Iyonola, the name given to the island by the native Amerindians and Hewanorra, the name given by the native Caribs. Part of the Lesser Antilles, it is located north/northeast of the island of Saint Vincent, northwest of Barbados and south of Martinique, it reported a population of 165,595 in the 2010 census. Its capital is Castries; the French were the island's first European settlers. They signed a treaty with the native Island Caribs in 1660. England took control of the island from 1663 to 1667. In ensuing years, it was at war with France fourteen times, the rule of the island changed frequently. In 1814, the British took definitive control of the island; because it switched so between British and French control, Saint Lucia was known as the "Helen of the West Indies" after the Greek mythology "Helen of Troy". Representative government came about in 1840.
From 1958 to 1962, the island was a member of the West Indies Federation. On 22 February 1979, Saint Lucia became an independent state and a member of the Commonwealth of Nations. Saint Lucia is a mixed jurisdiction, meaning that it has a legal system based in part on both the civil law and English common law; the Civil Code of St. Lucia of 1867 was based on the Quebec Civil Code of 1866, as supplemented by English common law-style legislation, it is a member of Organisation internationale de la Francophonie. Christopher Columbus may have sighted the island during his fourth voyage in 1502, since he made landfall on Martinique, yet he does not mention the island in his log. Juan de la Cosa noted the island on his map of 1500, calling it El Falcon, another island to the south Las Agujas. A Spanish cédula from 1511 mentions the island within the Spanish domain, a globe in the Vatican made in 1520, shows the island as Sancta Lucia. A 1529 Spanish map shows S. Luzia. One of the Windward Islands, Saint Lucia was named after Saint Lucy of Syracuse.
It is the only country in the world named after a historical woman. Legend states French sailors were shipwrecked here on 13 December, the feast day of St. Lucy, thus naming the island in honor of Sainte Lucie. In the late 1550s, the French pirate François le Clerc set up a camp on Pigeon Island, from where he attacked passing Spanish ships. In 1605, an English vessel called the Oliphe Blossome was blown off-course on its way to Guyana, the 67 colonists started a settlement on Saint Lucia, after being welcomed by the Carib chief Anthonie. By 26 September 1605, only 19 survived, after continued attacks by the Carib chief Augraumart, so they fled the island. In 1664, Thomas Warner claimed Saint Lucia for England, he brought 1,000 men to defend it from the French, but after two years, only 89 survived with the rest dying due to disease. In 1666, the French West India Company resumed control of the island, which in 1674 was made an official French crown colony as a dependency of Martinique. Both the British and the French found the island attractive after the sugar industry developed, during the 18th century the island changed ownership or was declared neutral territory a dozen times, although the French settlements remained and the island was a de facto French colony well into the eighteenth century.
In 1722, George I of Great Britain granted both Saint Lucia and Saint Vincent to The 2nd Duke of Montagu. He in turn appointed a merchant sea captain and adventurer, as deputy-governor. Uring went to the islands with a group of seven ships, established settlement at Petit Carenage. Unable to get enough support from British warships, he and the new colonists were run off by the French. During the Seven Years' War, Britain occupied Saint Lucia for a year. Britain handed the island back to the French at the Treaty of Paris in 1763. Like the English and Dutch on other islands, the French began to develop the land for the cultivation of sugar cane as a commodity crop on large plantations in 1765. In January 1791, during the French Revolution, the National Assembly sent four commissaries to St. Lucia to spread the revolution philosophy. By August 1791, slaves began to abandon their estates and Governor de Gimat fled. In December 1792, Lt. Jean-Baptiste Raymond de Lacrosse arrived with revolutionary pamphlets, the impoverished whites and free people of color began to arm themselves as patriots.
On 1 February 1793, France declared war on England and Holland, General Nicolas Xavier de Ricard took over as Governor. The National Convention abolished enslavement on 4 February 1794, but St. Lucia fell to a British invasion led by Vice Admiral John Jervis on 1 April 1794. Morne Fortune became Fort Charlotte. Soon, a patriot army of resistance, L'Armee Francaise dans les Bois, began to fight back, thus started the First Brigand War. A short time the British invaded the island as a part of the broken out war with France. On 21 February 1795 and a group of locals under the nominal control of Victor Hugues defeated a battalion of British troops at Vieux Fort and Rabot. In 1796, Castries was burned as part of the conflict. General John Moore retook Fort Charlotte in 1796 with the 27th Inniskilling Fusiliers after two days of bitter fighting; as an honour, the Fusiliers' regimental colour was displayed on the flagstaff of the captured fortress at Morne Fortune for an hour before be
Kenny Davis Anthony is a Saint Lucian politician, Prime Minister of Saint Lucia from 1997 to 2006 and again from 2011 to 2016. As leader of the Saint Lucia Labour Party, he was Leader of the Opposition from 2006 to 2011 and returned to office as Prime Minister on 30 November 2011 following the 2011 election, he left office after the SLP's defeat in the 2016 election and announced his resignation as party leader. Anthony is a graduate of the University of Birmingham. In the Labour government that led the country from 1979 to 1982, Anthony was Special Advisor to the Ministry of Education and Culture from August 1979 to December 1980 Minister of Education from December 1980 to March 1981, he was a member of the secretariat of the Caribbean Community from March 1995 until he was elected leader of the Labour Party. He became Prime Minister on 24 a day after the SLP won parliamentary elections. While Prime Minister, he was the Minister of Finance and Broadcasting. During his leadership and his party's reign, Anthony led St. Lucia to record development in tourism and general economic development.
However, imbalances in the economic development, disenfranchisement and raising crime levels are challenges his administration had difficulty to tackle. Since he regained power in 2011 there has been an increase in the number of impoverish persons on the island. Together with much economic development came steady increases in violent crime at a rate higher than many neighbouring islands and that caused many to draw comparisons with Jamaica and Trinidad and Tobago. Kenny D. Anthony is an Honorary Member of The International Raoul Wallenberg Foundation In the general elections held on 11 December 2006, the SLP suffered a surprise defeat by 11 seats to 6 at the hands of the John Compton-led UWP. While the SLP lost the election by 5 seats, the popular vote margin was in fact slim, just over 2000 votes. Anthony himself won a handsome victory in his constituency, Vieux Fort South, winning by 627 votes, only a few less than in the SLP's landslide election victory. Anthony assumed the role of Leader of the Opposition.
An interesting twist to the 2006 elections saga is that many feel that St. Lucians went to the polls not to elect a new government but to ensure that there would be a tougher opposition as against the 16-1 majority that the SLP had enjoyed. In a fate of irony, voters over-compensated for the frequent poll reports and political pundits' predictions that the SLP would again win a third term with a 14-3 majority. Many feel that, had Anthony himself not latched on to those poll results, he might have been better able to convince his own supporters that they were not yet in the clear and to turn out to vote in larger numbers. Further, the reaction of many voters to the crossing over of former UWP leader Vaughan Lewis to the SLP was not positive. Lewis was a staunch opponent of the Labour government and the former Prime Minister who had lost the elections to the SLP - albeit after being handed the post only one year before the fateful loss. Anthony and Lewis have both stated publicly that all the "bad blood" between them was now "water under the bridge".
In late July 2007, Anthony said that Compton's illness, caused by a series of strokes, his inability to perform his duties - Stephenson King was named acting Prime Minister - meant that a new election should be held. Anthony was head of the Commonwealth of Nations observer mission in the August 2007 election in Sierra Leone, he gave the election a positive appraisal. In March 2008, Anthony visited Cuba, he toured Havana and Cienfuegos Province, met with senior officials including First Vice President José Ramón Machado Ventura. Anthony was returned to Prime Ministership on 30 November 2011 following the Saint Lucia Labour Party electoral win at the 2011 elections, winning 11 out of the 17 seats in Parliament. Following the general elections on 6 June 2016 in which the SLP lost by 11 seats to six, Anthony announced that he would step down as party leader, he was re-elected in his constituency of Vieux Fort South and said that he would remain in Parliament. Biography available in Prime Ministers of Saint Lucia