Battle of Dunbar (1650)
The Battle of Dunbar occurred on the 3rd September 1650, is traditionally considered one of the major battles of the Third English Civil War, part of the Wars of the Three Kingdoms as the competing claims of the new Commonwealth of England and of Charles II to the throne of England were at stake. The English Parliamentarian forces under Oliver Cromwell defeated a Scottish army commanded by David Leslie, loyal to King Charles II. Charles had been proclaimed King of'Great Britain', France and Ireland by the Parliament of Scotland on 5 February 1649, five days after the execution of his father Charles I. Despite the defeat at Dunbar, Anglo-Scottish conflict continued through 1651. During that period Charles II was crowned as King of Scots at Scone; the battlefield of Dunbar has been inventoried and protected by Historic Scotland under the Historic Environment Act 2011. The Scottish and English parliaments had been allies against the Royalist supporters of Charles I during the First English Civil War and its extension into Scotland.
However, after the defeat of the Royalists and the capture of Charles I, differences in approaches to religion came to the fore. Some among the Covenanters sought an agreement, or engagement, with the King as a way to achieve the implementation of Presbyterianism throughout Britain; the so-called Engagers invaded England in 1648 with the approval of the Scottish Parliament, against the wishes of the Scottish Kirk, were defeated by Cromwell's New Model Army at the Battle of Preston. After the defeat of the Engagers the opposing Kirk Party seized control of the government in Scotland, they realised that the English Parliament was never going to enact the Westminster Confession and that the only chance of Presbyterianism being instituted throughout Britain was through its acceptance by the King, thus it was that on 23 June 1650 that Charles II landed in Scotland at Garmouth in Moray and by prior agreement, despite his Anglican and Roman Catholic sympathies, signed on his arrival the 1638 National Covenant and 1643 Solemn League and Covenant before being proclaimed King of Scots.
This infuriated the English Parliament's Council of State who decided on a pre-emptive invasion of Scotland. Sir Thomas Fairfax, the Army's commander, disagreed with this strategy against the Scots Covenanters, who he saw as Protestant brethren and resigned. John Lambert was appointed as the Army's second-in-command; as Cromwell led his army over the border at Berwick-upon-Tweed in July 1650, the Scottish general, Sir David Leslie, continued his deliberate strategy of avoiding any direct confrontation with the enemy. His army was no longer formed of the battle-hardened veterans of the Thirty Years' War who had taken the field at the Newburn and the Marston Moor. Many of them had perished during the ill-fated 1648 invasion of England. Far more had left active service after the former event, some leaving for Swedish or French service once more; this meant that a new army had to be trained by the remaining veterans. It comprised some 12,000 soldiers, outnumbering the English army of 11,000 men. Though the Scots were well armed, the pressure of time meant they were poorly trained compared with their English counterparts, all of whom had served with Oliver Cromwell for years.
Leslie chose therefore to barricade his troops behind strong defensive works around Edinburgh and refused to be drawn out to meet the English in battle. Furthermore, between Edinburgh and the border with England, Leslie adopted a scorched earth policy thus forcing Cromwell to obtain all of his supplies from England, most arriving by sea through the port at Dunbar. Whether in a genuine attempt to avoid prolonging the conflict or whether because of the difficult circumstances he found himself in, Cromwell sought to persuade the Scots to accept the English point of view. Claiming that it was the King and the Scottish clergy who were his enemies rather than the Scottish people, he wrote to the General Assembly of the Kirk on 3 August famously pleading, "I beseech you, in the bowels of Christ, think it possible you may be mistaken." This plea, fell on deaf ears. By early September, the English army, weakened by illness and demoralised by lack of success, began to withdraw towards its supply base at Dunbar.
Leslie, ordered his army to advance in pursuit. The Scots reached Dunbar first and Leslie positioned his troops on Doon Hill on the eastern edge of the Lammermuir Hills, overlooking the town and the Berwick Road, Cromwell's land route back to England. Cromwell wrote to the governor of Newcastle: "We are upon an engagement difficult; the enemy hath blocked up our way at the pass of Copperspath, through which we cannot get without a miracle. He lieth so upon the hills. However, the Scots army and funded by the Committee of Estates and Kirk representing the Scottish Parliament and the Church of Scotland, manoeuvred itself into a new position, a move that turned out to be a major tactical blunder. Eager to curtail the mounting cost of the campaign, the ministers of the Kirk in attendance are said to have put Leslie under great pressure to press on with an attack. On 2 September 1650, he brought his army down from Doon Hill and approached the town, hoping to secure the road south over the Spott Burn in preparation for an attack on Cromwell's encampment.
Witnessing Leslie's men wedge themselves between the deep ditch of the Spott Burn, the slopes of the Lammermuirs behind them, Cromwell reali
Battle of Bunker Hill
The Battle of Bunker Hill was fought on June 17, 1775, during the Siege of Boston in the early stages of the American Revolutionary War. The battle is named after Bunker Hill in Charlestown, peripherally involved in the battle, it was the original objective of both the colonial and British troops, though the majority of combat took place on the adjacent hill which became known as Breed's Hill. On June 13, 1775, the leaders of the colonial forces besieging Boston learned that the British were planning to send troops out from the city to fortify the unoccupied hills surrounding the city, which would give them control of Boston Harbor. In response, 1,200 colonial troops under the command of William Prescott stealthily occupied Bunker Hill and Breed's Hill. During the night, the colonists constructed a strong redoubt on Breed's Hill, as well as smaller fortified lines across the Charlestown Peninsula. By daybreak of June 17, the British became aware of the presence of colonial forces on the Peninsula and mounted an attack against them that day.
Two assaults on the colonial positions were repulsed with significant British casualties. The colonists retreated to Cambridge over Bunker Hill, leaving the British in control of the Peninsula; the battle was a tactical, though somewhat Pyrrhic victory for the British, as it proved to be a sobering experience for them, involving many more casualties than the Americans had incurred, including a large number of officers. The battle had demonstrated that inexperienced militia were able to stand up to regular army troops in battle. Subsequently, the battle discouraged the British from any further frontal attacks against well defended front lines. American casualties were comparatively much fewer, although their losses included General Joseph Warren and Major Andrew McClary, the final casualty of the battle; the battle led the British to adopt a more cautious planning and maneuver execution in future engagements, evident in the subsequent New York and New Jersey campaign, arguably helped rather than hindered the American forces.
Their new approach to battle was giving the Americans greater opportunity to retreat if defeat was imminent. The costly engagement convinced the British of the need to hire substantial numbers of foreign mercenaries to bolster their strength in the face of the new and formidable Continental Army. Boston, situated on a peninsula, was protected from close approach by the expanses of water surrounding it, which were dominated by British warships. In the aftermath of the battles of Lexington and Concord on April 19, 1775, the colonial militia, a force of about 15,000 men, had surrounded the town, besieged it. Under the command of Artemas Ward, they controlled the only land access to Boston itself, lacking a navy, were unable to contest British domination of the waters of the harbor; the British troops, a force of about 6,000 under the command of General Thomas Gage, occupied the city, were able to be resupplied and reinforced by sea. In theory, they were thus able to remain in Boston indefinitely.
However, the land across the water from Boston contained a number of hills, which could be used to advantage. If the militia could obtain enough artillery pieces, these could be placed on the hills and used to bombard the city until the occupying army evacuated it or surrendered, it was with this in mind that the Knox Expedition, led by Henry Knox transported cannon from Fort Ticonderoga to the Boston area. The Charlestown Peninsula, lying to the north of Boston, started from a short, narrow isthmus at its northwest and extended about 1 mile southeastward into Boston Harbor. Bunker Hill, with an elevation of 110 feet, lay at the northern end of the peninsula. Breed's Hill, at a height of 62 feet, was more nearer to Boston; the town of Charlestown occupied flats at the southern end of the peninsula. At its closest approach, less than 1,000 feet separated the Charlestown Peninsula from the Boston Peninsula, where Copp's Hill was at about the same height as Breed's Hill. While the British retreat from Concord had ended in Charlestown, General Gage, rather than fortifying the hills on the peninsula, had withdrawn those troops to Boston the day after that battle, turning the entire Charlestown Peninsula into a no man's land.
Throughout May, in response to orders from Gage requesting support, the British received reinforcements, until they reached a strength of about 6,000 men. On May 25, three generals arrived on HMS Cerberus: William Howe, John Burgoyne, Henry Clinton. Gage began planning with them to break out of the city, finalizing a plan on June 12; this plan began with the taking of the Dorchester Neck, fortifying the Dorchester Heights, marching on the colonial forces stationed in Roxbury. Once the southern flank had been secured, the Charlestown heights would be taken, the forces in Cambridge driven away; the attack was set for June 18. On June 13, the Massachusetts Provincial Congress was notified, by express messenger from the Committee of Safety in Exeter, New Hampshire, that a New Hampshire gentleman "of undoubted veracity" had, while visiting Boston, overheard the British commanders making plans to capture Dorchester and Charlestown. On June 15, the Massachusetts Committee of Safety decided that additional defenses needed to be erected.
General Ward directed General Israel Putnam to set up defenses on the Charlestown Peninsula on Bunker Hill. On the night of June 16, colonial Colonel William Prescott led about 1,200 men onto the peninsula in order to set up positions from which artillery fire could be directed
Martha's Vineyard is an island located south of Cape Cod in Massachusetts, known for being an affluent summer colony. Martha's Vineyard includes the smaller Chappaquiddick Island, connected to the Vineyard, though storms and hurricanes have separated them, as in 2007, it is the 58th largest island in the United States, with a land area of about 96 square miles, the third-largest on the East Coast of the United States, after Long Island and Mount Desert Island. Martha's Vineyard constitutes the bulk of Dukes County, which includes the Elizabeth Islands and the island of Nomans Land; the Vineyard was home to one of the earliest known deaf communities in the United States. The 2010 census reported a year-round population of 16,535 residents, although the summer population can swell to more than 100,000 people. About 56 percent of the Vineyard's 14,621 homes are seasonally occupied. Martha's Vineyard is known as a summer colony, it is accessible only by boat and air. However, its year-round population has increased since the 1960s.
The island's year-round population increased about a third each decade from 1970 to 2000, for a total of 145 percent or about 3 percent to 4 percent per year. The population of the Vineyard was 14,901 in the 2000 Census and was estimated at 15,582 in 2004.. Dukes County includes the six towns on Gosnold; the Island's population increased from 14,987 to 16,535. A study by the Martha's Vineyard Commission found that the cost of living on the island is 60 percent higher than the national average, housing prices are 96 percent higher. A study of housing needs by the Commission found that the average weekly wage on Martha's Vineyard was "71 percent of the state average, the median home price was 54 percent above the state's and the median rent exceeded the state's by 17 percent". Inhabited by the Wampanoag people, Martha's Vineyard was known in the Massachusett language as Noepe, or "land amid the streams". In 1642, the Wampanoag numbered somewhere around 3,000 on the island. By 1764, that number had dropped to 313.
A smaller island to the south was named "Martha's Vineyard" by the English explorer Bartholomew Gosnold, who sailed to the island in 1602. The name was transferred to the main island, it is the eighth-oldest surviving English place-name in the United States. The island's namesake is not definitively known, but it is thought that the island was named after Gosnold's mother-in-law or his daughter, both named Martha; the island was known as Martin's Vineyard. The United States Board on Geographic Names worked to standardize placename spellings in the late 19th century, including the dropping of apostrophes, thus for a time Martha's Vineyard was named Marthas Vineyard, but the Board reversed its decision in the early 20th century, making Martha's Vineyard one of the five placenames in the United States that takes a possessive apostrophe. English settlement began with the purchase of Martha's Vineyard and the Elizabeth Islands by Thomas Mayhew of Watertown, Massachusetts from two English "owners".
He had friendly relations with the Wampanoags on the island, in part because he was careful to honor their land rights. His son named Thomas Mayhew, began the first English settlement in 1642 at Great Harbor; the younger Mayhew began a relationship with Hiacoomes, a Native American neighbor, which led to Hiacoomes' family converting to Christianity. Many of the tribe became Christian, including the pow-wows and sachems. During King Philip's War in the century, the Martha's Vineyard band did not join their tribal relatives in the uprising and remained armed, a testimony to the good relations cultivated by the Mayhews as the leaders of the English colony. In 1657, the younger Thomas Mayhew was drowned when a ship he was travelling in was lost at sea on a voyage to England. Mayhew's grandsons Matthew Mayhew, John Mayhew, other members of his family assisted him in running his business and government. In 1665, Mayhew's lands were included in a grant to the Duke of York. In 1671, a settlement was arranged which allowed Mayhew to continue in his position while placing his territory under the jurisdiction of the Province of New York.
In 1682, Matthew Mayhew succeeded his grandfather as Governor and Chief Magistrate, preached to the Native Americans. He was appointed judge of the Court of Common Pleas for Dukes county in 1697, remained on the bench until 1700, he was judge of probate from 1696 to 1710. In 1683, Dukes County, New York was incorporated, including Martha's Vineyard. In 1691, at the collapse of rule by Sir Edmund Andros and the reorganization of Massachusetts as a royal colony, Dukes County was transferred back to the Province of Massachusetts Bay, split into the county of Dukes County and Nantucket County, Massachusetts. Native American literacy in the schools founded by Thomas Mayhew Jr. and taught by Peter Folger, the grandfather of Benjamin Franklin, was such that the first Native American graduates of Harvard were from Martha's Vineyard, including the son of Hiacoomes, Joel Hiacoomes. "The ship Joel Hiacoomes was sailing
Charlestown is the oldest neighborhood in Boston, United States. Called Mishawum by the Massachusett, it is located on a peninsula north of the Charles River, across from downtown Boston, adjoins the Mystic River and Boston Harbor. Charlestown was laid out in 1629 by engineer Thomas Graves, one of its early settlers, in the reign of Charles I of England, it was a separate town and the first capital of the Massachusetts Bay Colony. Charlestown became a city in 1848 and was annexed by Boston on January 5, 1874. With that, it switched from Middlesex County, to which it had belonged since 1643, to Suffolk County, it has had a substantial Irish American population since the migration of Irish people during the Great Irish Famine of the 1840s. Since the late 1980s the neighborhood has changed because of its proximity to downtown and its colonial architecture. A mix of yuppie and upper-middle class gentrification has influenced much of the area, as it has in many of Boston's neighborhoods, but Charlestown still maintains a strong Irish American population and "Townie" identity.
In the 21st century, Charlestown's diversity has expanded along with growing rates of the poor and wealthy. Today Charlestown is a residential neighborhood, with much housing near the waterfront, overlooking the Boston skyline. Charlestown is home to many historic sites and organizations, with access from the Orange Line Sullivan Square or Community College stops or the I-93 expressway. Thomas and Jane Walford were the original English settlers of the peninsula between the Charles and the Mystic, they were given a grant by Sir Robert Gorges, with whom they had settled at Wessagusset in September 1623 and arrived at what they called Mishawaum in 1624. John Endicott, first governor of Massachusetts Bay Colony, sent William and Ralph Sprague to Mishawaum to lay out a settlement. Thomas Walford, acting as an interpreter with the Massachusetts Indians, negotiated with the local sachem Wonohaquaham for Endicott and his people to settle there. Although Walford had a virtual monopoly on the region's available furs, he welcomed the newcomers and helped them in any way he could, unaware that his Episcopalian religious beliefs would cause him to be banished from Massachusetts to Portsmouth, New Hampshire, within three years.
A Puritan English city during the Colonial era, Charlestown proper was founded in 1628 and settled July 4, 1629, by Thomas Graves, Increase Nowell, Simon Hoyt, the Rev. Francis Bright, Ralph and William Sprague, about 100 others who preceded the Great Migration. John Winthrop's company stopped here for some time in 1630, before deciding to settle across the Charles River at Boston; the territory of Charlestown was quite large. From it, Woburn was separated in 1642, Melrose and Malden in 1649, Stoneham in 1725, South Medford, the land south of the Mystic River was known as "Mistick Field", it was transferred from Charlestown to Medford in 1754. This grant included the "Charlestown Wood Lots", part of what was at the time Woburn. Other parts of Medford were transferred to Charlestown in 1811. Somerville was transferred in 1842. Everett, Burlington and Cambridge acquired areas allocated to Charlestown. On June 17, 1775, the Charlestown Peninsula was the site of the Battle of Bunker Hill, named for a hill at the northwest end of the peninsula near Charlestown Neck.
British troops unloaded at Moulton's Point and much of the battle took place on Breed's Hill, which overlooked the harbor from about 400 yards off the southern end of the peninsula. The town, including its wharves and dockyards, was completely destroyed during the battle by the British; the town was not appreciably rebuilt until the end of hostilities but, in 1786, the first bridge across the Charles River connected Boston with Charlestown. An 87-acre Navy Yard was established in 1800; the Bunker Hill Monument was erected between 1827 and 1843 using Quincy granite brought to the site by a combination of purpose-built railway and barge. Notable businesses included Schrafft's candy company. Around the 1860s an influx of Irish immigrants arrived in Charlestown; the area long remained an Irish and Catholic stronghold similar to South Boston and Dorchester, to the extent that the informal demonym "Townie" continues to imply the working-class Irish, as opposed to newer immigrants. During the Civil War, over 26,000 men joined the Union Army and Navy at the Navy Yard, responsible for constructing some of the most famous vessels of the conflict: the Merrimack, the Hartford, the Monadnock.
Following the war, the city commissioned Martin Milmore to construct its civil war memorial, dedicated in 1872 and still standing in the community's Training Field. The city developed a water supply from the Mystic Lakes and, on October 7, 1873, a vote was held to determine whether Charlestown should leave Middlesex County and join Boston as part of Suffolk County. Out of its 32,040 residents, 2240 voted in support of the merger and 1947 opposed. Boston residents approved the question, 5,960–1,868. Charlestown's separate city government was dissolved the next year. During the early 1960s, the city initiated plans to demolish and redevelop sixty percent of the housing in Charlestown. In 1963, the Boston Redevelopment Authority held a town meeting to discuss their development plans with the community; the BRA's dealings with Boston's West End had created an atmosphere of distrust towards urban renewal in Boston, Charlestown residents opposed the plan by an overwhelming majority. By 1
The capital ships of a navy are its most important warships. A capital ship is a leading or a primary ship in a naval fleet. William S. Lind, in the book America Can Win, defines a capital ship as follows: "These characteristics define a capital ship: if the capital ships are beaten, the navy is beaten, but if the rest of the navy is beaten, the capital ships can still operate. Another characteristic that defines capital ships is that their main opponent is each other." There is no formal criterion for the classification, but it is a useful concept in naval strategy. A notable example of this is the Mahanian doctrine, applied in the planning of the defence of Singapore in World War II, where the Royal Navy had to decide the allocation of its battleships and battlecruisers between the Atlantic and Pacific theatres; the Mahanian doctrine was applied by the Imperial Japanese Navy, leading to its preventive move to attack Pearl Harbor and the battleships of the U. S. Pacific Fleet; the naval nature of the Pacific Theater of Operations, more referred to as the Pacific War, necessitated the United States Navy deploying its battleships and aircraft carriers in the Pacific.
The war in Europe was a land war. Before the advent of the all-steel navy in the late 19th century, a capital ship during the Age of Sail was understood as a ship that conformed to the Royal Navy's rating system of a ship of the line as being of the first, third or fourth rates: First rate: 100 or more guns carried on three or four decks. Four-deckers suffered in rough seas, the lowest deck could fire except in calm conditions. Second rate: 90–98 guns. Third rate: 64 to 80 guns. Fourth rate: 46 to 60 guns. By 1756, these ships were acknowledged to be too weak to stand in the line of battle and were relegated to ancillary duties, although they served in the shallow North Sea and American littorals where larger ships of the line could not sail. Frigates were ships of the fifth rate. Towards the end of the Napoleonic Wars and into the late 19th century, some larger and more powerful frigates were classified as fourth rates; the term "capital ship" was first coined in 1909 and formally defined in the limitation treaties of the 1920s and'30s in the Washington Naval Treaty, London Naval Treaty, Second London Naval Treaty.
This applied to ships resulting from the dreadnought revolution. In the 20th century in World Wars I and II, typical capital ships would be battleships and battlecruisers. All of the above ships were close to 20,000 tons displacement or heavier, with large caliber guns and heavy armor protection. Cruisers, despite being important ships, were not considered capital ships. An exception to the above in World War II was the Deutschland-class cruiser. Though this class was technically similar to a heavy cruiser, albeit with heavier guns, they were regarded by some as capital ships since they were one of the few heavy surface units of the Kriegsmarine; the American Alaska-class cruiser, Dutch Design 1047 battlecruiser and the Japanese Design B-65 cruiser, planned to counter the heavy cruisers being built by their naval rivals, have been described as "super cruisers", "large cruisers" or "unrestricted cruisers", with some advocating that they be considered as battlecruisers, however they were never classified as capital ships.
During the Cold War, a Soviet Kirov-class large missile cruiser had a displacement great enough to rival World War II-era battleships and battlecruisers defining a new capital ship for that era. In regard to technical design, the Kirov is a supersized guided-missile cruiser with nuclear propulsion, it took until late 1942 for aircraft carriers to be universally considered capital ships. The U. S. Navy was forced to rely on its aircraft carriers after the attack on Pearl Harbor sank or damaged eight of its Pacific-fleet battleships. In the 21st century, the aircraft carrier is the last remaining capital ship, with capability defined in decks available and aircraft per deck, rather than in guns and calibers; the United States possesses supremacy, in both categories of aircraft carriers, possessing not only 11 active duty supercarriers each capable of carrying and launching nearly 100 tactical aircraft, but an additional 12 amphibious assault ships as capable as the light VSTOL carriers of other nations.
Despite their significance to modern fleets, the U. S. Navy has never named aircraft carriers after U. S. states. Instead, U. S. state names are today applied to nuclear submarines while aircraft carriers are named after famous Navy personnel and presidents, such as Chester W. Nimitz and Gerald R. Ford. Ballistic missile submarines, while important ships and similar in tonnage to early battleships, are counted as part of a nation's nuclear deterrent force and do not share the sea control mission of traditional capital ships. Many
Lothian is a region of the Scottish Lowlands, lying between the southern shore of the Firth of Forth and the Lammermuir Hills. The principal settlement is the Scottish capital, while other significant towns include Livingston, Bathgate, Dalkeith, Prestonpans, North Berwick and Haddington; the term Lothian referred to a province encompassing most of what is now southeastern Scotland. In the 7th century it came under the control of the Anglian kingdom of Bernicia, the northern part of the kingdom of Northumbria, but the Angles' grip on Lothian was weakened following the Battle of Nechtansmere in which they were defeated by the Picts. Lothian was annexed to the Kingdom of Scotland around the 10th century. Subsequent Scottish history saw the region subdivided into three shires—Mid and West Lothian—leading to the popular designation of "the Lothians"; the origin of the name is debated. It comes from the British *Lugudūniānā meaning "country of the fort of Lugus", the latter being a Celtic god of commerce.
Alternatively it may take its name from a watercourse which flows through the region, now known as the Lothian Burn, the name of which comes from either the British lutna meaning "dark or muddy stream", *lǭd, with a meaning associated with flooding, or lǖch, meaning "bright, shining". A popular legend is that the name comes from King Lot, king of Lothian in the Arthurian legend; the usual Latin form of the name is Laudonia. Lothian was settled by Angles at an early stage and formed part of the Kingdom of Bernicia, which extended south into present-day Northumberland. Many place names in the Lothians and Scottish Borders demonstrate that the English language became established in the region from the sixth century onwards. In due course Bernicia united with Deira to form the Kingdom of Northumbria. Important Anglo Saxon structural remains have been found in Aberlady along with various artefacts such as an early 9th century Anglo Saxon coin. Little is recorded of Lothian's history in this time. After the Norse settled in what is now Yorkshire, Northumbria was cut in two.
How much Norse influence spread to the English north of the River Tees is uncertain. Bernicia continued as a distinct territory, sometimes described as having a king, at other times an ealdorman. Bernicia became distinct from other English territories at this time due to its links with the other Christian kingdoms in what is present-day Scotland and seems to have little to do with the Norse-controlled areas to the south. Roger of Wendover wrote that Edgar, King of the English granted Laudian to the King of Scots in 973 on condition that he come to court whenever the English king or his successors wore his crown, it is accepted by medieval historians that this marks the point at which Lothian came under Scottish control. The River Tweed became the de facto Anglo-Scottish border following the Battle of Carham in 1018. William the Conqueror did not re-annex it. At this time Lothian appears in the Anglo-Saxon Chronicle as Loþen; as late as 1091, the Chronicle describes how the Scottish king, Malcolm, "went with his army out of Scotland into Lothian", in the reign of King David, the people living in Lothian are described as "English" subjects of the king.
In the post-Roman period, Lothian was dominated by British-speakers whose language is called Cumbric and was related to Welsh. In Welsh tradition Lothian is part of the "Old North". Reminders exist in British place-names like Tranent and Penicuik. Although one of the few areas of mainland Scotland where the Gaelic language was never dominant, the presence of some Gaelic place-names, e.g. Dalry, Currie and Cockenzie, has been attributed to the "temporary occupation... the presence of a landowning Gaelic-speaking aristocracy and their followers for something like 150–200 years."Over time and due to various factors, the language of Lothian and Northumbria, a northern variety of Middle English, came to displace Gaelic as the language of the Lowlands. The dialects of the modern Lothians are sometimes considered to be part of Central Scots; the Local Government Act 1973 abolished the county councils and burgh corporations, replacing them with regions and districts. Lothian Regional Council formally took over responsibility from the old county councils in May 1975.
The Lothian region was split into four districts: East and West Lothian, the City of Edinburgh. The former had more or less identical boundaries to the county council it replaced, but West and Mid Lothian had large amounts of land taken from them to form the City of Edinburgh district; the council was responsible for education, social work, water and transport. The two-tier system was ended by the Local Government etc. Act 1994. Lothian Regional Council was replaced by four unitary councils based on the former districts. Herman Moll's map of the Lothian shires Lothian Buses NHS Lothian
Corstorphine is a village and parish to the west of Edinburgh, now considered a suburb of that city. Corstorphine retains a busy high street with many independent small shops, although a number have closed in recent years since the opening of several retail parks to the west of Edinburgh the Gyle Centre. Traffic on the main street, St John's Road, is heavy, as it forms part of the A8 main road between Edinburgh and Glasgow; the actual "High Street" itself is no longer the main street, an idiosyncrasy shared with central Edinburgh. Famous residents include Alexander Thomson, a writer and publisher on Bible translation, Scottish Renaissance author Helen Cruickshank. Corstorphine is featured in Robert Louis Stevenson's 1886 novel Kidnapped and mentioned in Danny Boyle's 1996 film Trainspotting. Edinburgh Zoo is situated to the south-east of Corstorphine, is the area's largest and most popular tourist attraction. Corstorphine has one of Scotland's best-preserved late medieval parish churches, Corstorphine Old Parish Church, with a short tower and spire and several well-preserved stone effigies of the local noble family, the Forresters of Corstorphine.
The church of St Thomas houses a lively evangelical Episcopalian congregation. Close to Corstorphine Old Parish Church is Corstorphine public library. Corstorphine Hill is one of the so-called "Seven Hills of Edinburgh". Queen Margaret University's main campus was located there from 1970 until 2007, when the university moved to Musselburgh; the earliest known form of the name is Crostorfin, recorded in 1128. This means'Torfin's crossing'; the identity of Torfin is not known, but he was a local baron who commanded a stronghold by the crossing. The name is a Gaelicised version of the Norse name Thorfinnr, was popular in Scotland around 1000. A popular legend, now discredited, states that a'cross of fine gold' was presented to the church by a Norman baron, thus the village came to be known as croix d'or fine. Old Corstorphine stood on a piece of dry land, between two lochs, the Gogar Loch and Corstorphine Loch, though both have now been drained; the first noticed proprietors of Corstorphine were David le Mareschall, in the reign of Alexander II, Thomas le Mareschall and William de la Roche, whose names occur in Ragman Rolls of 1296.
The estate remained in the possession of the families of Thomas le Mareschall and William de la Roche until the reign of David II, when it was forfeited by David le Mareschall and given by the King to Malcolm Ramsay. It was next held by William More of Abercorne, who left it to his brother, Gilchrist More, who sold it to Adam Forester. An important family in the area were the Lords Forresters, whose name has been given to several streets and whose large house can still be seen on Corstorphine High Street, their main home, Corstorphine Castle, a 14th-century stronghold, was in ruins by the end of the 18th century and does not exist today. The only remnant of the castle is the 16th century doocot which stands alongside Dovecot Road and a commemoration in a street name, Castle Avenue; the lands and Barony of Corstorphine have long been associated with the Forrester family. The first firm link with Corstorphine comes with Adam Forrester a wealthy burgess of Edinburgh in the 1360s when he began to acquire land in the vicinity.
Between 1374 and 1377 King Robert II confirmed Adam Forrester in the lands of the Lordship of Corstorphine, owned by William More of Abercorn. Forrester founded a chapel dedicated to St. John the Baptist, connected to the parish church of Corstorphine. Sir John Forrester, who succeeded his father upon his death, was granted various lands in West Lothian, in 1426 which were united into the barony of Liberton. In Perth on 4 February 1431 James I confirmed him in the house and lands of Corstorphine, which would be thereafter known as the Barony of Corstorphine, he founded the Corstorphine Collegiate Church in 1429, which forms part of today's parish kirk. Sir John is thought to have died in 1448 and was buried in Corstorphine Kirk, where recumbent effigies of him and one of his wives survive, he had four children: John, Henry and Janet. William Dunbar mentions a poet, Roull of Corstorphin in his Lament for the Makaris c.1505. Little else is known of the poet Roull. Stewart Conn, Edinburgh's first appointed Makar, has celebrated Roull's memory in his volume Ghosts at Cockcrow.
The title fell to his eldest son John, believed to have been more of a soldier than a civil servant. In 1443 he was with the Earl of Douglas when he destroyed Barnton castle, a stronghold of the Crichtons; as a direct consequence Forrester's house at Corstorphine was razed. He was buried in Corstorphine Kirk, where his tomb can still be seen. James Forrester of Corstorphine, husband of Janet Lauder, was confirmed by Mary, Queen of Scots, on 5 February 1556 in the Barony of Corstorphine. In 1577 Sir James presented the parish kirk with a bell for its steeple; this bell still survives, although it was renewed in 1728. On 22 October 1599 Henry Forrester of Corstorphine sold various lands within the parishes of Corstorphine and St Cuthbert's. Henry died sometime around 1615 and his eldest son George became laird. James VI had confirmed George Forrester and heir apparent of Henry Forrester of Corstorphine, his wife Christine Livingstone in various properties in the barony of Corstorphine, on 15 November 1607.
At Holyrood House on 30 July 1618 King James confirmed Sir George Forrester of Corstorph