The Federalist Party, referred to as the Pro-Administration party until the 3rd United States Congress as opposed to their opponents in the Anti-Administration party, was the first American political party. It existed from the early 1790s to the 1820s, with their last presidential candidate being fielded in 1816, they appealed to business and to conservatives who favored banks, national over state government and preferred Britain and opposed the French Revolution. The Federalists called for a strong national government that promoted economic growth and fostered friendly relationships with Great Britain as well as opposition to Revolutionary France; the party controlled the federal government until 1801, when it was overwhelmed by the Democratic-Republican opposition led by Thomas Jefferson. The Federalist Party came into being between 1792 and 1794 as a national coalition of bankers and businessmen in support of Alexander Hamilton's fiscal policies; these supporters developed into the organized Federalist Party, committed to a fiscally sound and nationalistic government.
The only Federalist President was John Adams. George Washington was broadly sympathetic to the Federalist program, but he remained non-partisan during his entire presidency. Federalist policies called for a national bank and good relations with Great Britain as expressed in the Jay Treaty negotiated in 1794. Hamilton developed the concept of implied powers and argued the adoption of that interpretation of the United States Constitution, their political opponents, the Democratic-Republicans led by Thomas Jefferson, denounced most of the Federalist policies the bank and implied powers. The Jay Treaty passed and the Federalists won most of the major legislative battles in the 1790s, they held a strong base in New England. After the Democratic-Republicans, whose base was in the rural South, won the hard-fought presidential election of 1800, the Federalists never returned to power, they recovered some strength through their intense opposition to the War of 1812, but they vanished during the Era of Good Feelings that followed the end of the war in 1815.
The Federalists left a lasting legacy in the form of a strong Federal government with a sound financial base. After losing executive power, they decisively shaped Supreme Court policy for another three decades through the person of Chief Justice John Marshall. On taking office in 1789, President Washington nominated New York lawyer Alexander Hamilton to the office of Secretary of the Treasury. Hamilton wanted a strong national government with financial credibility. Hamilton proposed the ambitious Hamiltonian economic program that involved assumption of the state debts incurred during the American Revolution, creating a national debt and the means to pay it off and setting up a national bank, along with creating tariffs. James Madison was Hamilton's ally in the fight to ratify the new Constitution, but Madison and Thomas Jefferson opposed Hamilton's programs by 1791. Political parties had not been anticipated when the Constitution was drafted in 1787 and ratified in 1788 though both Hamilton and Madison played major roles.
Parties were considered to be harmful to republicanism. No similar parties existed anywhere in the world. By 1790, Hamilton started building a nationwide coalition. Realizing the need for vocal political support in the states, he formed connections with like-minded nationalists and used his network of treasury agents to link together friends of the government merchants and bankers, in the new nation's dozen major cities, his attempts to manage politics in the national capital to get his plans through Congress "brought strong" responses across the country. In the process, what began as a capital faction soon assumed status as a national faction and as the new Federalist Party; the Federalist Party supported Hamilton's vision of a strong centralized government and agreed with his proposals for a national bank and heavy government subsidies. In foreign affairs, they supported neutrality in the war between Great Britain; the majority of the Founding Fathers were Federalists. Alexander Hamilton, James Madison and many others can all be considered Federalists.
These Federalists felt that the Articles of Confederation had been too weak to sustain a working government and had decided that a new form of government was needed. Hamilton was made Secretary of the Treasury and when he came up with the idea of funding the debt he created a split in the original Federalist group. Madison disagreed with Hamilton not just on this issue, but on many others as well and he and John J. Beckley created the Anti-Federalist faction; these men would form the Republican party under Thomas Jefferson. By the early 1790s, newspapers started calling Hamilton supporters "Federalists" and their opponents "Democrats", "Republicans", "Jeffersonians", or—much later—"Democratic-Republicans". Jefferson's supporters called themselves "Republicans" and their party the "Republican Party"; the Federalist Party became popular with businessmen and New Englanders as Republicans were farmers who opposed a strong central government. Cities were Federalist strongholds whereas frontier regions were Republican.
However, these are generalizations as there are special cases such as the Presbyterians of upland North Carolina, who had immigrated just before the Revolution and been Tories, became Federalists. The Congregationalists of New England and the Episcopalians in the larger cities supported the Federalists while other minority denominations tended toward the Republican camp. Catholics
Charles County, Maryland
Charles County is a county located in the southern central portion of the U. S. state of Maryland. As of the 2010 census, the population was 146,551; the county seat is La Plata. The county was named for third Baron Baltimore. Charles County is included in the Washington-Arlington-Alexandria, DC-VA-MD-WV Metropolitan Statistical Area and the Southern Maryland region. Charles County was created in 1658 by an Order in Council. There was an earlier Charles County from 1650 to 1653, sometimes referred to in historic documents as Old Charles County. In April 1865, John Wilkes Booth made his escape through Charles County after shooting President Abraham Lincoln, he was on his way to Virginia. On April 28, 2002, a tornado destroyed much of downtown La Plata; the county has a number of properties on the National Register of Historic Places. Among which, are the distinguished Green Park and the historical Pleasant Hill, home of the Green and Spalding Families. On December 4, 2004, an arson took place in the development of Hunters Brooke, located a few miles southeast of Indian Head.
It became the largest residential arson in the history of the state of Maryland. Owing to the considerable voting power of its large number of freedmen following the Civil War, its growth as a suburban area, Charles County was for a long time solidly Republican; the only Democrat to carry Charles County up to 1956 was Franklin Roosevelt in 1932, although opponents Alf Landon and Wendell Willkie defeated Roosevelt in the following two elections by two combined margins totalling just fifty votes. Since the turn of the millennium, Charles County has become reliably Democratic, although not as overwhelmingly so as other parts of Maryland’s Washington, D. C. suburbs. Charles County is only one of two different counties in the entire nation to have voted for Al Gore in 2000 after voting for Bob Dole in 1996, a distinction it shares with Orange County, Florida. Charles County is governed by county commissioners, the traditional form of county government in Maryland. There are five commissioners; as of 2018, they are: Charles County is located within the 5th Congressional District, which includes Calvert, St. Mary’s, parts of Anne Arundel and Prince George’s counties.
The current representative is Steny H. Hoyer. According to the U. S. Census Bureau, the county has a total area of 643 square miles, of which 458 square miles is land and 185 square miles is water. In its western wing, along the southernmost bend in Maryland Route 224, Charles County contains a rare instance where the traveler is due north, east and west of the same state—Virginia. Thomas Stone National Historic Site As of the census of 2000, there were 120,546 people, 41,668 households, 32,292 families residing in the county; the population density was 262 people per square mile. There were 43,903 housing units at an average density of 95 per square mile; the racial makeup of the county was 68.51% White, 26.06% Black or African American, 0.75% Native American, 1.82% Asian, 0.06% Pacific Islander, 0.72% from other races, 2.08% from two or more races. 2.26% of the population were Hispanic or Latino of any race. 11.6 % were of 10.8 % Irish, 10.2 % English, 9.3 % American and 5.3 % Italian ancestry.
There were 41,668 households out of which 41.10% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 58.00% were married couples living together, 14.50% had a female householder with no husband present, 22.50% were non-families. 17.20% of all households were made up of individuals and 5.20% had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.86 and the average family size was 3.21. In the county, the population was spread out with 28.70% under the age of 18, 7.60% from 18 to 24, 33.20% from 25 to 44, 22.70% from 45 to 64, 7.80% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 35 years. For every 100 females, there were 95.50 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 92.20 males. The median income for a household in the county was $62,199, the median income for a family was $67,602. Males had a median income of $43,371 versus $34,231 for females; the per capita income for the county was $24,285. About 3.70% of families and 5.50% of the population were below the poverty line, including 6.70% of those under age 18 and 8.60% of those age 65 or over.
As of 2010 the county population's racial makeup was 48.38% Non-Hispanic whites, 40.96% blacks, 0.65% Native Americans, 2.98% Asian, 0.07% Pacific Islanders, 0.17% Non-Hispanics of some other race, 3.20% Non-Hispanics reporting more than one race and 4.27% Hispanic. As of the 2010 United States Census, there were 146,551 people, 51,214 households, 38,614 families residing in the county; the population density was 320.2 inhabitants per square mile. There were 54,963 housing units at an average density of 120.1 per square mile. The racial makeup of the county was 50.3% white, 41.0% black or African American, 3.0% Asian, 0.7% American Indian, 0.1% Pacific islander, 1.3% from other races, 3.7% from two or more races. Those of Hispanic or Latino origin made up 4.3% of the population. In terms of ancestry, 12.6% were German, 10.8% were Irish, 8.7% were English, 6.3% were American, 5.1% were Italian. Of the 51,214 households, 41.6% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 54.2% were married couples living together, 16.3% had a female householder with no husband present, 24.6% were non-families, 19.8% of all households were made up of individuals.
The average household size was 2.83 and
William Smallwood was an American planter and politician from Charles County, Maryland. He served in the American Revolutionary War, he was serving as the fourth Governor of Maryland when the state adopted the United States Constitution. Smallwood was born in 1732 to Priscilla Heaberd Smallwood, he had six siblings: Lucy Heabard Smallwood, Elizabeth F. Smallwood, Margaret F. Stoddert, Heabard Smallwood, Priscilla Courts, Eleanor Smallwood, his sister Eleanor and brother Hebard served with him in the Revolutionary War. His parents sent the boys for their education at Eton, his great-grandfather was James Smallwood, who immigrated in 1664 and became a member of the Maryland Assembly in 1692. James' son Bayne followed him in the Assembly. Bayne and his sister Hester were the great-great-grandchildren of Maryland Governor William Stone. A first cousin of James and Milledge Bonham was Senator Matthew Butler Smallwood served as an officer during the French and Indian War, he was elected to the Maryland provincial assembly.
When the American Revolutionary War began, he was appointed a colonel of the 1st Maryland Regiment in 1776. He led the regiment in the New York and New Jersey campaign, where the regiment served with distinction. On December 21, 1777, he commanded 1,500 Delaware and Maryland troops at the Continental Army Encampment Site to prevent occupation of Wilmington by the British and to protect the flour mills on the Brandywine. For his role at the Battle of White Plains, in which he was twice wounded, Smallwood was promoted to brigadier general, he continued to serve under George Washington in the Philadelphia campaign, where his regiment again distinguished itself at Germantown. Thereafter, he quartered at the Foulke house occupied by the family of Sally Wister. In 1780 he was a part of General Horatio Gates' army, routed at Camden, South Carolina. Smallwood's accounts of the battle and criticisms of Gates' behavior before and during the battle may have contributed to the Congressional inquiries into the debacle.
Opposed to the hiring and promotion of foreigners, Smallwood objected to working under Baron von Steuben. Smallwood commanded the militia forces of North Carolina in late 1780 and early 1781 before returning to Maryland, staying there for the remainder of the war, he resigned from the Continental Army in 1783 and served as the first President-General of the Maryland Society of the Cincinnati. Smallwood was elected to Congress in 1785, he was elected Governor of Maryland before he could take up the Congressional seat and chose the governorship. In 1787 he convened the state's convention. Smallwood never married; the 1790 census shows that he held a yearly tobacco crop of 3000 pounds. When he died in 1792 his estate, known as Mattawoman, including his home the Retreat, passed to his sister Eleanor who married Colonel William Grayson of Virginia. William Trueman Stoddard was orphaned at age 9 and raised by his maternal grandfather, Bayne Smallwood), his burial site is now the Smallwood State Park in Maryland.
Local historical signs in Calvert, note that General Smallwood occupied the "East Nottingham Friends House" at the intersections of Calvert Road and Brick Meetinghouse Road about 6 miles east of Rising Sun, Maryland. During his occupation of the building in 1778, Gen. Smallwood used the building as a hospital; some of the soldiers who died in the building were buried in the graveyard directly outside. Smallwood frequented the "Cross Keys Inn", at the time a several-room inn and bar; this building stands as a private residence at the intersection of Calvert Road and Cross Keys Road directly down the hill. His restored plantation home, Smallwood's Retreat, is located at Smallwood State Park. Smallwood Church Road leads from the State Park toward Old Durham Church. Several paintings exist of Smallwood. One hangs in the Old Senate Chamber in the Maryland State House in Maryland; the portrait of George Washington resigning within the Maryland State House, which hangs in the US Capitol Rotanda, features Smallwood.
Featured in the Maryland Historical Society is The William Smallwood Collection, 1776–1791, MS. 1875. Smallwood's name was honored in organizations; the Baltimore chapter of the Daughters of the American Revolution is called the General William Smallwood Chapter. The General Smallwood Middle School in Indian Head is another namesake. In Anne Arundel County, Maryland, a coastal fortification developed in the late 1890s was named Fort Smallwood in his honor and the location is now known as Fort Smallwood Park; the road running from Fort Smallwood Park through Pasadena and into Baltimore City is named Fort Smallwood Road. Biographic notes at Maryland's Smallwood State Park notes for the Smallwood Retreat House Account of Smallwood's Revolutionary War Campaign and Governorship from J. D. Warfield
Levin Winder in Baltimore, Maryland. During the Revolutionary War, he was appointed major of the 4th Maryland Regiment attaining the rank of lieutenant colonel at war's end. After the war, he served with the Maryland Militia at the rank of brigadier general. Winder served as the 14th Governor of the state of Maryland in the United States from 1812 to 1816, he served in the Maryland House of Delegates from 1789 to 1793. Levin Winder was born in Somerset County on September 4, 1757, the son of William and Esther Winder, a descendant of John Winder, who had emigrated from England in 1665; as a young man, he prepared to practice law until the outbreak of the war prevented him from doing so. Instead, he joined the army and on January 2, 1776, the Convention of Maryland appointed him a first lieutenant under Nathaniel Ramsey in the Fifth Company of the Maryland Line. On December 10 of the same year, he was promoted to captain, while on April 17, 1777 he became a major in the Fourth Regiment, he became a lieutenant colonel in the Second Regiment on June 3, 1781, subsequently transferring to the First Regiment, was discharged from the service on November 15, 1783.
After his return home, he became a farmer on a large scale on his estate near Princess Anne. He never again resumed his law practice though he did devote many years of his life to public service. For the next ten years, Winder devoted his attention to the operation of his plantation. On May 13, 1790, he married Mary Staughton Sloss, they had three children. In 1794, following the reorganization of the militia, Governor Lee appointed Winder a major general. In August of the same year, as the result of discontent which culminated in the Whiskey Rebellion, the President ordered the militia to enforce the federal laws to collect the tax upon distilled spirits; the Governor ordered the militia to march to Western Maryland to prevent the insurrection from spilling over into Maryland from Pennsylvania. By the time the troops arrived, the rebellion had been quelled, since Winder's force was not needed, he returned home where he was discharged from further duty. In 1796, Winder made his first attempt at public office.
In that year Somerset County chose him as one of its senatorial electors. He seems to have been inactive politically for several years. In 1801, 1806, 1811, he again represented his county as a senatorial elector. In November 1806, his county elected him to the House of Delegates. During the session of 1808, the Federalist majority chose him as its speaker; as a Federalist, Winder opposed the declaration of war against Great Britain. After the Federal Republican and Commercial Gazette had published its anti-Republican editorial and the Republicans had failed to prosecute those responsible for the resulting riot, the Federalists under Winder, capitalized on popular reaction to capture the governorship, he qualified as an anti-war governor on November 23, 1812, bringing to the office with him an overwhelming majority of Federalist delegates. The Senate, was controlled by the Republicans. Winder, after the British fleet had commenced its depredations in the Chesapeake Bay, attempted unsuccessfully to obtain help from the national government for the defense of the State.
Winder hoped, although in vain, that the national government would have given Maryland'some assurance of future protection and security.' He defined the State's relationship to Washington as one in which the national government would "protect each state against invasion... and for that purpose every necessary power is delegated to the national authorities. The means of defence reserved to the state governments are limited and their powers in the conduct of a war defined." He went on to say that the'defence of the union and of the several parts of it have been committed to the general government, that all expenses incurred in affording protection by the various states, ought to be reimbursed by the United States. Winder's pleas were to no avail; when it became apparent to him that Maryland would not receive any defense funds, he called the Legislature into special session on May 17, 1813. He reported to it that'considerable alarms have pervaded the state, in consequence of the appearance of a large naval force within the waters of the Chesapeake.'
He noted that he had attempted to repel any possible enemy invasion,'and as our resources are too limited to afford complete protection,' he asked the legislature to take the necessary action. He had called the militia into active service, distributed swords and pistols, moved the public records to safety, forwarded copies of his communications both to the Secretary of War as well as to the President; the legislature responded by the passage of legislation authorizing the calling out of the militia for the defense of Baltimore and the payment of its expenses, as well as that of approving the loan of money by the State's banks. Both Baltimore and Annapolis were garrisoned at the expense of Maryland. While Winder was attempting to protect Maryland, he had to stand for re-election. In the fall election of 1813, there was a contested election for members of the House of Delegates from Allegany County; when the General Assembly voted for Governor on December 13 of that year, a number of the legislators refused to vote because of what they held to be an unjust ruling on the part of the Federalists.
The Republicans had made repeated attempts to organize the House before the Allegany delegates could be seated, but their maneuvering was futile, they were defeated. Winder was re-elected over his opponent, former Governor Bowie, despite the protests of the opposition. In his annual message of that year, Winder reported upon the
United States Marshals Service
The United States Marshals Service is a federal law enforcement agency within the U. S. Department of Justice, it is the oldest American federal law enforcement agency and was created by the Judiciary Act of 1789 during the presidency of George Washington as the Office of the United States Marshal. The USMS as it stands today was established in 1969 to provide guidance and assistance to Marshals throughout the federal judicial districts. USMS is an agency of the United States executive branch reporting to the United States Attorney General, but serves as the enforcement arm of the United States federal courts to ensure the effective operation of the judiciary and integrity of the Constitution; the Marshals Service is the primary agency for fugitive operations, the protection of officers of the Federal Judiciary, the management of criminal assets, the operation of the United States Federal Witness Protection Program and the Justice Prisoner and Alien Transportation System, as well as the execution of federal arrest warrants.
Throughout its history the Marshals have provided unique security and enforcement services including protecting African-American students enrolling in the South during the civil rights movement, escort security for United States Air Force LGM-30 Minuteman missile convoys, law enforcement for the United States Antarctic Program, protection of the Strategic National Stockpile. The office of United States Marshal was created by the First Congress. President George Washington signed the Judiciary Act into law on September 24, 1789; the Act provided that a United States Marshal's primary function was to execute all lawful warrants issued to him under the authority of the United States. The law defined marshals as officers of the courts charged with assisting Federal courts in their law-enforcement functions: And be it further enacted, That a marshal shall be appointed in and for each district for a term of four years, but shall be removable from office at pleasure, whose duty it shall be to attend the district and circuit courts when sitting therein, the Supreme Court in the district in which that court shall sit.
And to execute throughout the district, all lawful precepts directed to him, issued under the authority of the United States, he shall have the power to command all necessary assistance in the execution of his duty, to appoint as shall be occasion, one or more deputies. The critical Supreme Court decision affirming the legal authority of the federal marshals was made in In re Neagle, 135 U. S. 1. For over 100 years marshals were patronage jobs controlled by the district judge, they were paid by fees until a salary system was set up in 1896. Many of the first US Marshals had proven themselves in military service during the American Revolution. Among the first marshals were John Adams's son-in-law Congressman William Stephens Smith for the District of New York, another New York district marshal, Congressman Thomas Morris, Henry Dearborn for the district of Maine. From the nation's earliest days, marshals were permitted to recruit special deputies as local hires, or as temporary transfers to the Marshals Service from other federal law-enforcement agencies.
Marshals were authorized to swear in a posse to assist with manhunts, other duties, ad hoc. Marshals were given extensive authority to support the federal courts within their judicial districts, to carry out all lawful orders issued by federal judges, Congress, or the President. Federal marshals were by far the most important government officials in territorial jurisdictions. Local law enforcement officials were called "marshals" so there is an ambiguity whether someone was a federal or a local official. Federal marshals are most famous for their law enforcement work, but, only a minor part of their workload; the largest part of the business was paper work—serving writs, other processes issued by the courts, making arrests and handling all federal prisoners. They disbursed funds as ordered by the courts. Marshals paid the fees and expenses of the court clerks, U. S. Attorneys and witnesses, they rented the courtrooms and jail space, hired the bailiffs and janitors. They made sure the prisoners were present, the jurors were available, that the witnesses were on time.
The marshals thus provided local representation for the federal government within their districts. They took the national census every decade through 1870, they distributed presidential proclamations, collected a variety of statistical information on commerce and manufacturing, supplied the names of government employees for the national register, performed other routine tasks needed for the central government to function effectively. During the settlement of the American Frontier, marshals served as the main source of day-to-day law enforcement in areas that had no local government of their own. U. S. Marshals were instrumental in keeping order in the "Old West" era, they were involved in apprehending desperadoes such as Bill Doolin, Ned Christie, and, in 1893, the infamous Dalton Gang after a shoot-out that left Deputy Marshals Ham Hueston, Lafe Shadley, posse member Dick Speed, dead. Individual deputy marshals have been seen as legendary heroes in the face of rampant lawlessness with Wyatt Earp, Bat Masterson, Dallas Stoudenmire, Bass Reeves as examples of well-known marshals.
Bill Tilghman, Heck Thomas, Chris Madsen formed a legendary law enforcement trio known as "The Three Guardsmen" when they worked together policing the vast, lawless Oklahoma and Indian Territories. The Fugitive Slave Act of 1850 tasked marshals to enforce the law and arrest fugitive slaves. Any negligence in doing so expo
Thomas Dent Sr.
Col. Thomas Dent Sr. Gent. Justice and member of the Lower House of the Maryland General Assembly. Thomas was born about 1630 in the Parish of Guisborough, England making him less than thirty years of age upon his arrival in America around 1658, he resided in Maryland. Thomas was a justice of St. Mary’s county beginning in 1661, became sheriff there in 1665, became coroner in 1669, alderman in 1673. Thomas was a member of the Lower House, St. Mary’s County from 1669-1675. Thomas wedded Rebecca Wilkinson in 1659. Rebecca was the Virginia born daughter of the Rev. William Wilkinson who emigrated from England and his first wife, Naomi Hughes his wife. After Thomas died, Rebecca married in 1677 Col. John Addison, a bachelor who returned to England and died there intestate. Col. Addison profited from this marriage, this alienated the Dent children from their mother. Thomas received a patent of land lying in Charles County called "Gisbrough" on May 5, 1663. Thomas accumulated over 3 plantations of unspecified area.
His estate was valued at 596.8.0 pounds sterling, including 6 slaves, 8 servants, books. Thomas died April 1676 in St. Mary's Co.. Maryland. Related and using the same coat of arms, Thomas was the uncle or older brother of Capt. John Dent, Gent. who married Mary Hatch. 1. Col. William Dent Sr. Gent. who married 1) Elizabeth Fowke, daughter of Col. Gerard Fowke Sr. and Anne Chandler. 2) Sarah Brooke, daughter of Col. Thomas Brooke Jr. Hon. and second wife, Barbara Dent. Sarah married secondly, Capt. Philip Lee Sr. Hon. Esq. of "Blenheim". 2. Margaret Dent, who married Edmond Howard, a Justice and clerk of Charles Co. Maryland. 3. Thomas Dent Jr. no further information. 4. Peter Dent, who married 1) Elizabeth King Wilson, widow of John King and Thomas Wilson, daughter of Charles Ballard. 2) Jane Pittman Gray, daughter of Joseph Gray. 5. George Dent, no further information. 6. Barbara Dent, who married Col. Thomas Brooke Jr. Hon. son of Maj. Thomas Brooke Sr. Esq. and his second wife Eleanor Hatton. Thomas was the son of Peter Dent II, Gent. and Margaret Nicholson.
Peter was born at North Riding of Yorkshire, England. He lived 6 miles away in North Riding of Yorkshire, England; the town and valley of Dent is about 70 miles west of Guisborough. Peter died in August 1647 at Guisborough. Margaret was born at Hutton, England. Margaret was the daughter of Rev. John Nicholson. Peter II, was the son of Peter Dent I, Gent. of Ormesby, a Parish in North Riding of Yorkshire, now part of Middlesbrough. Peter was the son of James Dent, Gent. of Ormesby. James was the son of William Dent. William was in turn the son of Anne Fenwycke. Other info Thomas Dent's son William had a son, who had a son, Peter Jr. Peter Jr. had a son, who had a son Frederick, who married Ellen Bray Wrenshall. Their daughter, was the wife of Ulysses S. Grant, the 18th President of the United States. Captain John Dent came into Maryland about 1658 with Thomas Dent who claimed land rights in 1663 for his transportation, in that year John Dent witnessed a conveyance of William Hatton to Thomas Dent; the year previous or 1662 he witnessed the last will and testament of William Hewes who bequeathed his entire estate to William Hatton of William and William Dent of Thomas.
In 1695 he employed William Dent of Thomas his attorney to institute legal action against on Lemaister. In those years it is therefore evident that he was in close association with Thomas Dent and was a freeholder of age
Maryland is a state in the Mid-Atlantic region of the United States, bordering Virginia, West Virginia, the District of Columbia to its south and west. The state's largest city is Baltimore, its capital is Annapolis. Among its occasional nicknames are Old Line State, the Free State, the Chesapeake Bay State, it is named after the English queen Henrietta Maria, known in England as Queen Mary. Sixteen of Maryland's twenty-three counties border the tidal waters of the Chesapeake Bay estuary and its many tributaries, which combined total more than 4,000 miles of shoreline. Although one of the smallest states in the U. S. it features a variety of climates and topographical features that have earned it the moniker of America in Miniature. In a similar vein, Maryland's geography and history combines elements of the Mid-Atlantic and South Atlantic regions of the country. One of the original Thirteen Colonies of Great Britain, Maryland was founded by George Calvert, a Catholic convert who sought to provide a religious haven for Catholics persecuted in England.
In 1632, Charles I of England granted Calvert a colonial charter, naming the colony after his wife, Queen Mary. Unlike the Pilgrims and Puritans, who enforced religious conformity in their settlements, Calvert envisioned a colony where people of different religious sects would coexist under the principle of toleration. Accordingly, in 1649 the Maryland General Assembly passed an Act Concerning Religion, which enshrined this principle by penalizing anyone who "reproached" a fellow Marylander based on religious affiliation. Religious strife was common in the early years, Catholics remained a minority, albeit in greater numbers than in any other English colony. Maryland's early settlements and population centers clustered around rivers and other waterways that empty into the Chesapeake Bay, its economy was plantation-based, centered on the cultivation of tobacco. The need for cheap labor led to a rapid expansion of indentured servants, penal labor, African slaves. In 1760, Maryland's current boundaries took form following the settlement of a long-running border dispute with Pennsylvania.
Maryland was an active participant in the events leading up to the American Revolution, by 1776 its delegates signed the Declaration of Independence. Many of its citizens subsequently played key military roles in the war. In 1790, the state ceded land for the establishment of the U. S. capital of Washington, D. C. Although a slave state, Maryland remained in the Union during the U. S. Civil War, its strategic location giving it a significant role in the conflict. After the war, Maryland took part in the Industrial Revolution, driven by its seaports, railroad networks, mass immigration from Europe. Since the Second World War, the state's population has grown to six million residents, it is among the most densely populated states in the nation; as of 2015, Maryland had the highest median household income of any state, owing in large part to its close proximity to Washington, D. C. and a diversified economy spanning manufacturing, higher education, biotechnology. Maryland has been ranked as one of the best governed states in the country.
The state's central role in American history is reflected by its hosting of some of the highest numbers of historic landmarks per capita. Maryland is comparable in overall area with Belgium, it is the 42nd largest and 9th smallest state and is closest in size to the state of Hawaii, the next smaller state. The next larger state, its neighbor West Virginia, is twice the size of Maryland. Maryland possesses a variety of topography within its borders, contributing to its nickname America in Miniature, it ranges from sandy dunes dotted with seagrass in the east, to low marshlands teeming with wildlife and large bald cypress near the Chesapeake Bay, to rolling hills of oak forests in the Piedmont Region, pine groves in the Maryland mountains to the west. Maryland is bounded on its north by Pennsylvania, on its west by West Virginia, on its east by Delaware and the Atlantic Ocean, on its south, across the Potomac River, by West Virginia and Virginia; the mid-portion of this border is interrupted by District of Columbia, which sits on land, part of Montgomery and Prince George's counties and including the town of Georgetown, Maryland.
This land was ceded to the United States Federal Government in 1790 to form the District of Columbia.. The Chesapeake Bay nearly bisects the state and the counties east of the bay are known collectively as the Eastern Shore. Most of the state's waterways are part of the Chesapeake Bay watershed, with the exceptions of a tiny portion of extreme western Garrett County, the eastern half of Worcester County, a small portion of the state's northeast corner. So prominent is the Chesapeake in Maryland's geography and economic life that there has been periodic agitation to change the state's official nickname to the "Bay State", a nickname, used by Massachusetts for decades; the highest point in Maryland, with an elevation of 3,360 feet, is Hoye Crest on Backbone Mountain, in the southwest corner of Garrett County, near the bo