A botanical name is a formal scientific name conforming to the International Code of Nomenclature for algae and plants and, if it concerns a plant cultigen, the additional cultivar or Group epithets must conform to the International Code of Nomenclature for Cultivated Plants. The code of nomenclature covers "all organisms traditionally treated as algae, fungi, or plants, whether fossil or non-fossil, including blue-green algae, oomycetes, slime moulds and photosynthetic protists with their taxonomically related non-photosynthetic groups."The purpose of a formal name is to have a single name, accepted and used worldwide for a particular plant or plant group. For example, the botanical name Bellis perennis denotes a plant species, native to most of the countries of Europe and the Middle East, where it has accumulated various names in many languages; the plant was introduced worldwide, bringing it into contact with more languages. English names for this plant species include: daisy, English daisy, lawn daisy.
The cultivar Bellis perennis'Aucubifolia' is a golden-variegated horticultural selection of this species. The botanical name itself is fixed by a type, a particular specimen of an organism to which the scientific name is formally attached. In other words, a type is an example that serves to anchor or centralize the defining features of that particular taxon; the usefulness of botanical names is limited by the fact that taxonomic groups are not fixed in size. For example, the traditional view of the family Malvaceae has been expanded in some modern approaches to include what were considered to be several related families; some botanical names refer to groups that are stable while for other names a careful check is needed to see which circumscription is being used. Depending on rank, botanical names may be in two parts or three parts; the names of cultivated plants are not similar to the botanical names, since they may instead involve "unambiguous common names" of species or genera. Cultivated plant names may have an extra component, bringing a maximum of four parts: in one part Plantae Marchantiophyta Magnoliopsida Liliidae Pinophyta Fagaceae Betula in two parts Acacia subg.
Phyllodineae lchemilla subsect. Heliodrosium Berberis thunbergii a species name, i.e. a combination consisting of a genus name and one epithet Syringa'Charisma' – a cultivar within a genus Hydrangea Lacecap Group – a genus name and Group epithet Lilium Darkest Red Group – a genus name and Group epithet Paphiopedilum Greenteaicecreamandraspberries grex snowdrop'John Gray' – an unambiguous common name for the genus Galanthus and a cultivar epithetin three parts Calystegia sepium subsp. Americana, a combination consisting of a genus name and two epithets Crataegus azarolus var. pontica Bellis perennis'Aucubifolia' – a cultivar Brassica oleracea Gemmifera Group – a species name and Group epithetin four parts Scilla hispanica var. campanulata'Rose Queen' – a cultivar within a botanical variety apart from cultivars, the name of a plant can never have more than three parts. A botanical name in three parts, i.e. an infraspecific name needs a "connecting term" to indicate rank. In the Calystegia example above, this is "subsp.", for subspecies.
In botany there are many ranks below that of species. A name of a "subdivision of a genus" needs a connecting term; the connecting term is not part of the name itself. A taxon may be indicated by a listing in more than three parts: "Saxifraga aizoon var. aizoon subvar. Brevifolia f. multicaulis subf. surculosa Engl. & Irmsch." But this is a classification, not a formal botanical name. The botanical name is Saxifraga aizoon subf. surculosa Engl. & Irmsch.. Generic and infraspecific botanical names are printed in italics; the example set by the ICN is to italicize all botanical names, including those above genus, though the ICN preface states: "The Code sets no binding standard in this respect, as typography is a matter of editorial style and tradition not of nomenclature". Most peer-reviewed scientific botanical publications do not italicize names above the rank of genus, non-botanical scientific publications do not, in keeping with two of the three other kinds of scientific name: zoological and bacterial.
For botanical nomenclature, the ICN prescribes a two-part name or binary name for any taxon below the rank of genus down to, including the rank of species. Taxa below the rank of species get a three part. A binary name consists of the name of an epithet. In the case of a species this is a specific epithet:Bellis perennis is the name of a species, in which perennis is the specific epithet. There is no connecting term involved. In t
Philosophia Botanica was published by the Swedish naturalist and physician Carl Linnaeus who influenced the development of botanical taxonomy and systematics in the 18th and 19th centuries. It is "the first textbook of descriptive systematic botany and botanical Latin", it contains Linnaeus's first published description of his binomial nomenclature. Philosophia Botanica represents a maturing of Linnaeus's thinking on botany and its theoretical foundations, being an elaboration of ideas first published in his Fundamenta Botanica and Critica Botanica, set out in a similar way as a series of stark and uncompromising principles; the book establishes a basic botanical terminology. The following principle §79 demonstrates the style of presentation and Linnaeus's method of introducing his ideas. A detailed analysis of the work is given in Frans Stafleu's Linnaeus and the Linnaeans, pp. 25–78. To understand the objectives of the Philosophia Botanica it is first necessary to appreciate the state of botanical nomenclature at the time of Linnaeus.
In accordance with the provisions of the present-day International Code of Nomenclature for algae and plants the starting point for the scientific names of plants dates back to the list of species enumerated in Linnaeus’s Species Plantarum, ed. 1, published 1 May 1753. The Species Plantarum was, for European scientists, a comprehensive global Flora for its day. Linnaeus had learned plant names as short descriptive phrases known as nomina specifica; each time a new species was described the diagnostic phrase-names had to be adjusted, lists of names those including synonyms became unwieldy. Linnaeus’s solution was to associate with the generic name an additional single word, what he termed the nomen triviale, to designate a species. Linnaeus emphasized that this was a matter of convenience, it was not to replace the diagnostic nomen specificum, but over time the nomen triviale became the “real” name and the nomen specificum became the Latin “diagnosis” that must, according to the rules of the International Code of Nomenclature, accompany the description of all new plant species: it was that part of the plant description distinguishing that particular species from all others.
Linnaeus did not invent the binomial system but he was the person who provided the theoretical framework that lead to its universal acceptance. The second word of the binomial, the nomen triviale as Linnaeus called it, is now known as the specific epithet and the two words, the generic name and specific epithet together make up the species name; the binomial expresses both resemblance and difference at the same time – resemblance and relationship through the generic name: difference and distinctness through the specific epithet. Until 1753 polynomials served two functions, to provide: a) a simple designation b) a means of distinguishing that entity from others. Linnaeus's major achievement was not binomial nomenclature itself, but the separation of the designatory and diagnostic functions of names, the advantage of this being noted in Philosophia Botanica principle §257, he did this by linking species names to descriptions and the concepts of other botanists as expressed in their literature – all set within a structural framework of drafted rules.
In this he was an exemplary proponent of the general encyclopaedic and systematizing effort of the 18th century. Systema Naturæ was Linnaeus’s early attempt to organise nature; the first edition was published in 1735 and in it he outlines his ideas for the hierarchical classification of the natural world by dividing it into the animal kingdom, the plant kingdom and the "mineral kingdom" each of which he further divided into classes, orders and species, with characters, differences and places of occurrence. The tenth edition of this book in 1758 has been adopted as the starting point for zoological nomenclature; the first edition of 1735 was just eleven pages long, but this expanded with further editions until the final thirteenth edition of 1767 had reached over 3000 pages. In the early eighteenth century colonial expansion and exploration created a demand for the description of thousands of new organisms; this highlighted difficulties in communication about plants, the replication of descriptions, the importance of an agreed way of presenting and applying plant names.
From about 1730 when Linnaeus was in his early twenties and still in Uppsala, Sweden, he planned a listing all the genera and species of plants known to western science in his day. Before this could be achieved he needed to establish the principles of classification and nomenclature on which these works were to be based. From 1735 to 1738 Linnaeus worked in the Netherlands where he was personal physician to George Clifford a wealthy Anglo-Dutch merchant–banker with the Dutch East India Company who had an impressive garden containing four large glasshouses that were filled with tropical and sub-tropical plants collected overseas. Linnaeus was enthralled by these collections and prepared a detailed systematic catalogue of the plants in the garden, which he published in 1738 as Hortus Cliffortianus ("in honour of Clifford's garden", it was during this exceptionally productive period of his life that he published the works that were to lay the foundations for biological nomenclature. These were Fundamenta Botanica, Bibliotheca Botanica, Critica Botanica ("Criti
"Schousboea" redirects here. As described by H. C. F. Schumacher and Peter Thonning, this is a synonym of Alchornea. Combretum, the bushwillows or combretums, make up the type genus of the family Combretaceae; the genus comprises about 370 species of trees and shrubs 300 of which are native to tropical and southern Africa, about 5 to Madagascar, some 25 to tropical Asia and 40 to tropical America. The genus is absent from Australia. Though somewhat reminiscent of willows in their habitus, they are not close relatives of these. Bushwillow trees are important plants in their habitat. Savannahs in Africa, in particular those growing on granitic soils, are dominated by Combretum and its close relative Terminalia. For example, C. apiculatum is a notable tree in the Angolan mopane woodlands ecoregion in the Kunene River basin in southern Africa. Other species of this genus are a major component of Southwestern Amazonian moist forests; this genus contains several species that are pollinated by mammals other than bats, quite rare indeed.
But most species are more conventionally pollinated by birds. Typhlodromus combretum, a mite of the family Phytoseiidae, was discovered on a bushwillow plant and is named after this genus. Other herbivores that eat Combretum foliage include the caterpillars of the Brown Awl, found on C. albidum, C. latifolium and C. ovalifolium. Several species are used in Indian herbal medicine; the class of chemical compounds known as combretastatins were first isolated from South African Bushwillow, from which they get their name. One synthetic derivative, fosbretabulin disodium, underwent preliminary study for the treatment of anaplastic thyroid cancer, but it was not effective enough to progress to more advanced trials. C. molle is recorded to contain antioxidants such as punicalagin, found in pomegranates, a somewhat related plant. The botanist George Don studied this genus extensively; the Luvuvhu River in southern Africa was named after the river's bushwillows, locally known as muvuvhu. Dressler, S.. "Combretum".
African plants – a Photo Guide. Frankfurt/Main: Forschungsinstitut Senckenberg
Royal Botanic Garden Edinburgh
The Royal Botanic Garden Edinburgh is a scientific centre for the study of plants, their diversity and conservation, as well as a popular tourist attraction. Founded in 1670 as a physic garden to grow medicinal plants, today it occupies four sites across Scotland — Edinburgh, Dawyck and Benmore — each with its own specialist collection; the RBGE's living collection consists of more than 13,302 plant species, whilst the herbarium contains in excess of 3 million preserved specimens. The Royal Botanic Garden Edinburgh is an executive non-departmental public body of the Scottish Government; the Edinburgh site is the main garden and the headquarters of the public body, led by Regius Keeper, Simon Milne. The Edinburgh botanic garden was founded in 1670 at St. Anne's Yard, near Holyrood Palace, by Dr. Robert Sibbald and Dr. Andrew Balfour, it is the second oldest botanic garden in Britain after Oxford's. The plant collection used as the basis of the garden was the private collection of Sir Patrick Murray, 2nd Lord Elibank, moved from his home at Livingston Peel in 1672 following his death in September 1671.
The original site was "obtained of John Brown, gardener of the North Yardes in the Holyrood Abby, ane inclosure of some 40 foot of measure every way. By what we procured from Levingstone and other gardens, we made a collection of eight or nine hundred plants yr." This site proved too small, in 1676 grounds belonging to Trinity Hospital were leased by Balfour from the City Council: this second garden was sited just to the east of the Nor Loch, down from the High Street. John Ainslie's 1804 map shows it as the "Old Physick Garden" to the east of the North Bridge; the site was subsequently occupied by tracks of the North British Railway, a plaque at platform 11 of the Waverley railway station marks its location. In 1763, the garden's collections were moved away from the city's pollution to a larger "Physic Garden" on the west side of Leith Walk, as shown in Ainslie's 1804 map. A cottage from the garden's original site remained on Leith Walk for over one hundred years. In 2008, the building was moved brick by brick to a site within the current gardens.
The project was completed in 2016. In the early 1820s under the direction of the Curator, William McNab, the garden moved west to its present location adjacent to Inverleith Row, the Leith Walk site was built over between Hopetoun Crescent and Haddington Place; the Temperate Palm House, which remains the tallest in Britain, was built in 1858. In 1877 the city acquired Inverleith House from the Fettes Trust and added it to the existing gardens, opening the remodelled grounds to the public in 1881; the botanic garden at Benmore became the first Regional Garden of the RBGE in 1929. It was followed by the gardens at Logan and Dawyck in 1969 and 1978. Cosmo Innes, original owner of Inverleith House Daniel Rutherford, Keeper William Wright Smith, Regius Keeper Robert Graham, Regius Keeper Roland Edgar Cooper, Curator George Taylor, Director John Hutton Balfour, lived in Inverleith House Isaac Bayley Balfour, linked to site William Evans, born here Harold Roy Fletcher, Regius Keeper Matthew Young Orr, botanist The Botanic Garden's main site in Edinburgh is a hugely important player in a worldwide network of institutions seeking to ensure that biodiversity is not further eroded.
Located one mile from the city centre it covers 70 acres. The RBGE is involved in, coordinates numerous in situ and ex situ conservation projects both in the UK and internationally; the three main cross-cutting themes of scientific work at the RBGE are: Scottish Biodiversity, Plants & Climate Change, Conservation. In addition to the RBGE's scientific activities the garden remains a popular destination for both tourists and locals. Locally known as "The Botanics", the garden is a popular place to go for a walk with young families. Entrance to the botanic garden is free. During the year the garden hosts many events including live performances, guided tours and exhibitions; the RBGE is an important centre for education, offering taught courses across all levels. In 2009, the John Hope Gateway was opened. John Hope was the first Regius Keeper of RBGE. Nearly 273,000 individual plants are grown at the Botanics in Edinburgh or its three smaller satellite gardens located in other parts of Scotland; these represent around 13,300 different species from all over the world, or about 4% of all known plant species.
The RBGE Living Collection catalogue is updated nightly. Some notable collections at the botanic garden Edinburgh include: Alpine Plants Chinese Hillside Cryptogamic Garden The Glasshouses Palmhouse Temperate Palms Tropical Palms Orchids and Cycads Ferns and Fossils Plants and people Temperate lands Rainforest Riches Arid Lands Montane tropical house Wet Tropical House Peat Walls The Queen Mother's memorial garden. Rock Garden Scottish Heath Garden Woodland Garden The RBGE Herbarium is considered a world-leading botanical collection, housing in excess of 3 million specimens. Prior to the formation of the Herbarium, plant collections tended to be the private property of the Regius Keeper; the Herbarium in its present form came with the fusion of the collections of the University of Edinburgh and the Botanical Society of Edinburgh in 1839-40. RBGE's Herbarium moved into its present, purpose-built home in 1964. Over the years, a large number of collections have been added, belonging to individuals such as R.
K. Greville and John Hutton Balfour, institutions including the Universities of Glasgow, St Andrews and Hull. The
Modiola is a monotypic genus of plants in the mallow family containing the single species Modiola caroliniana, known by several common names, including bristly-fruited mallow, Carolina bristlemallow and redflower mallow. It is a creeping perennial, native to South America but, naturalized throughout the tropical and warmer temperate world. Jepson Manual Treatment "Modiola caroliniana". Germplasm Resources Information Network. Agricultural Research Service, United States Department of Agriculture. Photo gallery
Acacia rigens known as nealie, is an erect or spreading shrub or small tree, endemic to Australia. Other common names include needle wattle, needlebush acacia and nilyah. Plants grows to between 1 and 6 metres high and have rigid, terete phyllodes that are between 3 and 13 cm long; the bright yellow flowerheads appear in groups of up to four in the axils of the phyllodes. These appear between July and December in the species' native range, followed by curled, twisted or coiled seed pods which are 4 to 10 cm long and 2 to 3 mm wide; the species occurs on red earth, sandy or shaly soils in mallee and woodland in southern Western Australia, South Australia, New South Wales and Queensland. The larvae of the double-spotted lineblue butterfly feed on this species; the species was first formally described in 1832 by botanist Allan Cunningham. The species is fast-growing and is both frost and drought tolerant requiring watering after establishment, it is adaptable to most soils and is best suited to a position in full sun or light shade
Melbourne is the capital and most populous city of the Australian state of Victoria, the second most populous city in Australia and Oceania. Its name refers to an urban agglomeration of 9,992.5 km2, comprising a metropolitan area with 31 municipalities, is the common name for its city centre. The city occupies much of the coastline of Port Phillip bay and spreads into the hinterlands towards the Dandenong and Macedon ranges, Mornington Peninsula and Yarra Valley, it has a population of 4.9 million, its inhabitants are referred to as "Melburnians". The city was founded on 30 August 1835, in the then-British colony of New South Wales, by free settlers from the colony of Van Diemen’s Land, it was incorporated as a Crown settlement in 1837 and named in honour of the British Prime Minister, William Lamb, 2nd Viscount Melbourne. In 1851, four years after Queen Victoria declared it a city, Melbourne became the capital of the new colony of Victoria. In the wake of the 1850s Victorian gold rush, the city entered a lengthy boom period that, by the late 1880s, had transformed it into one of the world's largest and wealthiest metropolises.
After the federation of Australia in 1901, it served as interim seat of government of the new nation until Canberra became the permanent capital in 1927. Today, it is a leading financial centre in the Asia-Pacific region and ranks 15th in the Global Financial Centres Index; the city is home to many of the best-known cultural institutions in the nation, such as the Melbourne Cricket Ground, the National Gallery of Victoria and the World Heritage-listed Royal Exhibition Building. It is the birthplace of Australian impressionism, Australian rules football, the Australian film and television industries and Australian contemporary dance. More it has been recognised as a UNESCO City of Literature and a global centre for street art, live music and theatre, it is the host city of annual international events such as the Australian Grand Prix, the Australian Open and the Melbourne Cup, has hosted the 1956 Summer Olympics and the 2006 Commonwealth Games. Due to it rating in entertainment and sport, as well as education, health care and development, the EIU ranks it the second most liveable city in the world.
The main airport serving the city is Melbourne Airport, the second busiest in Australia, Australia's busiest seaport the Port of Melbourne. Its main metropolitan rail terminus is Flinders Street station and its main regional rail and road coach terminus is Southern Cross station, it has the most extensive freeway network in Australia and the largest urban tram network in the world. Indigenous Australians have lived in the Melbourne area for an estimated 31,000 to 40,000 years; when European settlers arrived in the 19th-century, under 2,000 hunter-gatherers from three regional tribes—the Wurundjeri and Wathaurong—inhabited the area. It was an important meeting place for the clans of the Kulin nation alliance and a vital source of food and water; the first British settlement in Victoria part of the penal colony of New South Wales, was established by Colonel David Collins in October 1803, at Sullivan Bay, near present-day Sorrento. The following year, due to a perceived lack of resources, these settlers relocated to Van Diemen's Land and founded the city of Hobart.
It would be 30 years. In May and June 1835, John Batman, a leading member of the Port Phillip Association in Van Diemen's Land, explored the Melbourne area, claimed to have negotiated a purchase of 600,000 acres with eight Wurundjeri elders. Batman selected a site on the northern bank of the Yarra River, declaring that "this will be the place for a village" before returning to Van Diemen's Land. In August 1835, another group of Vandemonian settlers arrived in the area and established a settlement at the site of the current Melbourne Immigration Museum. Batman and his group arrived the following month and the two groups agreed to share the settlement known by the native name of Dootigala. Batman's Treaty with the Aborigines was annulled by Richard Bourke, the Governor of New South Wales, with compensation paid to members of the association. In 1836, Bourke declared the city the administrative capital of the Port Phillip District of New South Wales, commissioned the first plan for its urban layout, the Hoddle Grid, in 1837.
Known as Batmania, the settlement was named Melbourne in 1837 after the British Prime Minister, William Lamb, 2nd Viscount Melbourne, whose seat was Melbourne Hall in the market town of Melbourne, Derbyshire. That year, the settlement's general post office opened with that name. Between 1836 and 1842, Victorian Aboriginal groups were dispossessed of their land by European settlers. By January 1844, there were said to be 675 Aborigines resident in squalid camps in Melbourne; the British Colonial Office appointed five Aboriginal Protectors for the Aborigines of Victoria, in 1839, however their work was nullified by a land policy that favoured squatters who took possession of Aboriginal lands. By 1845, fewer than 240 wealthy Europeans held all the pastoral licences issued in Victoria and became a powerful political and economic force in Victoria for generations to come. Letters patent of Queen Victoria, issued on 25 June 1847, declared Melbourne a city. On 1 July 1851, the Port Phillip District separated from New South Wales to become the Colony of Victoria, with Melbourne as its capital.
The discovery of gold in Victoria in mid-1851 sparked a