The Dallas Cowboys are a professional American football team based in the Dallas–Fort Worth metroplex. The Cowboys compete in the National Football League as a member club of the league's National Football Conference East division; the team is headquartered in Frisco and plays its home games at AT&T Stadium in Arlington, which opened for the 2009 season. The stadium took its current name prior to the 2013 season; the Cowboys joined the NFL as an expansion team in 1960. The team's national following might best be represented by its NFL record of consecutive sell-outs; the Cowboys' streak of 190 consecutive sold-out regular and post-season games began in 2002. The franchise has made it to the Super Bowl eight times, tied with the Pittsburgh Steelers and the Denver Broncos for second most Super Bowl appearances in history, just behind the New England Patriots record eleven Super Bowl appearances; this has corresponded to eight NFC championships, most in the NFC. The Cowboys have won five of those Super Bowl appearances, tying them with their NFC rivals, the San Francisco 49ers.
The Cowboys are the only NFL team to record 20 straight winning seasons, in which they missed the playoffs only twice. In 2015, the Dallas Cowboys became the first sports team to be valued at $4 billion, making it the most valuable sports team in the world, according to Forbes; the Cowboys generated $620 million in revenue in 2014, a record for a U. S. sports team. In 2018 they became the first NFL franchise to be valued at $5 billion and making Forbes' list as the most valued NFL team for the 12th straight year. Prior to the formation of the Dallas Cowboys, there had not been an NFL team south of Washington, D. C. since the Dallas Texans folded in 1952. Oilman Clint Murchison Jr. had been trying to get an NFL expansion team in Dallas, but George Preston Marshall, owner of the Washington Redskins, had a monopoly in the South. Murchison had tried to purchase the Washington Redskins from Marshall in 1958. An agreement was struck, but as the deal was about to be finalized, Marshall called for a change in terms.
This infuriated. Marshall opposed any franchise for Murchison in Dallas. Since NFL expansion needed unanimous approval from team owners at that time, Marshall's position would prevent Murchison from joining the league. Marshall had a falling out with the Redskins band leader Barnee Breeskin. Breeskin had written the music to the Redskins fight song "Hail to the Redskins" and Marshall's wife had penned the lyrics. Breeskin was aware of Murchison's plight to get an NFL franchise. Angry with Marshall, Breeskin approached Murchison's attorney to sell him the rights to the song before the expansion vote in 1959. Murchison purchased "Hail to the Redskins" for $2,500. Before the vote to award franchises in 1959, Murchison revealed to Marshall that he owned the song and Marshall could not play it during games. After a few Marshall expletives, Murchison gave the rights to "Hail to the Redskins" to Marshall for his vote, the lone one against Murchison getting a franchise at that time, a rivalry was born.
From 1970 through 1979, the Cowboys won 105 regular season games, more than any other NFL franchise during that span. In addition, they appeared in 5 and won two Super Bowls, at the end of the 1971 and 1977 regular seasons. Danny White became the Cowboys' starting quarterback in 1980 after quarterback Roger Staubach retired. Despite going to 12–4 in 1980, the Cowboys came into the playoffs as a Wild Card team. In the opening round of the 1980–81 NFL playoffs they avenged their elimination from the prior year's playoffs by defeating the Rams. In the Divisional Round they squeaked by the Atlanta Falcons 30–27. For the NFC Championship they were pitted against division rival Philadelphia, the team that won the division during the regular season; the Eagles captured their first conference championship and Super Bowl berth by winning 20–7. 1981 brought another division championship for the Cowboys. They entered the 1981-82 NFL playoffs as the number 2 seed, their first game of the postseason saw them blowout and shutout Tampa Bay 38–0.
For the Conference Title game they were pitted against the number 1 seed. Despite having a late 4th quarter 27–21 lead, they would lose to the 49ers 28–27. 49ers quarterback Joe Montana led his team to an 89-yard game-winning touchdown drive connecting to Dwight Clark in a play known as The Catch. The 1982 season was shortened after a player strike. With a 6–3 record Dallas made it to the playoffs for the 8th consecutive season; as the number 2 seed for the 1982–83 NFL playoffs they eliminated the Buccaneers 30–17 in the Wild Card round and dispatched the Packers 37–26 in the Divisional round to advance to their 3rd consecutive Conference championship game. 3 times was not a charm for the Cowboys as they fell 31–17 to division rival and eventual Super Bowl XVII champions, the Redskins. For the 1983 season the Cowboys went 12–4 and made it once again to the playoffs but were defeated at home in the Wild Card by the Rams 24–17. Prior to the 1984 season, H. R. "Bum" Bright purchased the Dallas Cowboys from Clint Murchison, Jr. Dallas posted a 9–7 record that season but missed the playoffs for the first time in 10 seasons.
After going 10–6 in 1985 and winning a division title, the Cowboys were blown out in the Divisional round at home to the Rams 20–0. Hard times came for the organization as they went 7–9 in 1986, 7–8 in 1987, 3–13 in 1988. During this time period Bright became disenchanted with the team. During the savings and loan crisis, the team and Mr. Bright's saving
AT&T Stadium Cowboys Stadium, is a retractable roof stadium in Arlington, United States. It serves as the home of the Dallas Cowboys of the National Football League and was completed on May 27, 2009, it is the home of the Cotton Bowl Classic and the Big 12 Championship Game. The facility, owned by the city of Arlington, can be used for a variety of other activities such as concerts, basketball games and high school football contests and motocross and Spartan races, it replaced the covered Texas Stadium, which served as the Cowboys' home from 1971 through the 2008 season. The stadium is sometimes referred to as "Jerry World" after Dallas Cowboys owner Jerry Jones, who envisioned it as a large entertainment mecca; the stadium seats 80,000. The maximum capacity of the stadium with standing room is 105,000; the record attendance for an NFL game was set in 2009 with a crowd of 105,121. The Party Pass sections are behind seats in each end zone and on a series of six elevated platforms connected by stairways.
It has the world's 29th largest high definition video screen, which hangs from 20-yard line to 20-yard line. Estimated at $650 million, the stadium's actual construction cost rose to $1.15 billion, making it one of the most expensive sports venues built. To aid Cowboys owner and general manager Jerry Jones in paying the construction costs of the new stadium, Arlington voters approved the increase of the city's sales tax by 0.5%, the hotel occupancy tax by 2%, car rental tax by 5%. The City of Arlington provided over $325 million in bonds as funding, Jones covered any cost overruns; the NFL provided the Cowboys with an additional $150 million loan, following its policy for facilitating financing for the construction of new stadiums. A pair of nearly 300 ft -tall arches spans the length of the stadium dome, anchored to the ground at each end; the new stadium includes "more than 3,000 Sony LCD displays throughout the luxury suites, concession areas and more, offering fans viewing options that extend beyond the action on the field".
It houses a center-hung Mitsubishi video display board, the largest high-definition television screen in the world at the time of their installation. It has since been surpassed in size by the Panasonic "Big Hoss" video board at Texas Motor Speedway. Glass doors, allowing each end zone to be opened, were designed and constructed by Dallas-based Haley-Greer glass systems; the retractable roof was designed by structural engineering firm Walter P Moore and the systems were implemented by mechanization consultants Uni-Systems. The electrification of Cowboys Stadium's retractable roof was developed by Inc.. These Kinetic Architecture fundamentals will be employed in order to create quick conversions of the facility to accommodate a variety of events; when the design was unveiled on December 12, 2006, it showed that, from inside the stadium, the roof will look similar to the Texas Stadium roof, with its trademark hole. However, it can be covered by the retractable roof panel to protect against the elements.
The football turf field was built by Hellas Construction. They developed a special SoftTop Convertible Turf System that has 26 interchangeable panels to allow the stadium to host a variety of events from concerts, dirt bike and monster truck rallies to college football and soccer games. A Dallas Cowboys Hall of Fame is planned for the Hall of Fame level; the drawings include a site for a large sculpture northeast of the stadium, close to Randol Mill Road. Mayor Robert Cluck claimed to use eminent domain as a last resort but most of the properties refused to sell to the city, indicating that the incentive program was not adequate according to Glenn Sodd, an attorney representing some home owners in the area. Attorney Bob Cohen, representing some of the property owners, said the city gave many of his clients little incentive to sell, he said he represents the owners of some rental properties who were counting on that monthly revenue for their retirement and said most homeowners cannot afford to re-build or buy in that area with the incentive package.
It is claimed. 1994: Cowboys owner Jerry Jones says he wants to expand the 65,000-seat Texas Stadium by up to 40,000 seats, add retractable roof panels and install a climate-control system to make the stadium a year-round venue for sporting events, including the Super Bowl and conventions. 1997–2000: The Cowboys hold preliminary talks with Arlington officials about building a stadium there. The team publicly discusses a $260 million plan to upgrade Texas Stadium. In 2000, the Cowboys compile a list of potential stadium sites, which include Grapevine and Arlington; the team continues negotiating with Irving to renovate Texas Stadium. 2001: Jones says Arlington is a leading contender for a $500 million stadium. The primary site considered is the 2,000 acres Lakes of Arlington tract on Farm Road 157. Other cities in the running include Grand Prairie. In October, Jones discusses the new stadium with the mayors of Arlington, Irving and Dallas. 2003: The Cowboys ask the Irving City Council to extend their lease at Texas Stadium, which expires at the end of the 2008 season, on a year-to-year basis.
They narrow their search to sites in Las Colinas and Dallas, state legislators file bills that would allow Dallas County to increase its hotel occupancy and car rental taxes to pay for a new stadium. 2004: In April
KTCK is a commercial sports talk radio station licensed to Dallas, which serves the Dallas-Fort Worth Metroplex. Its daytime power is 25,000 watts, reduced to 5,000 watts at night; the station's studios are located in the Victory Park district in Dallas, just north of downtown, the transmitter site is in Coppell. The station is owned by Cumulus Media. KTCK's programs are simulcast at 96.7 MHz over KTCK-FM, licensed to Texas. KTCK's current call letters and format only date back to 1994; however it is one of the oldest radio stations, including the oldest in Texas, having received its first broadcasting license, as WRR, in March 1922. In addition, prior to its first broadcasting license, WRR was issued an initial transmitting authorization in the summer of 1921, the station evolved from earlier work conducted by the Dallas Police Department; the genesis of what would become WRR began through the efforts of local amateur radio enthusiasts belonging to the Dallas Radio Club, in conjunction with Henry "Dad" Garrett, Dallas' superintendent of police and fire signals.
Inspired by activities at the New York City police department, Frank M. Corlett, a local district manager for the American Radio Relay League, approached the Dallas police about setting up something similar. A short notice in the December 28, 1920, edition of The Dallas Morning News stated that Corlett was developing a system in cooperation with Police Commissioner L. E. McGee which would be used to "notify the near-by police of the escape of prisoners and to give a description of suspects fleeing from Dallas." In early February, it was announced that the plan was now operational, consisting of nightly transmissions between 7 and 10 o'clock. The primary outlet was Corlett's Special Amateur station, 5ZC, located at his home at 1101 East Eighth Street. Two alternate sites were included: Bennett Emerson's Special Amateur station, 5ZG, located at 3720 Wendelkin Street, John Dorea's station, 5JG, at 117 West Twelfth Street. In early June 1921, it was again announced that the daily police bulletin transmissions had been inaugurated by Corlett and Emerson."Dad" Garrett was involved in the developmental work.
Garrett had had an early interest in radio communication. In 1912, a fire broke out, being dealt with by a majority of the fire department. Meanwhile, a second major blaze occurred, but because the telephone lines were down, there was a delay in alerting crews at the site of the need to deal with the second emergency. Radio was still an unperfected technology, but Garrett recognized its future potential for speeding up communication during emergencies. In May 1921, it was reported that he had installed on a fire truck a radio receiver constructed by Corlett and had received transmissions sent by Emerson and Garrett's son, Charles Garrett. In July 1921, Bennett Emerson sold his transmitting equipment to the city for $250, it was installed on the second floor of the Central Fire Station at 2012 Main Street, where it came under the oversight of "Dad" Garrett. On August 5, 1921, a Limited Commercial license with the randomly assigned call letters WRR was issued to "City of Dallas", which authorized transmissions on the wavelengths of 400, 450 and 500 meters.
An early review of the new station noted that in addition to broadcasting police reports, it had been used for a two-way conversation between the Chief of Detectives in Dallas and Houston. WRR soon expanded its offerings beyond fire reports. In mid-December, it ran a telephone line to the local First Baptist Church's auditorium in order to broadcast Dr. George Truett's Sunday services. By early February 1922 the station's daily schedule included entertainment programs, featuring sports reports and weather forecasts, plus piano and saxophone solos. "Dad" Garrett's assistant, Lynn B. Henson, took on the majority of the responsibility for running the station. From 1912 to 1927, the Department of Commerce regulated U. S. radio, there were no specific restrictions on stations broadcasting entertainment to the general public. The first formal standards were adopted effective December 1, 1921, which specified that broadcasting stations had to hold a Limited Commercial license that authorized operation on the "entertainment" wavelength of 360 meters or the "market and weather reports" wavelength of 485 meters.
At the time this regulation was adopted a small number of stations met the new requirements, although this did not include WRR, whose current Limited Commercial license did not have an assignment for either of the broadcasting wavelengths, as of late January 1922 the station was reported to be broadcasting on 450 meters. In early February 1922, WRR was reported to now be on 360 meters, but it wasn't until March 13, 1922 that the station was issued a new Limited Commercial license that included an authorization to use both broadcasting wavelengths. For this reason the Federal Communication Commission records list March 13, 1922, as WRR's "Date First Licensed". In early April 1922, as WRR's focus turned toward general broadcasting, a second transmitter was installed, operating on 200 meters under the call sign of 5ZAQ, which took over the broadcasting of fire signals; the common use of 360 meters led to some unique cooperative experiments, including a June 1922 wedding where the three main participants were located at different radio station studios, with the groom broadcasting his responses over WRR, the bride's from WDAO, the minister officiating through the Dallas Morning News' WFAA.
As additional broadcasting s
San Antonio the City of San Antonio, is the seventh-most populous city in the United States, the second-most populous city in both Texas and the Southern United States, with more than 1.5 million residents. Founded as a Spanish mission and colonial outpost in 1718, the city became the first chartered civil settlement in present-day Texas in 1731; the area was still part of the Spanish Empire, of the Mexican Republic. Today it is the state's oldest municipality; the city's deep history is contrasted with its rapid recent growth during the past few decades. It was the fastest-growing of the top ten largest cities in the United States from 2000 to 2010, the second from 1990 to 2000. Straddling the regional divide between South and Central Texas, San Antonio anchors the southwestern corner of an urban megaregion colloquially known as the "Texas Triangle". San Antonio serves as the seat of Bexar County. Since San Antonio was founded during the Spanish Colonial Era, it has a church in its center, on the main civic plaza in front, a characteristic of many Spanish-founded cities and villages in Spain and Latin America.
As with many other urban centers in the Southwestern United States, areas outside the city limits are sparsely populated. San Antonio is the center of the San Antonio–New Braunfels metropolitan statistical area. Called Greater San Antonio, the metro area has a population of 2,473,974 based on the 2017 U. S. census estimate, making it the 24th-largest metropolitan area in the United States and third-largest in Texas. Growth along the Interstate 35 and Interstate 10 corridors to the north and east make it that the metropolitan area will continue to expand. San Antonio was named by a 1691 Spanish expedition for Saint Anthony of Padua, whose feast day is June 13; the city contains five 18th-century Spanish frontier missions, including The Alamo and San Antonio Missions National Historical Park, which together were designated UNESCO World Heritage sites in 2015. Other notable attractions include the River Walk, the Tower of the Americas, SeaWorld, the Alamo Bowl, Marriage Island. Commercial entertainment includes Morgan's Wonderland amusement parks.
According to the San Antonio Convention and Visitors Bureau, the city is visited by about 32 million tourists a year. It is home to the five-time NBA champion San Antonio Spurs, hosts the annual San Antonio Stock Show & Rodeo, one of the largest such events in the U. S; the U. S. Armed Forces have numerous facilities around San Antonio. Lackland Air Force Base, Randolph Air Force Base, Lackland AFB/Kelly Field Annex, Camp Bullis, Camp Stanley are outside the city limits. Kelly Air Force Base operated out of San Antonio until 2001, when the airfield was transferred to Lackland AFB; the remaining parts of the base were developed as Port San Antonio, an industrial/business park and aerospace complex. San Antonio is home to six Fortune 500 companies and the South Texas Medical Center, the only medical research and care provider in the South Texas region. At the time of European encounter, Payaya Indians lived near the San Antonio River Valley in the San Pedro Springs area, they called the vicinity Yanaguana, meaning "refreshing waters".
In 1691, a group of Spanish explorers and missionaries came upon the river and Payaya settlement on June 13, the feast day of St. Anthony of Padua, they named the river "San Antonio" in his honor. It was years. Father Antonio de Olivares visited the site in 1709, he was determined to found a mission and civilian settlement there; the viceroy gave formal approval for a combined mission and presidio in late 1716, as he wanted to forestall any French expansion into the area from their colony of La Louisiane to the east, as well as prevent illegal trading with the Payaya. He directed the governor of Coahuila y Tejas, to establish the mission complex. Differences between Alarcón and Olivares resulted in delays, construction did not start until 1718. Olivares built, with the help of the Payaya Indians, the Misión de San Antonio de Valero, the Presidio San Antonio de Bexar, the bridge that connected both, the Acequia Madre de Valero; the families who clustered around the presidio and mission were the start of Villa de Béjar, destined to become the most important town in Spanish Texas.
On May 1, the governor transferred ownership of the Mission San Antonio de Valero to Fray Antonio de Olivares. On May 5, 1718 he commissioned the Presidio San Antonio de Béxar on the west side of the San Antonio River, one-fourth league from the mission. On February 14, 1719, the Marquis of San Miguel de Aguayo proposed to the king of Spain that 400 families be transported from the Canary Islands, Galicia, or Havana to populate the province of Texas, his plan was approved, notice was given the Canary Islanders to furnish 200 families. By June 1730, 25 families had reached Cuba, 10 families had been sent to Veracruz before orders from Spain came to stop the re-settlement. Under the leadership of Juan Leal Goraz, the group marched overland from Veracruz to the Presidio San Antonio de Béxar, where they arrived on March 9, 1731. Due to marriages along the way, the party now included a total of 56 persons, they joined the military community established in 1718. The immigrants f
The Dallas Desperados were a professional arena football team based in Dallas, Texas. The Desperados played in the Eastern Division of the Arena Football League from 2002 to 2008; the franchise began play in 2002 as an expansion team, have posted a winning record in all but one of their seasons in existence. The team was owned by Jerry Jones, who owns the Dallas Cowboys. Jones' son-in-law Shy Anderson was the COO of the team, oversaw the day-to-day operations of the franchise; the team folded effective August 4, 2009, upon the dissolving of the original AFL. Unlike most AFL teams, Jones maintains the intellectual property rights to the Desperados. During a halftime interview at a Cowboys preseason game on August 12, 2000, Jerry Jones revealed to Babe Laufenberg that the AFL had granted him an expansion franchise to begin play in 2001. On November 14, 2001, Dallas joined the AFL; the team was going to be named the "Dallas Texans", following in the footsteps of Dallas’ former AFL franchise which existed from 1990–1993.
However, that same year he sold the rights to the name "Texans" for a reported $10 million to the new Houston franchise. After a contest in which fans voted via the team’s official website, the new Dallas team was named the Desperados. Jones appointed Cowboys special teams coach Joe Avezzano as head coach, on November 21, 2001 in the AFL expansion draft, they acquired their first player, lineman Aaron Hamilton. Avezzano, along with starting quarterback Andy Kelly, led the team to a respectable 7–7 record and a playoff appearance in the team's first season of play, a 10–6 record and a second consecutive playoff berth in 2003 under new quarterback Jim Kubiak. However, Avezzano was fired from the Cowboys staff that season, subsequently resigned as Desperados head coach when he accepted a job with the Oakland Raiders. Before the 2004 season, Jones hired Will McClay to replace Avezzano, McClay struggled to a 6–10 record his rookie season as coach; the team improved to 8–7–1 the following season and missed making the playoffs, under the helm of quarterback/offensive coordinator Clint Dolezel, posted a 13–3 record in 2006 and made their first appearance in an AFL conference championship game, losing to the Orlando Predators.
The following season saw the Desperados post an AFL record fifteen wins and the team appeared destined to make their first ArenaBowl appearance, but they were shocked by the Columbus Destroyers, who had entered the playoffs with a 7–9 record, in the first round. The upset is ranked by many among the greatest of all time; the following season saw no relief to the postseason failure as the Desperados at 12–4 lost to the 8–8 New York Dragons in Dallas. After the New Orleans VooDoo folded, the league placed the Desperados in the South Division after the team had spent five seasons as an Eastern Division powerhouse. With the exception of one playoff game and the entirety of the 2003 season, the Desperados played all of their home games at American Airlines Center; the team’s official mascot was Kid Coyote. On June 9, 2007, the Desperados faced the 4–9 New Orleans VooDoo; the 13–1 Desperados found themselves losing late in the game. But Dallas Quarterback Clint Dolezel threw a touchdown with 30 seconds left on the clock to give the Desperados the lead.
On the ensuing kickoff, the VooDoo fielded the ball off the net and found themselves looking at a long way to the endzone from their own one-yard line. They managed to put together a lengthy drive and were able to score with 1.7 seconds left to make the score 80–79. Rather than tie the game with an extra point, they elected to go for the win with a two-point conversion. VooDoo Quarterback Steve Bellisari dropped back and was sacked by 2007 AFL lineman of the year Colston Weatherington on the ten; the game was over along with the VooDoo playoff hopes. In the end, Dallas won 80–79; the game was voted 2007 "Game of the Year" leaguewide in July 2007. The following Desperados players were named to All-Arena Teams: QB Clint Dolezel FB Josh White FB/LB Duke Pettijohn WR/DB Will Pettis OL/DL Tom Briggs, Colston Weatherington OL Devin Wyman, Terrance Dotsy DL Colston Weatherington LB Duke Pettijohn DB Jermaine Jones K Remy Hamilton The following Desperados players were named to All-Ironman Teams: FB/LB Duke Pettijohn WR/DB Will Pettis OL/DL Tom Briggs The following Desperados players were named to All-Rookie Teams: QB Clint Stoerner FB/LB Ja'Mar Toombs WR/DB Will Pettis WR/LB Andy McCullough OL/DL Shante Carver, Colston Weatherington DB Bobby Keyes DS Kareem Larrimore, Jermaine Jones Fort Worth Cavalry Dallas Vigilantes Official website Dallas Desperados at ArenaFan
Dallas the City of Dallas, is a city in the U. S. state of Texas and the seat of Dallas County, with portions extending into Collin, Denton and Rockwall counties. With an estimated 2017 population of 1,341,075, it is the ninth most-populous city in the U. S. and third in Texas after Houston and San Antonio. It is the eighteenth most-populous city in North America as of 2015. Located in North Texas, the city of Dallas is the main core of the largest metropolitan area in the Southern United States and the largest inland metropolitan area in the U. S. that lacks any navigable link to the sea. It is the most populous city in the Dallas–Fort Worth metroplex, the fourth-largest metropolitan area in the country at 7.3 million people as of 2017. The city's combined statistical area is the seventh-largest in the U. S. as of 2017, with 7,846,293 residents. Dallas and nearby Fort Worth were developed due to the construction of major railroad lines through the area allowing access to cotton and oil in North and East Texas.
The construction of the Interstate Highway System reinforced Dallas's prominence as a transportation hub, with four major interstate highways converging in the city and a fifth interstate loop around it. Dallas developed as a strong industrial and financial center and a major inland port, due to the convergence of major railroad lines, interstate highways and the construction of Dallas/Fort Worth International Airport, one of the largest and busiest airports in the world. A "beta" global city, the economy of Dallas has been considered diverse with dominant sectors including defense, financial services, information technology, telecommunications, transportation. Dallas is home to 9 Fortune 500 companies within the city limits; the Dallas–Fort Worth metroplex hosts additional Fortune 500 companies, including American Airlines, ExxonMobil and J. C. Penney. Over 41 colleges and universities are in its metropolitan area, the most of any metropolitan area in Texas; the city has a population from a myriad of ethnic and religious backgrounds and the sixth-largest LGBT population in the United States as of 2016.
WalletHub named Dallas the fifth most-diverse city in the U. S. in 2018. Preceded by thousands of years of varying cultures, the Caddo people inhabited the Dallas area before Spanish colonists claimed the territory of Texas in the 18th century as a part of the Viceroyalty of New Spain. France claimed the area but never established much settlement. In 1819, the Adams-Onís Treaty between the United States and Spain defined the Red River as the northern boundary of New Spain placing the future location of Dallas well within Spanish territory; the area remained under Spanish rule until 1821, when Mexico declared independence from Spain, the area was considered part of the Mexican state of Coahuila y Tejas. In 1836, with a majority of Anglo-American settlers, gained independence from Mexico and formed the Republic of Texas. Three years after Texas achieved independence, John Neely Bryan surveyed the area around present-day Dallas, he established a permanent settlement near the Trinity River named Dallas in 1841.
The origin of the name is uncertain. The official historical marker states it was named after Vice President George M. Dallas of Philadelphia, Pennsylvania. However, this is disputed. Other potential theories for the origin include his brother, Commodore Alexander James Dallas, as well as brothers Walter R. Dallas or James R. Dallas. A further theory gives the origin as the village of Dallas, Scotland, similar to the way Houston, Texas was named after Sam Houston whose ancestors came from the Scottish village of Houston, Renfrewshire; the Republic of Texas was annexed by the United States in 1845 and Dallas County was established the following year. Dallas was formally incorporated as a city on February 2, 1856. With the construction of railroads, Dallas became a business and trading center and was booming by the end of the 19th century, it became an industrial city, attracting workers from Texas, the South, the Midwest. The Praetorian Building in Dallas of 15 stories, built in 1909, was the first skyscraper west of the Mississippi and the tallest building in Texas for some time.
It marked the prominence of Dallas as a city. A racetrack for thoroughbreds was built and their owners established the Dallas Jockey Club. Trotters raced at a track in Fort Worth; the rapid expansion of population increased competition for jobs and housing. In 1921, the Mexican president Álvaro Obregón along with the former revolutionary general visited Downtown Dallas's Mexican Park in Little Mexico; the small neighborhood of Little Mexico was home to a Latin American population, drawn to Dallas by factors including the American Dream, better living conditions, the Mexican Revolution. On November 22, 1963, President John F. Kennedy was assassinated on Elm Street while his motorcade passed through Dealey Plaza in Downtown Dallas; the upper two floors of the building from which alleged assassin Lee Harvey Oswald shot Kennedy, the Texas School Book Depository, have been converted into a historical museum covering the former president's life and accomplishments. On July 7, 2016, multiple shots were fired at a peaceful protest in Downtown Dallas, held against the police killings of two black men from other states.
The gunman identified as Micah Xavier Johnson, began firing at police officers at 8:58 p.m. killing five officers and injuring nine. Two bystanders were injured; this marked the deadliest day for U. S. law enforcement since the September 11 attacks. Johnson told police during a standoff that he
Texas is the second largest state in the United States by both area and population. Geographically located in the South Central region of the country, Texas shares borders with the U. S. states of Louisiana to the east, Arkansas to the northeast, Oklahoma to the north, New Mexico to the west, the Mexican states of Chihuahua, Nuevo León, Tamaulipas to the southwest, while the Gulf of Mexico is to the southeast. Houston is the most populous city in Texas and the fourth largest in the U. S. while San Antonio is the second-most populous in the state and seventh largest in the U. S. Dallas–Fort Worth and Greater Houston are the fourth and fifth largest metropolitan statistical areas in the country, respectively. Other major cities include Austin, the second-most populous state capital in the U. S. and El Paso. Texas is nicknamed "The Lone Star State" to signify its former status as an independent republic, as a reminder of the state's struggle for independence from Mexico; the "Lone Star" can be found on the Texan state seal.
The origin of Texas's name is from the word taysha. Due to its size and geologic features such as the Balcones Fault, Texas contains diverse landscapes common to both the U. S. Southern and Southwestern regions. Although Texas is popularly associated with the U. S. southwestern deserts, less than 10% of Texas's land area is desert. Most of the population centers are in areas of former prairies, grasslands and the coastline. Traveling from east to west, one can observe terrain that ranges from coastal swamps and piney woods, to rolling plains and rugged hills, the desert and mountains of the Big Bend; the term "six flags over Texas" refers to several nations. Spain was the first European country to claim the area of Texas. France held a short-lived colony. Mexico controlled the territory until 1836 when Texas won its independence, becoming an independent Republic. In 1845, Texas joined the union as the 28th state; the state's annexation set off a chain of events that led to the Mexican–American War in 1846.
A slave state before the American Civil War, Texas declared its secession from the U. S. in early 1861, joined the Confederate States of America on March 2nd of the same year. After the Civil War and the restoration of its representation in the federal government, Texas entered a long period of economic stagnation. Four major industries shaped the Texas economy prior to World War II: cattle and bison, cotton and oil. Before and after the U. S. Civil War the cattle industry, which Texas came to dominate, was a major economic driver for the state, thus creating the traditional image of the Texas cowboy. In the 19th century cotton and lumber grew to be major industries as the cattle industry became less lucrative, it was though, the discovery of major petroleum deposits that initiated an economic boom which became the driving force behind the economy for much of the 20th century. With strong investments in universities, Texas developed a diversified economy and high tech industry in the mid-20th century.
As of 2015, it is second on the list of the most Fortune 500 companies with 54. With a growing base of industry, the state leads in many industries, including agriculture, energy and electronics, biomedical sciences. Texas has led the U. S. in state export revenue since 2002, has the second-highest gross state product. If Texas were a sovereign state, it would be the 10th largest economy in the world; the name Texas, based on the Caddo word táyshaʼ "friend", was applied, in the spelling Tejas or Texas, by the Spanish to the Caddo themselves the Hasinai Confederacy, the final -s representing the Spanish plural. The Mission San Francisco de los Tejas was completed near the Hasinai village of Nabedaches in May 1690, in what is now Houston County, East Texas. During Spanish colonial rule, in the 18th century, the area was known as Nuevo Reino de Filipinas "New Kingdom of the Philippines", or as provincia de los Tejas "province of the Tejas" also provincia de Texas, "province of Texas", it was incorporated as provincia de Texas into the Mexican Empire in 1821, declared a republic in 1836.
The Royal Spanish Academy recognizes both spellings and Texas, as Spanish-language forms of the name of the U. S. State of Texas; the English pronunciation with /ks/ is unetymological, based in the value of the letter x in historical Spanish orthography. Alternative etymologies of the name advanced in the late 19th century connected the Spanish teja "rooftile", the plural tejas being used to designate indigenous Pueblo settlements. A 1760s map by Jacques-Nicolas Bellin shows a village named Teijas on Trinity River, close to the site of modern Crockett. Texas is the second-largest U. S. state, with an area of 268,820 square miles. Though 10% larger than France and twice as large as Germany or Japan, it ranks only 27th worldwide amongst country subdivisions by size. If it were an independent country, Texas would be the 40th largest behind Zambia. Texas is in the south central part of the United States of America. Three of its borders are defined by rivers; the Rio Grande forms a natural border with the Mexican states of Chihuahua, Nuevo León, Tamaulipas to the south.
The Red River forms a natural border with Arkansas to the north. The Sabine River forms a natural border with Louisiana to the east; the Texas Panhandle has an eastern border with Oklahoma at 100° W, a northern border with Oklahoma at 36°30' N and a western