Duxbury is a historic seaside town in Plymouth County, United States. A suburb located on the South Shore 35 miles to the southeast of Boston, the population was 15,059 at the 2010 census. Geographic and demographic information on the specific parts of the town of Duxbury is available in articles Cedar Crest, Duxbury Beach, South Duxbury, respectively; the area now known as Duxbury was inhabited by people as early as 12,000 to 9,000 B. C. By the time European settlers arrived here, the region was inhabited by the Wampanoags, who called this place Mattakeesett, meaning “place of many fish.”In 1620, English settlers known as the Pilgrims established their colony in nearby Plymouth. Per the terms of their contract with financial backers in London, they were required to live together in a tight community for seven years. At the end of that term in 1627, land along the coast was allotted to settlers for farming. Thus, the coastline from Plymouth to Marshfield, including Duxbury, was parceled out, many settlers began moving away from Plymouth.
At first, those who settled in Duxbury came to work their new farms just in the warmer months and returned to Plymouth during the winter. It was not long, before they began to build homes on their land, soon requested permission from the colony to be set off as a separate community with their own church. Duxbury, which included land, now Pembroke, was incorporated in 1637; some of the most influential men in the colony received grants in Duxbury and became its first leaders. Captain Myles Standish, the military leader of the colony, lived in “the Nook,” an area now known as Standish Shore. Elder William Brewster was for many years the religious leader of the colony, in which he led services to the colony until it received its own minister in 1637. John Alden was another important settler, his house, now a museum on Alden Street, was the site of many important meetings of the colony’s leaders. The graves of some of Duxbury's first settlers can be found in the Old Burying Ground on Chestnut Street, next to the site of original meetinghouse.
Theory has it that the town was named by Myles Standish after the family estate of his childhood in Lancashire. The ancient Standish family in northern England owned much land and large estates, including the two main family headquarters of Standish Hall and Duxbury Manor, in Lancashire, since before the Middle Ages. Myles Standish's will delineates his inheritance rights to particular lands near and around Standish and Duxbury Manor, stating his descent from both lines of the Standish family. Duxbury was a farming community throughout the 17th and 18th centuries, its quiet history in the 18th century was interrupted only by the Revolutionary War. In the years leading the American Revolutionary War, opposition to the British was quite fierce in Duxbury, with crowds meeting at Captain's Hill to burn effigies of British officials in protest of the Stamp Act. In 1775 General Thomas Gage had to dispatch a company of regulars to the town in response to pleas from the loyalists at Marshfield, Massachusetts.
When the Minuteman alarm sounded on April 19, 1775, with news of the battles at Concord and Lexington. Many volunteers mustered to the regiment of Colonel Theophilus Cotton from Plymouth and Duxbury, headed for Marshfield to engage the British; the colonial officers held a council of war at the home of Lt. Col. Briggs Alden in Duxbury; the most remarkable period in Duxbury's history, the shipbuilding era, began after the American Revolution. Following the Treaty of Paris, the newborn nation was granted fishing rights on the Grand Banks. Several families began to build large fishing schooners. Soon, the schooners built in the 1790s gave way to larger brigs and three-masted ships; as several merchant families began to amass large fleets and other ancillary industries flourished and Duxbury prospered. By the 1840s, Duxbury boasted about 20 shipyards and produced an average of ten large sailing vessels per year; the largest industry in Duxbury was owned by Ezra Weston, who came to be known as "King Caesar" due to his success and influence.
Weston began building small vessels in 1764 and soon became famous for his successful merchant fleet. His son, Ezra Weston II, who inherited his father’s kingly sobriquet, would bring the industry to its height. Lloyd's of London recognized Weston as the owner of the largest fleet in America, this judgment was confirmed by Daniel Webster in a speech in 1841, his empire, a fore-runner of vertical integration, dominated the town. The King Caesar House is now a museum owned by the Duxbury Historical Society; the shipbuilding era in Duxbury ended as as it began. By the 1850s, sailing vessels were made obsolete by other modes of transportation such as steamships and railroads. While other Massachusetts towns grew, Duxbury went into a long economic decline. There was, however, a silver lining. By the 1870s, Duxbury’s rural character and unspoiled bay began to attract summer visitors. Duxbury soon gained a reputation as an idyllic summer resort. With the 1871 completion of the Duxbury & Cohasset Railroad, large numbers of city-folk from Boston could pay $1.50 for a round-trip ticket and enjoy Duxbury’s refreshing environment.
Boarding houses sprang up everywhere. The Miles Standish Hotel on the Nook soon became enormously popular; the Myles Standish monument, completed in 1898, was a result of this tourist influx. This pattern continued in Duxbury well into the 20th century, it was not until the construction of Route 3 that transportation t
The General Douglas MacArthur Causeway is a six-lane causeway which connects Downtown, Miami and South Beach, Miami Beach via Biscayne Bay. The highway is the singular roadway connecting the mainland and beaches to Watson Island and the bay neighborhoods of Palm Island, Hibiscus Island, Star Island; the MacArthur Causeway carries State Road 836 and State Road A1A over the Biscayne Bay via a girder bridge. Interstate 395 ends at Fountain Street, the entrance to Palm Island Park which has a traffic light as well as bus stops. In the late 1910s, with the deteriorating wooden Collins Bridge as the only direct land route between mainland Miami and the barrier islands of Miami Beach, construction on the roadway began in 1917; the roadway, dedicated as the County Causeway, was completed in 1920. Watson Island was reclaimed surrounding the western end of the roadway, completed in 1926. Having undergone several lane and structural expansions following opening of the original two-lane road, the State Road Board and Dade County Commission voted to rename the causeway in honor of World War II General Douglas MacArthur in 1942.
The causeway was accessible from mainland Miami via Biscayne Boulevard and intersecting side streets through the 1990s, when replacement of the western- and easternmost spans and construction of direct highway access to I-395 began. The eastbound lanes of the bridges were completed in 1995, westbound lanes finished in 1997. MacArthur Causeway at Structurae, 2006 Coordinates: 25°46′39.76″N 80°9′51.24″W
Rollins College is a private, coeducational liberal arts college, founded in 1885 and located in Winter Park, Florida along the shores of Lake Virginia. Rollins is a member of the SACS, NASM, ACS, FDE, AAM, AACSB International, Council for Accreditation of Counseling, Related Educational Programs. Rollins has several graduate programs. In 2017 it was ranked #2 Regional Universities, South by U. S. News & World Report. Rollins College has ranked among the most beautiful U. S. college campuses by The Princeton Review for the past decade, ranking #1 in 2015 and #10 most in 2017. Rollins College is Florida's oldest post-secondary institution, has been independent and coeducational from conception. Lucy Cross, founder of the Daytona Institute in 1880, first placed the matter of establishing a college in Florida before the Congregational Churches in 1884. In 1885, the Church put her on the committee in charge of determining the location of the first college in Florida. Cross is known as the "Mother of Rollins College."
Rollins was incorporated and named in the Lyman Park building in nearby Sanford, Florida on 28 April 1885, opening for classes in Winter Park on November 4 of that year. It was established by New England Congregationalists who sought to bring their style of liberal arts education to the frontier St. John's basin. A commemorative plaque listing the names of the founders was dedicated 1 March 1954 and is displayed in historic Downtown Sanford. Early benefactors of Rollins College included Chicago businessman Alonzo Rollins, for whom the college is named. Rollins made substantial donations to enable the founding of the college, was a trustee and its first treasurer. Another early benefactor was Franklin Fairbanks of Vermont. Fairbanks was President of the family business, Fairbanks Scales, was a founder of Winter Park, a donor to Rollins College and a trustee. In March of 1936 during a visit to Central Florida, U. S. President Franklin D. Roosevelt was conferred an honorary degree in literature at the Knowles Chapel on campus.
Other U. S. Presidents who have visited the campus include Calvin Coolidge, Harry Truman, Ronald Reagan, Barack Obama The Rollins 70-acre campus contains a range of amenities, including a theater for performing arts. In 1930, President Holt announced the gifts of Cornelius Pugsley and an anonymous donor for the construction of two women's dormitories. Pugsley and Mayflower Halls were dedicated in 1931. Mayflower Hall received its name from the Pilgrim ship; the Society of Friends at Chalfont St. Giles, gave Rollins a 16-inch section of beam from the ship, which, it had been discovered, had been salvaged to build a haybarn in England; the block of wood was placed above the fireplace in Mayflower Hall. The brothers of Tau Kappa Epsilon fraternity moved into Pugsley Hall in 1997 and have occupied it all but 1 academic year since. In the 1990s, there were rows of shrubbery on either side of the sidewalk leading up to Pugsley Hall, which sits at the end of Park Avenue. Chase Hall was built in 1908, it was first used as a men's dormitory until 1966.
From 1966 until 1999 it was used by the Sigma Phi Epsilon fraternity, followed by the Phi Delta Theta Fraternity. The Lucy Cross Center for Women and Their Allies was established in 2010 at Rollins College in Chase Hall, Room 205; the Center is named after Lucy Cross, the "Mother of Rollins College". Cross Hall is named after Lucy Cross, the "Mother of Rollins College". Hooker Hall was named after, the first President of Dr. Edward Payson Hooker; the building was used as housing for the Theta Kappa Nu fraternity in 1939, the Lambda Chi Alpha fraternity moved in. Hooker was a Chi Psi at Middlebury College and played an integral part in bringing the Chi Psi chapter, Alpha Mu Delta, to Rollins in 1977. Today, Hooker Hall is home to the Chi Psi fraternity, is known to many faculty and students as The Chi Psi Lodge; the Rollins College website states that Pinehurst Cottage and Knowles I, the two structures established when the college founded, suffered a fire in 1909 which destroyed Knowles Hall and scorched Pinehurst's exterior.
Pinehurst a women's residence hall, over the years transformed into a men's dormitory, co-ed dormitory, the home of President Ward, a Library, chemistry lab and classroom. In November 1985, Pinehurst received Winter Park's Historic Preservation Commission's Historic Landmark award; the college renovated to maintain the building's original appearance. Today, Pinehurst is a co-ed residence hall that houses a special interest group which promotes academic fulfillment outside the classroom. Built in 1988 to fulfill the Rollins College waterski and sailing teams' needs; the Alfond Boathouse sits on lake Virginia and has a total of 3 offices used by the waterski and sailing coaches, as well as a classroom, boat bay and observation deck. The exterior was renovated in 2016. Erected in 1938 and dedicated on Armistice Day by college president Hamilton Holt, it consists of a German artillery shell, surrendered by Germany at the end of the First World War, mounted on a pedestal, bearing this inscription: Pause and hang your head in shameThis Engine of Destruction and Death Symbolizes: The Prostitution of the Inventor The Avarice of the Manufacturer The Blood-guilt of the statesman The Savagery of the Soldier The Perverted Patriotism of the Citizen The Debasement of the Human RaceThat it can be Employed as an Instrument of Defense of Liberty and Right in Nowise Invalidates the Truth of the Words Here Graven.—Hamilton Holt
The Great Depression was a severe worldwide economic depression that took place during the 1930s, beginning in the United States. The timing of the Great Depression varied across nations, it was the longest and most widespread depression of the 20th century. In the 21st century, the Great Depression is used as an example of how intensely the world's economy can decline; the Great Depression started in the United States after a major fall in stock prices that began around September 4, 1929, became worldwide news with the stock market crash of October 29, 1929. Between 1929 and 1932, worldwide gross domestic product fell by an estimated 15%. By comparison, worldwide GDP fell by less than 1% from 2008 to 2009 during the Great Recession; some economies started to recover by the mid-1930s. However, in many countries the negative effects of the Great Depression lasted until the beginning of World War II; the Great Depression had devastating effects in countries both poor. Personal income, tax revenue and prices dropped, while international trade plunged by more than 50%.
Unemployment in the U. S. rose to 25% and in some countries rose as high as 33%. Cities around the world were hit hard those dependent on heavy industry. Construction was halted in many countries. Farming communities and rural areas suffered as crop prices fell by about 60%. Facing plummeting demand with few alternative sources of jobs, areas dependent on primary sector industries such as mining and logging suffered the most. Economic historians attribute the start of the Great Depression to the sudden devastating collapse of U. S. stock market prices on October 29, 1929, known as Black Tuesday. However, some dispute this conclusion and see the stock crash as a symptom, rather than a cause, of the Great Depression. After the Wall Street Crash of 1929 optimism persisted for some time. John D. Rockefeller said "These are days. In the 93 years of my life, depressions have gone. Prosperity has always returned and will again." The stock market turned upward in early 1930. This was still 30% below the peak of September 1929.
Together and business spent more in the first half of 1930 than in the corresponding period of the previous year. On the other hand, many of whom had suffered severe losses in the stock market the previous year, cut back their expenditures by 10%. In addition, beginning in the mid-1930s, a severe drought ravaged the agricultural heartland of the U. S. By mid-1930, interest rates had dropped to low levels, but expected deflation and the continuing reluctance of people to borrow meant that consumer spending and investment were depressed. By May 1930, automobile sales had declined to below the levels of 1928. Prices in general began to decline, although wages held steady in 1930. A deflationary spiral started in 1931. Farmers faced a worse outlook. At its peak, the Great Depression saw nearly 10% of all Great Plains farms change hands despite federal assistance; the decline in the U. S. economy was the factor. Frantic attempts to shore up the economies of individual nations through protectionist policies, such as the 1930 U.
S. Smoot–Hawley Tariff Act and retaliatory tariffs in other countries, exacerbated the collapse in global trade. By 1933, the economic decline had pushed world trade to one-third of its level just four years earlier. Change in economic indicators 1929–32 The two classical competing theories of the Great Depression are the Keynesian and the monetarist explanation. There are various heterodox theories that downplay or reject the explanations of the Keynesians and monetarists; the consensus among demand-driven theories is that a large-scale loss of confidence led to a sudden reduction in consumption and investment spending. Once panic and deflation set in, many people believed they could avoid further losses by keeping clear of the markets. Holding money became profitable as prices dropped lower and a given amount of money bought more goods, exacerbating the drop in demand. Monetarists believe that the Great Depression started as an ordinary recession, but the shrinking of the money supply exacerbated the economic situation, causing a recession to descend into the Great Depression.
Economists and economic historians are evenly split as to whether the traditional monetary explanation that monetary forces were the primary cause of the Great Depression is right, or the traditional Keynesian explanation that a fall in autonomous spending investment, is the primary explanation for the onset of the Great Depression. Today the controversy is of lesser importance since there is mainstream support for the debt deflation theory and the expectations hypothesis that building on the monetary explanation of Milton Friedman and Anna Schwartz add non-monetary explanations. There is consensus that the Federal Reserve System should have cut short the process of monetary deflation and banking collapse. If they had done this, the economic downturn would have been much shorter. British economist John Maynard Keynes argued in The General Theory of Employment and Money that lower aggregate expenditures in the economy contributed to a massive decline in income and to employment, well below the average.
In such a situation, the economy reached equilibrium at low levels of economic activity and high unemployment. Keynes' basic idea was simple
Springdale is a borough in Allegheny County, Pennsylvania, 18 miles northeast of Pittsburgh along the Allegheny River. The population was 3,405 at the 2010 census. Springdale is located at 40°32′29″N 79°46′56″W. According to the United States Census Bureau, the borough has a total area of 1.1 square miles, of which 0.9 square miles is land and 0.2 square miles, or 13.76%, is water. Riddle Run joins the Allegheny River at Springdale. Springdale has two land borders, including Springdale Township to the north and Cheswick to the west. Adjacent across the Allegheny River to the east and south is Plum As of the census of 2000, there were 3,828 people, 1,685 households, 1,034 families residing in the borough; the population density was 4,104.2 people per square mile. There were 1,802 housing units at an average density of 1,932.0 per square mile. The racial makeup of the borough was 99.03% White, 0.29% African American, 0.08% Native American, 0.13% Asian, 0.18% from other races, 0.29% from two or more races.
Hispanic or Latino of any race were 0.21% of the population. There were 1,685 households, out of which 25.8% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 46.2% were married couples living together, 11.9% had a female householder with no husband present, 38.6% were non-families. 34.4% of all households were made up of individuals, 16.5% had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.26 and the average family size was 2.93. In the borough the population was spread out, with 21.9% under the age of 18, 6.0% from 18 to 24, 29.5% from 25 to 44, 22.2% from 45 to 64, 20.5% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 41 years. For every 100 females, there were 89.0 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 86.7 males. The median income for a household in the borough was $35,440, the median income for a family was $43,476. Males had a median income of $36,711 versus $25,920 for females; the per capita income for the borough was $19,798. About 3.5% of families and 7.8% of the population were below the poverty line, including 10.2% of those under age 18 and 8.8% of those age 65 or over.
The Springdale Free Public Library serves the borough. The Rachel Carson Homestead is located in Springdale; the borough is within the Allegheny Valley School District, is served by Springdale High School. Rachel Carson, a marine biologist who authored Silent Spring List of crossings of the Allegheny River Logans Ferry Mine Tunnel Community profile Springdale Borough Website
U.S. Route 27 in Florida
U. S. Route 27 in Florida is a north–south United States Highway, it runs 481 miles from the South Florida Metropolitan Area northwest to the Tallahassee Metropolitan Statistical Area. Throughout the state, US 27 has been designated the Claude Pepper Memorial Highway by the Florida Legislature, it was named after long-time Florida statesman Claude Pepper, who served in both the U. S. Senate and House of Representatives. For most of its length in the state, US 27 is a divided highway. Between Miami and Leesburg, US 27 follows SR 25, between Leesburg and Williston, it follows SR 500, between Williston and High Springs, it follows SR 45, between High Springs and Downtown Tallahassee, it follows SR 20, within Downtown Tallahassee it follows SR 61, between Tallahassee and the Georgia border, it follows State Road 63. Concurrencies include State Road 80, between South Bay and Clewiston, SR 78 from Moore Haven to Citrus Center, US 98 between Sebring and West Frostproof, US 441 between Leesburg and Ocala, which includes a concurrency with US 301 between Belleview and Ocala.
Others include US 41 between Williston and High Springs, SR 20 between High Springs and Tallahassee, US 129 in Branford, US 19 between Perry and Capps, SR 61 in Tallahassee. US 27 begins as North 36th Street in Midtown Miami, heading west from US 1 for 4.4 miles before turning northwest to pass under the western terminus of the Airport Expressway. It proceeds northwest for five miles as South Okeechobee Road, parallel to the Miami Canal, forming the southwest boundary of the city of Hialeah. After an interchange with the Palmetto Expressway, it continues northwest as North Okeechobee Road for five miles before an interchange with the Homestead Extension of the Florida Turnpike. After another four miles, the highway curves to the north and, after passing the northern terminus of Krome Avenue, crosses into Broward County. In Broward County, the highway passes protected wetlands and heavy duty power lines on the west and the outer reaches of the suburban communities of Pembroke Pines and Weston on the east where it curves to the northwest.
It passes by West Broward High School in Pembroke Pines, in which many school buses coming from Sheridan Street use US 27 to get to Johnson Street to where the high school is. US 27 reaches an interchange with I-75 and Alligator Alley, an elaborate partial cloverleaf with flyovers from US 27, loop ramps from I-75 and no re-entry to either road. From here, the road is surrounded by Everglades-related wilderness and recreational areas before curving to the north toward South Bay, where it intersects State Road 80 and overlaps the road before curving west along the shores of Lake Okeechobee; the highway skirts the southwestern shore of Lake Okeechobee and heads west through Lake Harbor and Clewiston, before making a sharp turn to the north towards Moore Haven, where it crosses the Mamie Langdale Memorial Bridge over the Caloosahatchee Canal and makes another sharp turn to the west. The road intersects with State Road 78, which it overlaps until reaching Citrus Center proceeds in a northerly direction toward the central Florida communities such as Lake Placid, where it intersects State Road 70.
The southern terminus of the concurrency with U. S. Route 98 is the eastern terminus of State Road 66. From here, the hidden routes are State Road 25 and State Road 700. Shortly after this, US 27-98 runs through a commercial strip area before curving to the west at a wye intersection along the south shore of Lake Jackson in Sebring, where State Road 17 begins; the road heads back to the northwest as it runs along and away from the edge of the lake. North of here, the road runs west of Lake Sebring, but in Avon Park it runs much closer to the shores of Lake Glenada, where it passes through South Florida Community College territory. From here it passes by Lake Lelia, Lake Anoka, just east of Avon Park Executive Airport it intersects State Road 64 and the northern terminus of a segment of State Road 17. SR 64 continues east along part of SR 17 as a bi-county extension northeast into Polk County which runs through Lake Wales Ridge State Forest and terminates at the Avon Park Air Force Range. North of here, US 27 carries hidden state routes into Polk County until it reaches Sunray Deli Estates, where SR 17 breaks away again, runs parallel to US 27 until it reaches Haines City.
Meanwhile, after making a reverse curve over a bridge above a CSX Railroad Line, used by Amtrak's Silver Star and Silver Meteor lines, US 98 breaks away in West Frostproof, taking SR 700 with it. In the opposite direction of this intersection is a continuation of County Road 630. After passing by Warner University, Crooked Lake Park and County Road 640, US 27 becomes less rural as it approaches an un-numbered partial cloverleaf interchange with State Road 60 in Lake Wales. North of this point, US 27 becomes a six-lane highway, remains that way until reaching State Road 540 in Waverly, where the road narrows down to four lanes again. However, the widening of US 27 to a six-lane highway continues in Polk County between here and SR 542 in Dundee. North of here, US 27 runs through Lake Hamilton, curves around the eastern shores of the lake for which the community was named. After passing by a pair of gated communities and crossing over a bridge between Middle Lake Hamilton, the named larger Little Lake Hamilton, it curves north and intersects SR 544.
Taking a turn to the northeast after passing by Lake Henry, US 27 encounters another un-numbered interchange with U. S. Route 17/92 in Haines City, passes over another CSX Railroad Line, used by Amtrak's Silver Star and Silver M
Historic house museum
A historic house museum is a house, transformed into a museum. Historic furnishings may be displayed in a way that reflects their original placement and usage in a home. Historic house museums are held to a variety of standards, including those of the International Council of Museums; the International Council of Museums defines a museum as: "A museum as a non profit-making, permanent institution in the service of society and of its development, open to the public, which acquires, researches and exhibits, for purpose of study and enjoyment, the tangible and intangible evidence of people and their environment." Houses are transformed into museums for a number of different reasons. For example, the homes of famous writers are turned into writer's home museums to support literary tourism. Known as a ‘memory museum’, a term used to suggest that historic house museum contains a collection of the traces of memory of the people who once lived there, it is made up of the inhabitants’ belongings and objects – this approach is concerned with authenticity.
Some museums are organised around the social role the house had. Other historic house museums may be or reconstructed in order to tell the story of a particular area, social-class or historical period; the ‘narrative’ of the people who lived there guides this approach, dictates the manner in which it is completed. In each kind of museum visitors learn about the previous inhabitants through an explanation and exploration of Social History; the idea of a historic house museum derives from a branch of history called Social History, based on people and their way of living. It became popular in the mid-twentieth century among scholars who were interested in the history of people, as opposed to political and economical issues. Social history remains an influential branch of history. Philip J. Ethington is a Professor of history and political science, further adds to social history and its relationship to locations by saying – "All human action takes and makes place; the past is the set of places made by human action.
History is a map of these places." Following this historical movement, the concept of ‘Open Air Museums’ became prominent. These particular types of museums had interpreters in costume re-enact the lives of communities in earlier eras, which would be performed to modern audiences, they occupied large wooden architecture buildings or outdoor sites and landscapes, that were true to the era adding to authenticity. Collective memory is sometimes used in the resurrection of historic house museums; the notion of Collective Memory originated from philosopher and sociologist Maurice Halbwachs, in ‘La memoire collective’. This extended thesis examines the role of people and place, how collective memory is not only associated with the individual but is a shared experience, it focused on the way individual memory is influenced by social structures, as a way of continuing socialisation by producing memory as collective experience. "Each aspect, each detail, of this place has a meaning intelligent only to members of the group, for each portion of its space corresponds to various and different aspects of the structure and life of their society, at least of what is stable in it."An example of a site that utilizes collective memory is the Hiroshima Peace Memorial Park in Japan.
It was restored and is based on the dialectics of memory, however it has the inclusion of joyous festivals to mask the turmoil. The ‘Hiroshima Traces’ text takes a look the importance of collective memory and how it is embedded in culture and place. Thus, collective memory does not only reside in a house or building, but it resonates in outdoor space – when a monumental event has occurred, such as war. "The taming of memory that can be observed in the city’s redevelopment projects reveals local mediations and manifestations of transnational as well as national structural forces."Problematic creation of collective memory occurs within historic house museums when the narrative of non-family members is dismissed, ignored, or rejected. Within the Southern United States, Plantation Museums constitute a significant portion of the museum community and contribute to the racialized collective memory of the United States; because museums are responsible for “the building of identity, cultural memory and community,” neglecting to include the narrative of ALL people who lived there is dangerous.
While some Plantation museum narratives have changed following an outcry from the public and the academy, “plantation museums reflect and contribute to racialized ways of understanding and organizing the world,” by eliminating and limiting the narrative of the enslaved inhabitants. A degree of authenticity is to be considered in the restoration and creation of a historic house museum; the space must be authentic in terms of replicating and representing the way it once stood in its original form and appear to be untouched and left in time. There are three steps when declaring if a space is authentic: Proof of identity must be presented and certified by a credible individual The attributes of the object or person must be compared to the existing knowledge about it Documentation and credentials must be used to support it and thus declare if it is authentic. There are a number of Organizations around the world that dedicate themselves to the preservation, resurrection or promotion of historic house museums.
They include: Historic Houses Trust of New South Wales Historic Houses Association The Historic House Trust