Massachusetts's 1st congressional district
Massachusettss 1st congressional district is located in western and central Massachusetts. The largest Massachusetts district in area, it covers about one-third of the state and is more rural than the rest and it has the states highest point, Mount Greylock. The district includes the cities of Springfield, West Springfield, Holyoke, the shape of the district underwent some changes effective from the elections of 2012, after Massachusetts congressional redistricting to reflect the 2010 census. The entire Springfield area is included in the new 1st district, richard Neal, a Democrat from Springfield, represents the district. In Hampshire County, Cummington, Goshen, Huntington, Plainfield, South Hadley, Westhampton, Williamsburg, in Worcester County, Charlton, East Brookfield, Southbridge and Warren. When the District was created it covered part of eastern Massachusetts, franklin County, Towns of Ashﬂeld, Charlemont, Conway, Greenﬁeld, Heath, Monroe and Shelburne. Hampshire County, Towns of Chesterfield, Goshen, Middleﬁeld, Plainﬁeld, hampden County, City of Holyoke and towns of Blandford, Granville, Russell, Southwick and Westﬁeld.
Hamdpen County, Cities of Holyoke and Westfield, towns of Blandford, Granville, Russell and Tolland. Hampshire County, Towns of Belchertown, Cummington, Huntington, Pelham, Southampton, Williamsburg, Worcester County, Towns of Athol, Phillipston and Templeton. 1963, Berkshire County, Cities of North Adams and Pittsfield, hampden County, Cities of Holyoke and Westfield. Towns of Blandford, Granville, Russell, Towns of Amherst, Cummington, Goshen, Hatfield, Middlefield, Plainfield, Westhampton and Worthington. Worcester County, Towns of Athol, Phillipston, Royalston,1972, Berkshire County, All cities and towns. Hampden County, Cities of Holyoke and Westfield, Towns of Agawam, Chester, Montgomery, Southwick and West Springfield. Towns of Amherst, Cummington, Goshen, Hatfield, Middlefield, Plainfleld, Westhampton and Worthington. Worcester County, Towns of Athol, Hardwick, New Braintree, Petersham,1973, Berkshire County, All cities and towns. Franklin County, All towns except Orange, hampden County, Cities of Holyoke and Westfleld.
Towns of Agawam, Chester, Montgomery, Southwick, Tolland, in Middlesex County, Pepperell, Townsend. Massachusettss congressional districts List of United States congressional districts Martis, Kenneth C, the Historical Atlas of Political Parties in the United States Congress
Brewster /ˈbruːstər/ is a town in Barnstable County, United States, Barnstable County being coextensive with Cape Cod. The population of Brewster was 9,820 at the 2010 census, Brewster is twinned with the town of Budleigh Salterton in the United Kingdom. Brewster was first settled in 1656 as a parish of the town of Harwich. Brewster was named in honor of Elder William Brewster, the first religious leader of the Pilgrims at Plymouth Colony, the towns history grew around Stony Brook, where the first water-powered grist and woolen mill in the country was founded in the late 17th century. There were many rich sea captains in the town, who many of the mansions and stately homes which now constitute the towns inns. According to the United States Census Bureau, the town has an area of 25.4 square miles, of which 22.9 square miles is land and 2.5 square miles. Brewster is bordered on the north by Cape Cod Bay, on the west by Dennis, on the south by Harwich, the town is usually separated into two villages and East Brewster, both of which comprise the Brewster census-designated place.
Brewster is 31 miles south of Provincetown,14 miles east of Barnstable,31 miles east of the Sagamore Bridge, the town is bordered by extensive tidal sand flats to the north, along the shores of Cape Cod Bay. The town is home to the Roland C, Nickerson State Forest Park, the largest state forest on Cape Cod. The town has large ponds, especially along the Harwich town line. There are several brooks throughout the town, all of lead to Cape Cod Bay. The bay is home to several boat landings and beaches in the town, Brewster is home to the largest pond on Cape Cod, Long Pond. The Brewster-Harwich town line goes directly through the middle of the pond, brewsters second largest pond is Cliff Pond, located in Nickerson State Park. The five other numbered highways in Brewster are all surface roads, Massachusetts Route 6A passes through the town from east to west as Main Street through the town center. Routes 124 and 137 both have a terminus along Route 6A in town, short portions of Routes 28 and 39 pass through the southeastern corner of town.
Brewster has one light at the intersection of Harwich Road. There is no rail or air service in the town, the Cape Cod Rail Trail, as well as several other bicycle trails, pass through the town. As of the census of 2000, there were 10,094 people,4,124 households, the population density was 439.2 people per square mile
Democratic Party (United States)
The Democratic Party is one of the two major contemporary political parties in the United States, along with the Republican Party. The Democrats dominant worldview was once socially conservative and fiscally classical liberalism, especially in the rural South, since Franklin D. Roosevelt and his New Deal coalition in the 1930s, the Democratic Party has promoted a social-liberal platform, supporting social justice. Today, the House Democratic caucus is composed mostly of progressives and centrists, the partys philosophy of modern liberalism advocates social and economic equality, along with the welfare state. It seeks to provide government intervention and regulation in the economy, the party has united with smaller left-wing regional parties throughout the country, such as the Farmer–Labor Party in Minnesota and the Nonpartisan League in North Dakota. Well into the 20th century, the party had conservative pro-business, the New Deal Coalition of 1932–1964 attracted strong support from voters of recent European extraction—many of whom were Catholics based in the cities.
After Franklin D. Roosevelts New Deal of the 1930s, the pro-business wing withered outside the South, after the racial turmoil of the 1960s, most southern whites and many northern Catholics moved into the Republican Party at the presidential level. The once-powerful labor union element became smaller and less supportive after the 1970s, white Evangelicals and Southerners became heavily Republican at the state and local level in the 1990s. However, African Americans became a major Democratic element after 1964, after 2000, Hispanic and Latino Americans, Asian Americans, the LGBT community, single women and professional women moved towards the party as well. The Northeast and the West Coast became Democratic strongholds by 1990 after the Republicans stopped appealing to socially liberal voters there, the Democratic Party has retained a membership lead over its major rival the Republican Party. The most recent was the 44th president Barack Obama, who held the office from 2009 to 2017, in the 115th Congress, following the 2016 elections, Democrats are the opposition party, holding a minority of seats in both the House of Representatives and the Senate.
The party holds a minority of governorships, and state legislatures, though they do control the mayoralty of cities such as New York City, Los Angeles, Chicago and Washington, D. C. The Democratic Party traces its origins to the inspiration of the Democratic-Republican Party, founded by Thomas Jefferson, James Madison and that party inspired the Whigs and modern Republicans. Organizationally, the modern Democratic Party truly arose in the 1830s, since the nomination of William Jennings Bryan in 1896, the party has generally positioned itself to the left of the Republican Party on economic issues. They have been liberal on civil rights issues since 1948. On foreign policy both parties changed position several times and that party, the Democratic-Republican Party, came to power in the election of 1800. After the War of 1812 the Federalists virtually disappeared and the national political party left was the Democratic-Republicans. The Democratic-Republican party still had its own factions, however.
As Norton explains the transformation in 1828, Jacksonians believed the peoples will had finally prevailed, through a lavishly financed coalition of state parties, political leaders, and newspaper editors, a popular movement had elected the president
They switched parties because they rejected the financial corruption associated with Republican candidate James G. Blaine. In a close election, the Mugwumps supposedly made the difference in New York state, after the election, mugwump survived for more than a decade as an epithet for a party bolter in American politics. Many Mugwumps became Democrats or remained independents, most continued to support reform well into the 20th century, during the Third Party System, party loyalty was in high regard and independents were rare. Their idealism and reform sensibilities led them to oppose the political corruption in the politics of the Gilded Age, Political patronage, known as the spoils system, was the issue that angered many reform-minded Republicans, leading them to reject Blaines candidacy. In the spoils system, the candidate would dole out government positions to those who had supported his political party prior to the election. Political affiliation continued to be the basis for appointment to many positions, in the early 1880s, the issue of political patronage split the Republican Party down the middle for several consecutive sessions of Congress.
The party was divided into two warring factions, each with creative names, the side that held the upper hand in numbers and popular support were the Half-Breeds, led by Senator James Blaine of Maine. Ironically, Blaine was from the wing of his own party. This division among Republicans may have contributed to the victory in 1884 of Grover Cleveland, several historians of the 1960s and 1970s portrayed the Mugwumps as members of an insecure elite, one that felt threatened by changes in American society. These historians often focused on the background and status of their subjects. Mugwumps tended to come from old Protestant families of New York and New England and they belonged to or identified with the emerging business and professional elite, and were often members of the most exclusive clubs. Yet they felt threatened by the rise of machine politics, one aspect of which was the spoils system and they excelled as authors and essayists, yet their writings indicated their social position and class loyalties.
In politics, they tended to be ineffectual and unsuccessful, unable, in a more recent work, historian David Tucker attempts to rehabilitate the Mugwumps. To Tucker, their eloquent writings speak for themselves, and are testament to a high minded civic morality, dictionaries report that mugguomp is an Algonquian word meaning person of importance or war leader. Charles Anderson Dana, the newspaperman and editor of the now-defunct New York Sun, is said to have given the Mugwumps their political moniker. Dana made the term plural and derided them as amateurs and public moralists, during the 1884 campaign, they were often portrayed as fence-sitters, with part of their body on the side of the Democrats and the other on the side of the Republicans. Angry Republicans like Roscoe Conkling sometimes hinted they were homosexual, calling them man milliners, the epithet goody-goody from the 1890s goo-goo, a corruption of good government, was used in a similar derogatory manner. Whereas mugwump has become an obscure and almost forgotten political moniker, goo-goo was revived, especially in Chicago, Civil Service Reform Blodgett, Geoffrey T
Thomas Woodrow Wilson was an American politician and academic who served as the 28th President of the United States from 1913 to 1921. Born in Staunton, Virginia, he spent his years in Augusta and Columbia. In 1910, he was the New Jersey Democratic Partys gubernatorial candidate and was elected the 34th Governor of New Jersey, while in office, Wilson reintroduced the spoken State of the Union, which had been out of use since 1801. Leading the Congress that was now in Democratic hands, he oversaw the passage of progressive legislative policies unparalleled until the New Deal in 1933. The Federal Reserve Act, Federal Trade Commission Act, the Clayton Antitrust Act, through passage of the Adamson Act that imposed an 8-hour workday for railroads, he averted a railroad strike and an ensuing economic crisis. Upon the outbreak of World War I in 1914, Wilson maintained a policy of neutrality, Wilson faced former New York Governor Charles Evans Hughes in the presidential election of 1916. By a narrow margin, he became the first Democrat since Andrew Jackson elected to two consecutive terms, Wilsons second term was dominated by American entry into World War I.
In April 1917, when Germany had resumed unrestricted submarine warfare and sent the Zimmermann Telegram, the United States conducted military operations alongside the Allies, although without a formal alliance. During the war, Wilson focused on diplomacy and financial considerations, leaving military strategy to the generals, loaning billions of dollars to Britain and other Allies, the United States aided their finance of the war effort. On the home front, he raised taxes, borrowing billions of dollars through the publics purchase of Liberty Bonds. In his 1915 State of the Union Address, Wilson asked Congress for what became the Espionage Act of 1917, the crackdown was intensified by his Attorney General A. Mitchell Palmer to include expulsion of non-citizen radicals during the First Red Scare of 1919–1920. Wilson staffed his government with Southern Democrats who implemented racial segregation at the Treasury, Navy and he gave department heads greater autonomy in their management. Following his return from Europe, Wilson embarked on a tour in 1919 to campaign for the treaty.
The treaty was met with concern by Senate Republicans, and Wilson rejected a compromise effort led by Henry Cabot Lodge. Due to his stroke, Wilson secluded himself in the White House, disability having diminished his power, forming a strategy for re-election, Wilson deadlocked the 1920 Democratic National Convention, but his bid for a third-term nomination was overlooked. Wilson was a devoted Presbyterian and Georgist, and he infused his views of morality into his domestic and he appointed several well known radically progressive single taxers to prominent positions in his administration. His ideology of internationalism is now referred to as Wilsonian, an activist foreign policy calling on the nation to promote global democracy and he was the third of four children of Joseph Ruggles Wilson and Jessie Janet Woodrow. Wilsons paternal grandparents immigrated to the United States from Strabane, County Tyrone and his mother was born in Carlisle, the daughter of Rev. Dr. Thomas Woodrow from Paisley and Marion Williamson from Glasgow
Montenegro is a sovereign state in Southeastern Europe. Its capital and largest city is Podgorica, while Cetinje is designated as the Old Royal Capital. In the 9th century, three Slavic principalities were in the territory of Montenegro, roughly corresponding to the half, the west, and Rascia. In 1042, archon Stefan Vojislav led a revolt that resulted in the independence of Duklja, Duklja reached its zenith under Vojislavs son and his grandson Bodin. By the 13th century, Zeta had replaced Duklja when referring to the realm. In the late 14th century, southern Montenegro came under the rule of the Balšić noble family, the Crnojević noble family, large portions fell under the control of the Ottoman Empire from 1496 to 1878. Parts were controlled by Venice and the First French Empire and Austria-Hungary, from 1515 until 1851, the prince-bishops of Cetinje were the rulers. The House of Petrović-Njegoš ruled the country from 1697 to 1918, from 1918, it was a part of Kingdom of Yugoslavia, which was succeeded by SFR Yugoslavia in 1945, FR Yugoslavia in 1992, and subsequently by the state union of Serbia and Montenegro in 2003.
On the basis of a referendum held on 21 May 2006. Montenegro is a candidate negotiating to join the European Union, on 2 December 2015, Montenegro received an official invitation to join NATO, whereby it would be the 29th member country. This invitation was meant to start accession talks. The countrys name in most Western European languages reflects an adaptation of the Venetian Montenegro, many other languages, particularly nearby ones, use their own direct translation of the term black mountain. Examples are the Albanian name for the country, Mali i Zi, the Greek name Μαυροβούνιο, the Chinese name 黑山, all Slavic languages use slight variations on the Montenegrin name Crna Gora, examples include the Czech Černá Hora and the Polish Czarnogóra. Chechen and Ingush people call the country Ӏаьржаламанчоь, the name Crna Gora came to denote the majority of contemporary Montenegro only in the 15th century. The aforementioned region became known as Old Montenegro by the 19th century to distinguish it from the acquired territory of Brda.
Its borders have changed little since then, losing Metohija and gaining the Bay of Kotor, the ISO Alpha-2 code for Montenegro is ME and the Alpha-3 Code is MNE. By 1000 BC, a common Illyrian language and culture had spread across much of the Balkans, interaction amongst groups was not always friendly – hill forts were the most common form of settlement – but distinctive Illyrian art forms such as amber and bronze jewellery evolved. In time, the Illyrians established a federation of tribes centred in what is now Macedonia
He served as the fourth Speaker of the United States House of Representatives. He was appointed to the Massachusetts Supreme Judicial Court in 1802, born in West Hartford, Sedgwick was the son of Benjaman Sedgwick. His paternal immigrant ancestor Major General Robert Sedgwick arrived in 1636 in the Massachusetts Bay Colony, Sedgwick attended Yale College, where he studied theology and law. He did not graduate, but went on to law under the attorney Mark Hopkins of Great Barrington Sedgwick was admitted to the bar in 1766 and commenced practice in Great Barrington. During the American Revolutionary War, he served in the Continental Army as a major, and took part in the expedition to Canada and the Battle of White Plains in 1776. As a relatively young lawyer and Tapping Reeve pleaded the case of Brom and Bett vs. Ashley, Bett was a black slave who had fled from her master, Colonel John Ashley of Sheffield, because of cruel treatment by his wife. Brom joined her in suing for freedom from the Ashleys, the attorneys challenged their enslavement under the new state constitution of 1780, which held that all men are born free and equal.
The jury agreed and ruled that Bett and Brom were free, the decision was upheld on appeal by the state Supreme Court. Bett marked her freedom by taking the name of Elizabeth Freeman, and she chose to work for wages at the Sedgwick household and she worked there for much of the rest of her life, buying a separate house for her and her daughter after the Sedgwick children were grown. After Freemans death, the Sedgwicks buried her at Stockbridge Cemetery in the Sedgwick Pie, the family marked Freemans grave with an inscribed monument, and it is beside that of their fourth child, writer Catharine Maria. A Federalist, Sedgwick began his career in 1780 as a delegate to the Continental Congress. He was elected as representative to the house, and as state senator. He was a member of the American Academy of Arts. In 1789 Sedgwick was elected as Representative to Congress from Massachusetts first congressional district and that year he was elected to the United States Senate, and served until 1799. In 1799 he was re-elected as a Representative, this time from the fourth district, in 1802, Sedgwick was appointed a justice of the Supreme Judicial Court of Massachusetts.
He held this position until his death, around 1767, Sedgwick married Elizabeth Eliza Mason, the daughter of a deacon from Franklin, Connecticut. In 1771, Sedgwick contracted smallpox which he passed on to his wife who was pregnant with the couples first child. She died of the disease on April 12,1771 while eight months pregnant, Sedgwick married a second time on April 17,1774 to Pamela Dwight of the New England Dwight family
Josiah Quincy III
Josiah Quincy III was a U. S. educator and political figure. He was a member of the U. S. House of Representatives, Mayor of Boston, the historic Quincy Market in downtown Boston is named in his honor. Quincy, the son of Josiah Quincy II and Abigail Phillips, was born in Boston, on part of Washington Street that was known as Marlborough Street. His father had traveled to England in 1774, partly for his health, Josiah Quincy II died off the coast of Gloucester on April 26,1775. His son, young Josiah, was not yet three years old and he entered Phillips Academy, when it opened in 1778, and graduated from Harvard in 1790. After his graduation from Harvard he studied law for three years under the tutorship of William Tudor, Quincy was admitted to the bar in 1793, but was never a prominent advocate. In 1797 Quincy married Eliza Susan Morton of New York, younger sister of Jacob Morton and they had seven children, Eliza Susan Quincy, Josiah Quincy, Jr. Abigail Phillips Quincy, Maria Sophia Quincy, Margaret Morton Quincy, Edmund Quincy, and Anna Cabot Lowell Quincy.
In 1798 Quincy was appointed Boston Town Orator by the Board of Selectmen and he was elected a Fellow of the American Academy of Arts and Sciences in 1803. From 1805 to 1813, he was a member of the United States House of Representatives where he was one of the small Federalist minority. He attempted to secure the exemption of fishing vessels from the Embargo Act, urged the strengthening of the United States Navy and this was probably the first assertion of the right of secession on the floor of Congress. Quincy left Congress because he saw that the Federalist opposition was useless, in 1812, Quincy was a founding member of the American Antiquarian Society. After leaving Congress, Quincy was a member of the Massachusetts Senate until 1820, in 1821–22 he was a member and speaker of the Massachusetts House of Representatives. Quincy resigned from the legislature to become judge of the court of Boston. On April 8,1822 Quincy was a candidate for Mayor in Bostons first election under a city charter, after the first ballot the votes of this first election were split between Quincy and Harrison Gray Otis.
Because neither had a majority of the electorate neither was elected, after the first vote resulted in neither man receiving a majority of the votes they both withdrew their candidacies and John Phillips was elected Bostons first mayor. In 1823 Quincy was elected as the mayor of Boston. During his terms as mayor Quincy Market was built, the fire and police departments were reorganized, from 1829 to 1845, he was President of Harvard University, of which he had been an overseer since 1810, when the board was reorganized. He has been called the great organizer of the university, during his term Dane Hall was dedicated, Gore Hall was built, and the Astronomical Observatory was equipped
Thomson J. Skinner
Thomson Joseph Skinner was an American politician from Williamstown, Massachusetts. Thomson J. Skinner was born in Colchester, Connecticut on May 24,1752, the son of Reverend Thomas Skinner and Mary Thomson, the second wife of Thomas Skinner. Skinner was educated in Colchester, his father died when he was 10 years old, at age 21 Skinner moved to Williamstown, Massachusetts with his brother, where they went into the construction business as partners in a firm they named T. J. and B. The Skinner brothers were involved in other ventures, including a successful tavern. Thomson Skinner was a member of the militia, including service during, in the summer of 1776 he carried messages between units in Berkshire County and General Horatio Gates, commander of the Continental Armys Northern Department in upstate New York. He served as adjutant of Berkshire Countys 2nd Regiment, adjutant of the Berkshire County 3rd Regiment, Skinner remained in the militia after the war, and rose to the rank of major general.
During the Revolution he served as a member of the court-martial which acquitted Paul Reveres conduct during the unsuccessful Penobscot Expedition and he served in the Massachusetts House of Representatives in 1781,1785,1789, and 1800. He was a member of the Massachusetts State Senate from 1786 to 1788,1790 to 1797, from 1788 to 1807 he was a Judge of the Court of Common Pleas for Berkshire County, and he was chief judge from 1795 to 1807. In 1788 he was a delegate to the convention that ratified the United States Constitution. From 1791 to 1792 he served as Berkshire County Sheriff, in 1792 Skinner, recognized as a Federalist, was a presidential elector, and supported the reelection of George Washington and John Adams. Skinner was a trustee of Williams College, served on the board of trustees from 1793 to 1809. Skinner represented Massachusettss 1st congressional district in the U. S. House for part of one term and all of another, January 1797 to March 1799. He was again elected to the U. S.
House in 1802, this time from the renumbered 12th District, and served from March 1803 until resigning in August 1804. Skinner, by now identified with the Jeffersonian or Democratic-Republican Party, lost to John Quincy Adams, from 1804 to 1807 Skinner served as U. S. From 1806 to 1807 he was Treasurer and Receiver-General of Massachusetts, Skinner died in Boston on January 20,1809. After Skinners death, an 1809 audit revealed that his accounts as state treasurer were in arrears for $60,000, while his estate was valued at only $20,000. Several of the individuals who had posted surety bonds to guarantee his performance as treasurer paid portions of the remaining $40,000 obligation in order to satisfy Skinners debt, in 1773 Skinner married Ann Foote. Their children included Thomson Joseph, Thomas, Eliza and his wife had known each other as children because Skinners mother had married Ann Footes father following the deaths of Skinners father and Footes mother
Massachusetts House of Representatives
The Massachusetts House of Representatives is the lower house of the Massachusetts General Court, the state legislature of the Commonwealth of Massachusetts. It is composed of 160 members elected from 12 counties each divided into electoral districts across the Commonwealth. The House of Representatives convenes at the Massachusetts State House in Boston, Representatives used to be apportioned by town. For the first 150 persons, one representative was granted, the largest membership of the House was 749 in 1812, the largest House without Maine was 635 in 1837. The original distribution was changed to the current regional system in the 20th century. Until 1978, there were 240 members of the house, a number in multi-member districts, each Representative represents about 40,000 residents. Their districts are named for the counties they are in and tend to stay within one county, Representatives serve two-year terms which are not limited. Within the Houses debating chamber hangs the Sacred Cod of Massachusetts, the 5-foot-long pine carving of the cod was offered by Representative John Rowe in 1784 in commemoration of the states maritime economy and history.
Two previous carvings of the cod existed during the colonial era, the first destroyed in a fire in 1747. Since 1784, the current Sacred Cod has been present at nearly every House session, in 1933, members of the Harvard Lampoon stole the cod carving as part of a prank. The theft sparked a statewide search by the Boston and Massachusetts State Police. Following outrage from Boston newspapers and the General Court itself, the cod was anonymously handed back, the Democrats hold a supermajority in the House. The Speaker of the House presides over the House of Representatives, the Speaker is elected by the majority party caucus followed by confirmation of the full House through the passage of a House Resolution. As well as presiding over the body, the Speaker is the chief leader, other House leaders, such as the majority and minority leaders, are elected by their respective party caucuses relative to their partys strength in the House. The current Speaker of the House is Robert DeLeo of the 19th Suffolk District, the Majority Leader is Ronald Mariano of the 3rd Norfolk District.
The Republican Minority Leader is Bradley Jones, Jr. of the 20th Middlesex District, the most recent election of members was held on November 8,2016. Public Officers of the Commonwealth of Massachusetts, 1947-1948,1951,1957,1961,1967,1971,1977,1981,1987,1993,1997,2001,2003,2005,2007 Massachusetts - State Legislative District Maps
Boston is the capital and most populous city of the Commonwealth of Massachusetts in the United States. Boston is the seat of Suffolk County, although the county government was disbanded on July 1,1999. The city proper covers 48 square miles with a population of 667,137 in 2015, making it the largest city in New England. Alternately, as a Combined Statistical Area, this wider commuting region is home to some 8.1 million people, One of the oldest cities in the United States, Boston was founded on the Shawmut Peninsula in 1630 by Puritan settlers from England. It was the scene of several key events of the American Revolution, such as the Boston Massacre, the Boston Tea Party, the Battle of Bunker Hill, and the Siege of Boston. Upon U. S. independence from Great Britain, it continued to be an important port and manufacturing hub as well as a center for education, through land reclamation and municipal annexation, Boston has expanded beyond the original peninsula. Its rich history attracts many tourists, with Faneuil Hall alone drawing over 20 million visitors per year, Bostons many firsts include the United States first public school, Boston Latin School, first subway system, the Tremont Street Subway, and first public park, Boston Common.
Bostons economic base includes finance and business services, information technology, the city has one of the highest costs of living in the United States as it has undergone gentrification, though it remains high on world livability rankings. Bostons early European settlers had first called the area Trimountaine but renamed it Boston after Boston, England, the renaming on September 7,1630 was by Puritan colonists from England who had moved over from Charlestown earlier that year in quest of fresh water. Their settlement was limited to the Shawmut Peninsula, at that time surrounded by the Massachusetts Bay and Charles River. The peninsula is thought to have been inhabited as early as 5000 BC, in 1629, the Massachusetts Bay Colonys first governor John Winthrop led the signing of the Cambridge Agreement, a key founding document of the city. Puritan ethics and their focus on education influenced its early history, over the next 130 years, the city participated in four French and Indian Wars, until the British defeated the French and their Indian allies in North America.
Boston was the largest town in British America until Philadelphia grew larger in the mid-18th century, Bostons harbor activity was significantly curtailed by the Embargo Act of 1807 and the War of 1812. Foreign trade returned after these hostilities, but Bostons merchants had found alternatives for their investments in the interim. Manufacturing became an important component of the economy, and the citys industrial manufacturing overtook international trade in economic importance by the mid-19th century. Boston remained one of the nations largest manufacturing centers until the early 20th century, a network of small rivers bordering the city and connecting it to the surrounding region facilitated shipment of goods and led to a proliferation of mills and factories. Later, a network of railroads furthered the regions industry. Boston was a port of the Atlantic triangular slave trade in the New England colonies
Alma mater is an allegorical Latin phrase for a university or college. In modern usage, it is a school or university which an individual has attended, the phrase is variously translated as nourishing mother, nursing mother, or fostering mother, suggesting that a school provides intellectual nourishment to its students. Before its modern usage, Alma mater was a title in Latin for various mother goddesses, especially Ceres or Cybele. The source of its current use is the motto, Alma Mater Studiorum, of the oldest university in continuous operation in the Western world and it is related to the term alumnus, denoting a university graduate, which literally means a nursling or one who is nourished. The phrase can denote a song or hymn associated with a school, although alma was a common epithet for Ceres, Cybele and other mother goddesses, it was not frequently used in conjunction with mater in classical Latin. Alma Redemptoris Mater is a well-known 11th century antiphon devoted to Mary, the earliest documented English use of the term to refer to a university is in 1600, when University of Cambridge printer John Legate began using an emblem for the universitys press.
In English etymological reference works, the first university-related usage is often cited in 1710, many historic European universities have adopted Alma Mater as part of the Latin translation of their official name. The University of Bologna Latin name, Alma Mater Studiorum, refers to its status as the oldest continuously operating university in the world. At least one, the Alma Mater Europaea in Salzburg, the College of William & Mary in Williamsburg, has been called the Alma Mater of the Nation because of its ties to the founding of the United States. At Queens University in Kingston and the University of British Columbia in Vancouver, British Columbia, the ancient Roman world had many statues of the Alma Mater, some still extant. Modern sculptures are found in prominent locations on several American university campuses, outside the United States, there is an Alma Mater sculpture on the steps of the monumental entrance to the Universidad de La Habana, in Havana, Cuba. Media related to Alma mater at Wikimedia Commons The dictionary definition of alma mater at Wiktionary Alma Mater Europaea website