George Fayerweather Blacksmith Shop
The George Fayerweather Blacksmith Shop is an historic homestead and blacksmith shop at 1859 Mooresfield Road on the eastern outskirts of the Kingston Historic District in South Kingstown, Rhode Island. It was the home of George Fayerweather, an African-American blacksmith and his family, including his wife Sarah Harris Fayerweather; the shop was built in 1820 and was added to the National Register of Historic Places in 1984. The property is maintained by the Kingston Improvement Association, a non-profit organization of local residents, is now the home of the Fayerweather Craft Guild and the Kingston Garden Club. National Register of Historic Places listings in Washington County, Rhode Island Fayerweather House at the Kingston Improvement Association Historic American Buildings Survey No. RI-62, "Fayerweather House, Mooresfield Road & Kingston Road, Washington County, RI", 4 photos, supplemental material
The Narragansett people are an Algonquian American Indian tribe from Rhode Island. The tribe was nearly landless for most of the 20th century, but it worked to gain federal recognition and attained it in 1983, it is the Narragansett Indian Tribe of Rhode Island and is made up of descendants of tribal members who were identified in an 1880 treaty with the state. The tribe acquired land in 1991 in their lawsuit Carcieri v. Salazar, they petitioned the Department of the Interior to take the land into trust on their behalf; this would have made the newly acquired land to be recognized as part of the Narragansett Indian reservation, taking it out from under Rhode Island's legal authority. In 2009, the United States Supreme Court ruled against the request, declaring that tribes which had achieved federal recognition since the 1934 Indian Reorganization Act did not have standing to have newly acquired lands taken into federal trust and removed from state control; the Narragansett tribe was recognized by the federal government in 1983 and controls the Narragansett Indian Reservation, 1,800 acres of trust lands in Charlestown, Rhode Island.
A small portion of the tribe resides on or near the reservation, according to the 2000 U. S. Census. Additionally, they own several hundred acres in Westerly. In 1991, the Narragansetts purchased 31 acres in Charlestown for development of elderly housing. In 1998, they requested that the Department of the Interior take the property into trust on behalf of the tribe, to remove it from state and local control; the case went to the United States Supreme Court, as the state challenged the removal of new lands from state oversight by a tribe recognized by the US after the 1934 Indian Reorganization Act. Rhode Island was joined in its appeal by 21 other states. In 2009, the US Supreme Court ruled that the Department of the Interior could not take land into trust, removing it from state control, if a tribe had achieved federal recognition after the 1934 Indian Reorganization Act, if the land in question was acquired after that federal recognition, their determination was based on wording in the act which defines "Indian" as "all persons of Indian descent who are members of any recognized tribe now under federal jurisdiction."
The tribe is led by an elected tribal council, a chief sachem, a medicine man, a Christian leader. The entire tribal population must approve major decisions; the administration in 2018 was: Chief Sachem: Anthony Dean Stanton Medicine Man: John Brown First Councilman: Cassius Spears, Jr. Second Councilman: John Pompey Secretary, John Mahoney Councilmen: Yvonne Simonds Lamphere Betty Johnson Walter K. Babcock Lonny Brown Mary Brown Some present-day Narragansett people believe that their name means "people of the little points and bays". Pritzker's Native American Encyclopedia translates the name as " of the Small Point"; the Narragansett language died out in the 19th century, so modern attempts to understand its words have to make use of written sources. The earliest such sources are the writings of English colonists in the 1600s, at that time the name of the Narragansett people was spelled in a variety of different ways attesting to different local pronunciations; the present spelling "Narragansett" was first used by Massachusetts governor John Winthrop in his History of New England.
Underneath this diversity of spelling a common phonetic background can be discerned. Linguist James Hammond Trumbull explains that naiag or naiyag means a corner or angle in the Algonquian languages, so that the prefix nai is found in the names of many points of land on the sea coast and rivers of New England; the word na-ig-an-set, according to Trumbull, signifies "the territory about the point", na-ig-an-eog means "the people of the point". Roger Williams spent much time learning and studying the Narragansett language, he wrote a definitive study on it in 1643 entitled A Key Into the Language of America, he traced the source of the word Narragansett to a geographical location: Being inquisitive of what root the title or denomination Nahigonset should come I heard that Nahigonsset was so named from a little island, between Puttaquomscut and Mishquomacuk on the sea and fresh water side. I went on purpose to see it, about the place called Sugar Loaf Hill I saw it and was within a pole of it, but could not learn why it was called Nahigonset.
Berkeley anthropologist William Simmons, who specialized in the Narragansett people, explains the name as follows: The name Narragansett, like the names of most tribes in this region, referred to both a place and the people who lived there. Roger Williams, the first English settler of Providence, wrote that the name came from that of a small island, which he did not locate but which may have been in what is now Point Judith Pond, he could not learn why the Indians called it Narragansett. But in fact Roger Williams's statement does enable a precise localization: He states that the place was "a little island, between Puttaquomscut and Mishquomacuk on the sea and fresh water side", that it was near Sugar Loaf Hill; this means it was between the Pettaquamscutt river to the east, the present town of Westerly to the west (the "sea side" and "fresh water side" being with reference to the land on th
Canterbury is a town in Windham County, United States. The population was 5,234 at the 2010 census; the area was first settled in the 1680s as Peagscomsuck, consisting of land north of Norwich, south of New Roxbury and west of the Quinebaug River, Peagscomsuck Island and the Plainfield Settlement. In 1703 it was separated from Plainfield and named The Town of Canterbury; the town's name is a transfer from Canterbury, in England. In 1832, Prudence Crandall, a schoolteacher raised as a Quaker, stirred controversy when she opened a school for black girls in town; the Connecticut General Assembly passed the "Black Law" which prohibited the education of black children from out of state, but Crandall persisted in teaching, was jailed in 1832. Mobs forced the closure of the school in 1834, Crandall married the Reverend Calvin Philleo that same year and moved to Illinois. Connecticut repealed the Black Law in 1838, recognized Crandall with a small pension in 1886, four years before her death. In 1995, the Connecticut General Assembly designated Prudence Crandall as the state's official heroine because she opened the first Academy for young black women.
The school still stands in Canterbury, serves as the Prudence Crandall Museum and is a National Historic Landmark. In 2009 a life-size bronze statue of Prudence Crandall with one of her African American students was installed in the state capital. According to the United States Census Bureau, the town has a total area of 40.2 square miles, of which, 39.9 square miles of it is land and 0.2 square miles of it is water. As of the census of 2000, there were 4,692 people, 1,717 households, 1,339 families residing in the town; the population density was 117.6 people per square mile. There were 1,762 housing units at an average density of 44.2 per square mile. The racial makeup of the town was 97.34% White, 0.36% African American, 0.28% Native American, 0.26% Asian, 0.02% Pacific Islander, 0.30% from other races, 1.45% from two or more races. Hispanic or Latino of any race were 1.07% of the population. There were 1,717 households out of which 37.2% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 65.5% were married couples living together, 8.1% had a female householder with no husband present, 22.0% were non-families.
16.7% of all households were made up of individuals and 6.6% had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.73 and the average family size was 3.06. In the town, the population was spread out with 25.7% under the age of 18, 7.3% from 18 to 24, 31.4% from 25 to 44, 26.3% from 45 to 64, 9.3% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 38 years. For every 100 females, there were 103.3 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 97.9 males. The median income for a household in the town was $55,547, the median income for a family was $65,095. Males had a median income of $41,521 versus $28,672 for females; the per capita income for the town was $22,317. About 3.5% of families and 4.5% of the population were below the poverty line, including 4.2% of those under age 18 and 10.0% of those age 65 or over. Canterbury Center Historic District — Roughly along Elmdale, Library, N. Canterbury, S. Canterbury, Westminster Rds.. The historic district includes Colonial and other architectural styles.
Capt. John Clark House — Rte. 169, S of Canterbury Jonathan Wheeler House — N. Society Rd. March Route of Rochambeau's Army: Manship Road-Barstow Road — Manship Rd. Barstow Rd. from jct. with Manship Rd. to Westminster Rd. Prudence Crandall House — Jct. of CT 14 and 169 Westminster Congregational Church Canterbury's new administration was elected in November 2015. They will serve through November 2016. Roy Piper is First Selectman, Second Selectman is Christopher J. Lippke. Both are Republicans. Third Selectman is seated as Lee Wrigley. Natalie Ruth Riemann, was elected to serve as Town Clerk and Tax Collector of Canterbury CT, Patricia Faries is the Republican elected Town Treasurer. Students from grades Kindergarten through 8 are zoned to the Canterbury School District; the district has two schools: Canterbury Elementary School Dr. Helen Baldwin Middle SchoolThe local elementary school for kindergarten through fourth grades is Canterbury Elementary School, whose mascot is the Kitt Fox; the local middle school for fifth through eighth grades is Dr. Helen Baldwin Middle School, whose mascot is the bulldog.
As Canterbury has no high school of its own, Canterbury students have the option of attending H. H. Ellis Technical High School, Norwich Technical High School, Windham Vocational-Technical High School, Woodstock Academy, Norwich Free Academy, or Griswold Senior High School. John Adams, born in Canterbury, noted organizer of several hundred Sunday schools. Horace Austin, the sixth governor of Minnesota, was born in town. Margaret Wise Brown, author of children's literature Moses Cleaveland, a surveyor and namesake of Cleveland, was born in town. Prudence Crandall, a schoolteacher who set up a school for black girls in town despite local resistance. Sarah Harris Fayerweather, first black student in Prudence Crandall's school. Luther Jewett, United States Representative from Vermont, was born in town. Ephraim Paine delegate for New York to the Continental Congress in 1784, was born in town. Charles Rocket, born Charles Adams Claverie and former resident, who died in town. Jeptha Root Simms historia
Prudence Crandall was an American schoolteacher and activist who pushed for women's suffrage and the rights of African Americans in the United States. From Rhode Island, Crandall was raised as a Quaker in Canterbury and she became known for establishing an academy for the education of African-American girls and women. In 1831, Crandall opened a private school for young white girls. However, when she admitted Sarah Harris, a 17-year-old African-American female student in 1832, she had what is considered to be the first integrated classroom in the United States. After Crandall decided to admit girls of color into her school, the parents of the white children began to withdraw their support. Despite the backlash she received from the townspeople, she continued to educate young girls of color before she was forced to leave, with her husband Rev. Calvin Philleo, due to the magnitude of retaliation from the townspeople. In 1886, two decades after the end of the Civil War and the abolition of slavery, Connecticut passed a resolution honoring Crandall and providing her with a pension.
Prudence Crandall was born on September 3, 1803, to Pardon and Esther Carpenter Crandall, a Quaker couple in the Hope Valley area in the town of Hopkinton, Rhode Island. When she was 17, her father moved the family to Connecticut. In Providence, Rhode Island, Crandall attended Friends' Boarding School. After graduating, Prudence Crandall taught a school in the nearby town of Connecticut. In 1831, she purchased a house, with her sister Almira Crandall, to establish the Canterbury Female Boarding School, at the request of Canterbury's aristocratic residents, to educate young girls in the town. With the help of her sister and a maid, she taught about forty children in different subjects including geography, grammar, arithmetic and writing; as principal of the female boarding school, Prudence Crandall was deemed successful in her ability to educate young girls, the school flourished until September 1832. Although Prudence Crandall grew up as a North American Quaker, she admitted that she was not acquainted with many people of color or abolitionists.
She discovered the problems that plagued people of color through The Liberator, a newspaper published by William Lloyd Garrison. After reading The Liberator, Prudence Crandall said in an earlier account that she "... contemplated for a while, the manner in which I might best serve the people of color."Prudence Crandall's chance to help people of color came in the fall of 1832. Sarah Harris, the daughter of a free African-American farmer near Canterbury, asked to be accepted to the school to prepare for teaching other African Americans. Although Crandall was uncertain about the reception of Harris, she admitted the girl, establishing what is believed to be the first integrated classroom in the United States. Many prominent townspeople objected and placed pressure on Crandall to dismiss Harris from the school, but Crandall refused. Although the white students in the school did not oppose the presence of Sarah Harris, families of the current white students removed their daughters from the school.
Crandall devoted herself to teaching African-American girls. She temporarily closed the school and began directly recruiting new students of color and on March 2, 1833, William Lloyd Garrison, an abolitionist and supporter of the school, placed advertisements for new pupils in his newspaper The Liberator. Crandall announced that on the first Monday of April 1833, she would open a school "for the reception of young ladies and little misses of color... Terms, $25 per quarter, one half paid in advance." Her references including leading abolitionists Arthur Tappan, Samuel J. May, William Lloyd Garrison, Arnold Buffum; as word of the school spread, African-American families began arranging enrollment of their daughters in Crandall's academy. On April 1, 1833, twenty African-American girls from Boston, New York and the surrounding areas in Connecticut arrived at Miss Crandall's School for Young Ladies and Little Misses of Color. In response to the new school, a committee of four prominent white men in the town, Rufus Adams, Daniel Frost Jr. Andrew Harris, Richard Fenner, attempted to convince Crandall that her school for young women of color would be detrimental to the safety of the white people in the town of Canterbury.
Frost claimed that the boarding school would encourage "social equality and intermarriage of whites and blacks."At first, citizens of Canterbury protested the school and held town meetings "to devise and adopt such measures as would effectually avert the nuisance, or speedily abate it..." The town response escalated into warnings and acts of violence against the school. Crandall was faced with great local opposition, her detractors had no plans to back down. On May 24, 1833, the Connecticut legislature passed the "Black Law", which prohibited a school from teaching African-American students from outside the state without the town's permission. In July, Crandall was arrested and placed in the county jail for one night and released under bond to await her trial. Under the Black Law, the townspeople refused any amenities to the students or Crandall, closing their shops and meeting houses to them. Stage drivers refused to provide them with transportation, the town doctors refused to treat them. Townspeople poisoned the school's well—its only water source—with animal feces, prevented Crandall from obtaining water from other sources.
Not only did Crandall and her students receive backlash, her father was insulted and threatened by the citizens of Canterbury. Although she faced extreme difficulties, Crandall contin
Norwich, known as'The Rose of New England,' is a city in New London County, United States. The population was 40,493 at the 2010 United States Census. Three rivers, the Yantic, the Shetucket, the Quinebaug, flow into the city and form its harbor, from which the Thames River flows south to Long Island Sound. Norwichtown was founded in 1659, by settlers from Old Saybrook led by Major John Mason and Reverend James Fitch, they purchased the land "nine miles square" that would become Norwich from the local Native Mohegan Sachem Uncas. One of the co-founders of Norwich was Thomas Leffingwell, who had rescued Chief Uncas when surrounded by his Narragansett enemies, whose son founded the Leffingwell Inn. In 1668, a wharf was established at Yantic Cove. Settlement was in the three-mile area around the Norwichtown Green; the 69 founding families soon divided up the land in the Norwichtown vicinity for farms and businesses. By 1694, the public landing built at the head of the Thames River allowed ships to offload goods at the harbor.
The distance between the port and Norwichtown was serviced by the East and West Roads, which became Washington Street and Broadway. The original center of the town was a neighborhood now called Norwichtown, an inland location chosen to be the center of a agricultural farming community. By the latter 18th century, shipping at the harbor began to become far more important than farming when industrial mills began manufacturing on the three smaller rivers. By the early 19th century, the center of Norwich had moved to the Chelsea neighborhood; the official buildings of the city were located in the harbor area, such as the City Hall and post office, all the large 19th-century urban blocks. The former center is now called Norwichtown to distinguish it from the current city. Norwich merchants were shipping goods directly from England, but the Stamp Act of 1764 forced Norwich to become more self-sufficient. Soon large mills and factories sprang up at the falls on the rivers; the ship captains of Norwich and New London who were skillful at avoiding Imperial taxation during peacetime were just as successful eluding warships during war.
During the American Revolution Norwich supported the cause for independence by supplying soldiers and munitions. Norwich was a center for activity for the Sons of Liberty. Colonial era less noteworthies include Christopher Leffingwell, Daniel Lathrop; the Oxford English Dictionary attests the first recorded use of the term "Hello" to The Norwich Courier on 18 October 1826. Regular steamship service between New York and Boston helped Norwich to prosper as a shipping center through the early part of the 19th century. During the Civil War, Norwich once again rallied and saw the growth of its textile and specialty item manufacturing; this was spurred by the building of the Norwich and Worcester Railroad in 1832–1837 bringing goods and people both in and out of Norwich. By the 1870s the Springfield and New London Railroad was running trains through Norwich. In 1892, the city's first electric trolleys started service to local areas, plus to some cities including Westerly, New London and Putnam. In 1952 the town and city of Norwich were consolidated into one.
According to the United States Census Bureau, the city has a total area of 29.5 square miles, of which 28.3 sq mi is land and 1.2 sq mi is water. Several Norwich neighborhoods maintain independent identities and are recognized by official signs marking their boundaries. Neighborhoods of Norwich are Norwichtown, Bean Hill, Taftville, Occum, East Great Plains, Laurel Hill and Chelsea As of the census of 2000, there were 36,117 people, 15,091 households, 9,069 families residing in the city; the population density was 1,274.7 people per square mile. There were 16,600 housing units at an average density of 585.9 per square mile. Twenty-nine percent of households had children under the age of 18 living with them, 40.7% were married couples living together, 15.0% had a female householder with no husband present, 39.9% were non-families. Thirty-two percent of all households were made up of individuals and 12.5% had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.34 and the average family size was 2.96.
In the city, the age distribution of the population shows 24.1% under the age of 18, 8.9% from 18 to 24, 30.2% from 25 to 44, 21.5% from 45 to 64, 15.4% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 37 years. For every 100 females, there were 90.5 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 87.3 males. In 2012, the population had risen to 40,502 and the racial makeup of the city was 70% White, 13% Hispanic or Latino, 10% Black or African American, 8% Asian, 1% Native American. A significant influx of Chinese Americans has settled in Norwich since 2010; the 2012 median income for a household in the city was $51,300. Fifteen percent of the population were below the poverty line; the AA Eastern League Connecticut Defenders the Norwich Navigators, were a farm team of the San Francisco Giants and they played at Senator Thomas J. Dodd Memorial Stadium from both's inception in 1995 until the team announced its move to Richmond, Virginia for the 2010 season, where they are now known as the Richmond Flying Squirrels.
However, starting in 2010, Dodd Stadium became the home to the Connecticut Tigers in the Class-A short-season New York–Penn League. The ESPN mini-series; this forested area is Norwich's la
History of the United States
The history of the United States, a country in North America began with the settlement of Indigenous people before 15,000 BC. Numerous cultures formed; the arrival of Christopher Columbus in the year of 1492 started the European colonization of the Americas. Most colonies formed after 1600. By the 1760s, thirteen British colonies contained 2.5 million people along the Atlantic coast east of the Appalachian Mountains. After defeating France, the British government imposed a series of new taxes after 1765, rejecting the colonists' argument that new taxes needed their approval. Tax resistance the Boston Tea Party, led to punitive laws by Parliament designed to end self-government in Massachusetts. Armed conflict began in 1775. In 1776 in Philadelphia, the Second Continental Congress declared the independence of the colonies as the United States of America. Led by General George Washington, it won the Revolutionary War with large support from France; the peace treaty of 1783 gave the new nation the land east of the Mississippi River.
The Articles of Confederation established a central government, but it was ineffectual at providing stability, as it could not collect taxes and had no executive officer. A convention in 1787 wrote a new Constitution, adopted in 1789. In 1791, a Bill of Rights was added to guarantee inalienable rights. With Washington as the first president and Alexander Hamilton his chief adviser, a strong central government was created. Purchase of the Louisiana Territory from France in 1803 doubled the size of the United States. A second and final war with Britain was fought in 1812. Encouraged by the notion of manifest destiny, U. S. territory expanded all the way to the Pacific coast. While the United States was large in terms of area, its population in 1790 was only 4 million. However, it grew reaching 7.2 million in 1810, 32 million in 1860, 76 million in 1900, 132 million in 1940, 321 million in 2015. Economic growth in terms of overall GDP was greater; however compared to European powers, the nation's military strength was limited in peacetime before 1940.
The expansion was driven by a quest for inexpensive land for yeoman farmers and slave owners. The expansion of slavery was controversial and fueled political and constitutional battles, which were resolved by compromises. Slavery was abolished in all states north of the Mason–Dixon line by 1804, but the South continued to profit from the institution from production of cotton. Republican Abraham Lincoln was elected in 1860 on a platform of halting the expansion of slavery. Seven Southern slave states created the foundation of the Confederacy, its attack of Fort Sumter against the Union forces started the Civil War. Confederate defeat led to the abolition of slavery. In the Reconstruction Era and voting rights were extended to freed slaves; the national government emerged much stronger, because of the Fourteenth Amendment in 1868, it gained the explicit duty to protect individual rights. However, when white Democrats regained their power in the South in 1877 by paramilitary suppression of voting, they passed Jim Crow laws to maintain white supremacy, new disfranchising constitutions that prevented most African Americans and many poor whites from voting.
This continued until gains of the Civil Rights Movement in the 1960s and passage of federal legislation to enforce constitutional rights were made. The United States became the world's leading industrial power at the turn of the 20th century due to an outburst of entrepreneurship in the Northeast and Midwest and the arrival of millions of immigrant workers and farmers from Europe; the national railroad network was completed and large-scale mining and factories industrialized the Northeast and Midwest. Mass dissatisfaction with corruption and traditional politics stimulated the Progressive movement, from the 1890s to 1920s, which led to many reforms including the 16th to 19th constitutional amendments, which brought the federal income tax, direct election of Senators and women's suffrage. Neutral during World War I, the United States declared war on Germany in 1917 and funded the Allied victory the following year. Women obtained the right to vote in 1920, with Native Americans obtaining citizenship and the right to vote in 1924.
After a prosperous decade in the 1920s, the Wall Street Crash of 1929 marked the onset of the decade-long worldwide Great Depression. Democratic President Franklin D. Roosevelt ended the Republican dominance of the White House and implemented his New Deal programs, which included relief for the unemployed, support for farmers, Social Security and a minimum wage; the New Deal defined modern American liberalism. After the Japanese attack on Pearl Harbor in 1941, the United States entered World War II and financed the Allied war effort and helped defeat Nazi Germany in the European theater, its involvement culminated in using newly invented nuclear weapons on two Japanese cities to defeat Imperial Japan in the Pacific theater. The United States and the Soviet Union emerged as rival superpowers in the aftermath of World War II. During the Cold War, the two countries confronted each other indirectly in the arms race, the Space Race, proxy wars, propaganda campaigns; the purpose of this was to stop the spread of communism.
In the 1960s, in large part due to the strength of the Civil Rights Movement, another wave of social reforms was enacted by enforcing the constitutional rights of voting and freedom of movement to African-Americans and other racial minorities. The Cold War ended when the Soviet Union was dissolved in 1991, leaving the United States
American Revolutionary War
The American Revolutionary War known as the American War of Independence, was an 18th-century war between Great Britain and its Thirteen Colonies which declared independence as the United States of America. After 1765, growing philosophical and political differences strained the relationship between Great Britain and its colonies. Patriot protests against taxation without representation followed the Stamp Act and escalated into boycotts, which culminated in 1773 with the Sons of Liberty destroying a shipment of tea in Boston Harbor. Britain responded by closing Boston Harbor and passing a series of punitive measures against Massachusetts Bay Colony. Massachusetts colonists responded with the Suffolk Resolves, they established a shadow government which wrested control of the countryside from the Crown. Twelve colonies formed a Continental Congress to coordinate their resistance, establishing committees and conventions that seized power. British attempts to disarm the Massachusetts militia in Concord led to open combat on April 19, 1775.
Militia forces besieged Boston, forcing a British evacuation in March 1776, Congress appointed George Washington to command the Continental Army. Concurrently, the Americans failed decisively in an attempt to invade Quebec and raise insurrection against the British. On July 2, 1776, the Second Continental Congress voted for independence, issuing its declaration on July 4. Sir William Howe launched a British counter-offensive, capturing New York City and leaving American morale at a low ebb. However, victories at Trenton and Princeton restored American confidence. In 1777, the British launched an invasion from Quebec under John Burgoyne, intending to isolate the New England Colonies. Instead of assisting this effort, Howe took his army on a separate campaign against Philadelphia, Burgoyne was decisively defeated at Saratoga in October 1777. Burgoyne's defeat had drastic consequences. France formally allied with the Americans and entered the war in 1778, Spain joined the war the following year as an ally of France but not as an ally of the United States.
In 1780, the Kingdom of Mysore attacked the British in India, tensions between Great Britain and the Netherlands erupted into open war. In North America, the British mounted a "Southern strategy" led by Charles Cornwallis which hinged upon a Loyalist uprising, but too few came forward. Cornwallis Cowpens, he retreated to Yorktown, intending an evacuation, but a decisive French naval victory deprived him of an escape. A Franco-American army led by the Comte de Rochambeau and Washington besieged Cornwallis' army and, with no sign of relief, he surrendered in October 1781. Whigs in Britain had long opposed the pro-war Tories in Parliament, the surrender gave them the upper hand. In early 1782, Parliament voted to end all offensive operations in America, but the war continued overseas. Britain scored a major victory over the French navy. On September 3, 1783, the belligerent parties signed the Treaty of Paris in which Great Britain agreed to recognize the sovereignty of the United States and formally end the war.
French involvement had proven decisive. Spain failed in its primary aim of recovering Gibraltar; the Dutch were compelled to cede territory to Great Britain. In India, the war against Mysore and its allies concluded in 1784 without any territorial changes. Parliament passed the Stamp Act in 1765 to pay for British military troops stationed in the American colonies after the French and Indian War. Parliament had passed legislation to regulate trade, but the Stamp Act introduced a new principle of a direct internal tax. Americans began to question the extent of the British Parliament's power in America, the colonial legislatures argued that they had exclusive right to impose taxes within their jurisdictions. Colonists condemned the tax because their rights as Englishmen protected them from being taxed by a Parliament in which they had no elected representatives. Parliament argued that the colonies were "represented virtually", an idea, criticized throughout the Empire. Parliament did repeal the act in 1766, but it affirmed its right to pass laws that were binding on the colonies.
From 1767, Parliament began passing legislation to raise revenue for the salaries of civil officials, ensuring their loyalty while inadvertently increasing resentment among the colonists, opposition soon became widespread. Enforcing the acts proved difficult; the seizure of the sloop Liberty in 1768 on suspicions of smuggling triggered a riot. In response, British troops occupied Boston, Parliament threatened to extradite colonists to face trial in England. Tensions rose after the murder of Christopher Seider by a customs official in 1770 and escalated into outrage after British troops fired on civilians in the Boston Massacre. In 1772, colonists in Rhode Island burned a customs schooner. Parliament repealed all taxes except the one on tea, passing the Tea Act in 1773, attempting to force colonists to buy East India Company tea on which the Townshend duties were paid, thus implicitly agreeing to Parliamentary supremacy; the landing of the tea was resisted in all colonies, but the governor of Massachusetts permitted British tea ships to remain in Boston Harbor, so the Sons of Liberty destroyed the tea chests in what became known as the "Boston Tea Party".
Parliament passed punitive legislation. It closed Boston Harbor until the tea was paid for and revoked the Massachusetts Charter, taking upon themselves the right to directly appoint the Massachusetts Governor's Council. Additionally, t