North Syracuse, New York
North Syracuse is a village in Onondaga County, New York, United States. The population was 6,800 at the 2010 census. North Syracuse is located in the towns of Clay, north of the city of Syracuse; the village was called Centerville and changed to its present name in 1880. It became an incorporated village in 1925. Among the first settlers, the Fergerson family located there in 1826, they still occupy the same land located in. Many local streets are named in their honor. On July 18, 1846, the United States' first plank road opened in North Syracuse for salt transportation; the road cost $23,000, was 16-1/2 miles long, was planked its entire length. Thomas Alvord, a state legislator who became Lieutenant Governor, helped secure the passage of an Act to construct and collect tolls. There were four tollgates about four miles apart that were operated by the company, a profitable enterprise for many years; the fees were 1 cent per head of cattle, 5 cents for a single horse, 25 cents for a horse and wagon.
There was a dirt planked side to the road. Loaded wagons had the right of way on the planked side, the other side being reserved for empty wagons, single horses and for passing. Bicycles used the plank side on Sunday for racing. Due to wear and tear by horses' shoes and iron hoops on wagon wheels, a gang was busy just making repairs. North Syracuse was the first New York State village to have its own fire district; the Volunteer Fire Department was established in 1913. North Syracuse is located at 43°8′0″N 76°7′56″W. According to the United States Census Bureau, the village has a total area of 2.0 square miles, all of it land. U. S. Route 11 passes through the village. Interstate 81 passes along the east side of the village; as of the census of 2000, there were 6,862 people, 2,999 households, 1,751 families residing in the village. The population density was 3,496.2 people per square mile. There were 3,137 housing units at an average density of 1,598.3 per square mile. The racial makeup of the village was 94.93% White, 1.36% African American, 0.86% Native American, 1.08% Asian, 0.03% Pacific Islander, 0.23% from other races, 1.52% from two or more races.
Hispanic or Latino of any race were 0.99% of the population. There were 2,999 households out of which 28.8% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 41.9% were married couples living together, 12.1% had a female householder with no husband present, 41.6% were non-families. 34.9% of all households were made up of individuals and 16.4% had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.28 and the average family size was 2.98. In the village, the population was spread out with 24.2% under the age of 18, 6.5% from 18 to 24, 30.9% from 25 to 44, 21.1% from 45 to 64, 17.4% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 38 years. For every 100 females, there were 90.1 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 86.2 males. The median income for a household in the village was $37,031, the median income for a family was $47,853. Males had a median income of $36,292 versus $24,484 for females; the per capita income for the village was $18,906.
About 7.0% of families and 10.2% of the population were below the poverty line, including 15.7% of those under age 18 and 7.1% of those age 65 or over. Village of North Syracuse official website Village webcam
71st New York State Legislature
The 71st New York State Legislature, consisting of the New York State Senate and the New York State Assembly, met from January 4 to April 12, 1848, during the second year of John Young's governorship, in Albany. Under the provisions of the New York Constitution of 1846, 32 Senators were elected in single-seat senatorial districts for a two-year term, the whole Senate being renewed biennially; the senatorial districts were made up of entire counties. 128 Assemblymen were elected in single-seat districts to a one-year term, the whole Assembly being renewed annually. The Assembly districts were made up of entire towns, or city wards, forming a contiguous area, all in the same county; the City and County of New York was divided into four senatorial districts, 16 Assembly districts. On September 27, the Legislative passed "An Act to provide for the election of a Lieutenant Governor", to fill the vacancy caused by the resignation of Addison Gardiner. At this time there were two major political parties: the Whig Party.
The Democratic Party was split into two factions: the "Barnburners" and the "Hunkers." The radical abolitionists appeared as the Liberty Party. The Anti-Rent Party nominated some candidates, but cross-endorsed Whigs or Democrats, according to their opinion on the rent issue; the Native American Party ran. The New York state election, 1847 was held on November 3. Hamilton Fish was elected Lieutenant Governor. 24 Whigs and 8 Democrats were elected to the State Senate. 93 Whigs and 35 Democrats were elected to the Assembly. The Legislature met for the regular session at the Old State Capitol in Albany on January 4, 1848. Amos K. Hadley was elected Speaker with 89 votes against 22 for Henry Wager; the asterisk denotes members of the previous Legislature who continued in office as members of this Legislature. Valentine Treadwell and William J. Cornwell changed from the Assembly to the Senate. Party affiliations follow the vote on Sergeant-at-Arms. Clerk: Andrew H. Calhoun Deputy Clerks: John P. Lott, J. N. T. Tucker Sergeant-at-Arms: Senter M. Giddings Doorkeeper: Ransom Van Valkenburgh Assistant Doorkeeper: George A.
Loomis Reporter: William G. Bishop Reporter: Frans. S. Rew Messengers: John Manning, Richard E. Nagle Janitor: David Emery The asterisk denotes members of the previous Legislature who continued as members of this Legislature. Party affiliations follow the vote on Speaker. Clerk: Philander B. Prindle Deputy Clerks: Edgar A. Barber, William E. Mills, Friend W. Humphrey Sergeant-at-Arms: Samuel H. Marks Assistant Sergeant-at-Arms: William Van Olinda Doorkeeper: John Davies First Assistant Doorkeeper: Samuel Merclean Second Assistant Doorkeeper: Erasmus D. S. Strong Doorkeeper for the Gentlemen's Gallery: Isaac Betticker Dorrkeeper for the Ladies' Gallery: Alexander Hamilton Stoutenburgh Porter: George Fonda Librarians: Ira Dubois, John T. Diossey Messengers: William Freeman, George W. Weed, Peter Craff, Edward Martin, James Whelpley, Seymour Daley, Harris Fellows, Peter Drum, Andrew Ryan, Penfield Strong, Webster Gardiner, Eugene Rearden, A. W. Baker The New York Civil List compiled by Franklin Benjamin Hough Documents of the Senate (1848.
New York State Senate
The New York State Senate is the upper house of the New York State Legislature. There are 63 seats in the Senate, its members are elected to two-year terms. There are no term limits; the New York State Senate was dominated by the Republican Party for much of the 20th century. Between World War II and the turn of the 21st century, the Democratic Party only controlled the upper house for one year. Following the 1964 presidential election, the Democrats took control of the Senate in 1965. In April 2018, The Wall Street Journal described the State Senate as the "last bastion of power" of the Republican Party in the State of New York. On Election Day 2018, Democrats gained eight Senate seats, taking control of the chamber from the Republicans; the following day, The New York Times wrote that the Democrats had "decisively evict Republicans from running the State Senate, which they controlled for all but three years since World War II." At the beginning of the 2019-2020 legislative session, the Senate Democratic Conference held 39 of the chamber's 63 seats.
Democrats won 32 of 62 seats in New York's upper chamber in the 2008 general election on November 4, capturing the majority for the first time in more than four decades. The Republicans had held the chamber for all but one year from 1939 to 2008 as New York turned solidly Democratic at all levels. However, a power struggle emerged. Four Democratic senators — Rubén Díaz Sr. Carl Kruger, Pedro Espada, Jr. and Hiram Monserrate — refused to caucus with their party. The self-named "Gang of Four" refused to back Malcolm Smith as the chamber's majority leader and sought concessions. Monserrate soon rejoined the caucus after reaching an agreement with Smith that included the chairmanship of the Consumer Affairs Committee; the remaining "Gang of Three" reached an initial compromise in early December that collapsed within a week, but was resolved with Smith becoming majority leader. At the beginning of the 2009–2010 legislative session, there were 32 Democrats and 30 Republicans in the Senate. On June 8, 2009, then-Senators Hiram Monserrate and Pedro Espada, Jr.--both Democrats—voted with the 30 Republican members to install Senate Republican Leader Dean Skelos as the new majority leader of the Senate, replacing Democratic Senate Majority Leader Malcolm Smith.
The Associated Press described the vote as a "parliamentary coup". The move came after Republican whip Tom Libous introduced a surprise resolution to vacate the chair and replace Smith as temporary president and majority leader. In an effort to stop the vote, Democratic whip Jeff Klein unilaterally moved to recess, Smith had the lights and Internet cut off. In accordance with a prearranged deal, Espada was elected temporary president and acting lieutenant governor while Skelos was elected majority leader. Following the coup, Senate Democrats voted for John Sampson to replace Smith as Democratic Leader. On June 14, Monserrate declared; this development meant that the Senate was evenly split, 31–31, between the Republican Conference and the Democratic Conference. Due to a vacancy in the office of the Lieutenant Governor, there was no way to break the deadlock. Between June 8 and the end of the coup on July 9, the Senate did not conduct any official business. According to The New York Times, Espada's power play "threw the Senate into turmoil and hobbled the state government, making the body a national laughingstock as the feuding factions shouted and gaveled over each other in simultaneous legislative sessions."
The coup led to litigation. On July 9, 2009, the coup ended. Espada rejoined the Senate Democratic Conference after reaching a deal in which he would be named Senate Majority Leader, Sampson would remain Senate Democratic Leader, Smith would be Temporary President of the Senate during a "transition period" after which Sampson would ascend to the Temporary Presidency. On February 9, 2010, the Senate voted to expel Monserrate from the Senate following a misdemeanor domestic violence conviction. Espada was defeated in a September 2010 primary election in which the Democratic Party backed his challenger, Gustavo Rivera; the Republicans made a net gain of two seats in the 2010 elections to claim a 32–30 majority at the commencement of the January 2011 legislative session. One Republican Senate incumbent was defeated on Election Day, while Democratic candidate David Carlucci was elected to an open seat in Senate District 38, vacated due to the death of Republican Senator Thomas Morahan. Four Democratic incumbents lost their seats to Republicans in the 2010 elections.
Just before the new legislative session convened in January 2011, four Democrats, led by former Democratic whip Jeff Klein, broke away from the main Democratic Conference to form an Independent Democratic Conference. Klein said that he and his three colleagues, Diane Savino, David Carlucci and David Valesky could no longer support the leadership of Senate Democratic Leader John Sampson. In March 2011, "Gang of Four" member Senator Carl Kruger surrendered to bribery charges, he pleaded guilty to those charges in December 2011. Following the 2010 census, the Senate underwent redistricting and was expanded from 62 to 63 seats effective in January 2013; when all election night results w
Frederick Law Olmsted
Frederick Law Olmsted was an American landscape architect, social critic, public administrator. He is popularly considered to be the father of American landscape architecture. Olmsted was famous for co-designing many well-known urban parks with his senior partner Calvert Vaux, including Central Park in New York City and Cadwalader Park in Trenton. Other projects that Olmsted was involved in include the country's first and oldest coordinated system of public parks and parkways in Buffalo, New York. In Chicago his projects include: Jackson Park. In Washington, D. C. he worked on the landscape surrounding the United States Capitol building. The quality of Olmsted's landscape architecture was recognized by his contemporaries, who showered him with prestigious commissions. Daniel Burnham said of him, "He paints with wooded slopes, his work in Central Park in New York City, set a standard of excellence that continues to influence landscape architecture in the United States. He was an early and important activist in the conservation movement, including work at Niagara Falls.
Olmsted was born in Hartford, Connecticut, on April 26, 1822. His father, John Olmsted, was a prosperous merchant who took a lively interest in nature and places, his mother, Charlotte Law Olmsted, died before his fourth birthday. His father remarried in 1827 to Mary Ann Bull, who shared her husband's strong love of nature and had a more cultivated taste; when the young Olmsted was ready to enter Yale College, sumac poisoning weakened his eyes, so he gave up college plans. After working as an apprentice seaman and journalist, Olmsted settled on a 125-acre farm in January 1848 on the south shore of Staten Island NY, a farm which his father helped him acquire; this farm named the Akerly Homestead, was renamed Tosomock Farm by Olmsted. It was renamed "The Woods of Arden" by owner Erastus Wiman. On June 13, 1859, Olmsted married the widow of his brother John. Daniel Fawcett Tiemann, the mayor of New York, officiated the wedding, he adopted John Charles Olmsted, Charlotte Olmsted and Owen Olmsted. Frederick and Mary had two children together who survived infancy: a daughter, a son Frederick Law Olmsted Jr.
Their first child, John Theodore Olmsted, was born on June 13, 1860, died in infancy. Olmsted had a significant career in journalism. In 1850 he traveled to England to visit public gardens, where he was impressed by Joseph Paxton's Birkenhead Park, he subsequently wrote and published Walks and Talks of an American Farmer in England in 1852. This supported his getting additional work. Interested in the slave economy, he was commissioned by the New York Daily Times to embark on an extensive research journey through the American South and Texas from 1852 to 1857, his dispatches to the Times were collected into three volumes which remain vivid first-person social documents of the pre-war South. A one-volume abridgment and Explorations in the Cotton Kingdom, was published during the first six months of the American Civil War at the suggestion of Olmsted's English publisher. To this he wrote a new introduction in which he stated explicitly his views on the effect of slavery on the economy and social conditions of the southern states.
My own observation of the real condition of the people of our Slave States, gave me... an impression that the cotton monopoly in some way did them more harm than good. He argued that slavery had made the slave states inefficient and backward both economically and socially; the profits of slavery fell to no more than 8,000 owners of large plantations.
Elizabeth Cady Stanton
Elizabeth Cady Stanton was an American suffragist, social activist and leading figure of the early women's rights movement. Her Declaration of Sentiments, presented at the Seneca Falls Convention held in 1848 in Seneca Falls, New York, is credited with initiating the first organized women's rights and women's suffrage movements in the United States. Stanton was president of the National American Woman Suffrage Association from 1890 until 1892. Before Stanton narrowed her political focus exclusively to women's rights, she was an active abolitionist with her husband Henry Brewster Stanton and cousin Gerrit Smith. Unlike many of those involved in the women's rights movement, Stanton addressed various issues pertaining to women beyond voting rights, her concerns included women's parental and custody rights, property rights and income rights, the economic health of the family, birth control. She was an outspoken supporter of the 19th-century temperance movement. After the American Civil War, Stanton's commitment to female suffrage caused a schism in the women's rights movement when she, together with Susan B.
Anthony, declined to support passage of the Fourteenth and Fifteenth Amendments to the United States Constitution. She opposed giving added legal protection and voting rights to African American men while women and white, were denied those same rights, her position on this issue, together with her thoughts on organized Christianity and women's issues beyond voting rights, led to the formation of two separate women's rights organizations that were rejoined, with Stanton as president of the joint organization, about twenty years after her break from the original women's suffrage movement. Stanton died in 1902, having written both The Woman's Bible and her autobiography Eighty Years and More, many other articles and pamphlets about female suffrage and women's rights. Elizabeth Cady, the eighth of eleven children, was born in Johnstown, New York, to Daniel Cady and Margaret Livingston Cady. Five of her siblings died in early infancy. A sixth sibling, her older brother Eleazar, died at age 20 just before his graduation from Union College in Schenectady, New York.
Only Elizabeth Cady and four sisters lived well into old age. In life, Elizabeth named her two daughters after two of her sisters and Harriot. Daniel Cady, Stanton's father, was a prominent Federalist attorney who served one term in the United States Congress and became both a circuit court judge and, in 1847, a New York Supreme Court justice. Judge Cady introduced his daughter to the law and, together with her brother-in-law, Edward Bayard, planted the early seeds that grew into her legal and social activism; as a young girl, she enjoyed reading her father's law books and debating legal issues with his law clerks. It was this early exposure to law that, in part, caused Stanton to realize how disproportionately the law favored men over women married women, her realization that married women had no property, employment, or custody rights over their own children, helped set her course toward changing these inequities. Stanton's mother, Margaret Livingston Cady, a descendant of early Dutch settlers, was the daughter of Colonel James Livingston, an officer in the Continental Army during the American Revolution.
Having fought at Saratoga and Quebec, Livingston assisted in the capture of Major John Andre at West Point, New York where Andre and Benedict Arnold, who escaped aboard HMS Vulture, were planning to turn West Point over to the English. Margaret Cady, an unusually tall woman for her time, had a commanding presence, Stanton described her mother as "queenly." While Stanton's daughter, Harriot Stanton Blatch, remembers her grandmother as being fun and lively, Stanton herself did not share such memories. Devastated by the loss of so many children, Margaret Cady fell into a depression, which kept her from being involved in the lives of her surviving children and left a maternal void in Stanton's childhood. With Stanton's mother depressed, since Stanton's father contended with the loss of several children, including his eldest son Eleazar, by immersing himself in his work, many of the child rearing responsibilities fell to Stanton's elder sister, eleven years her senior, Tryphena's husband, Edward Bayard.
Bayard, a Union College classmate of Eleazar Cady's and son of James A. Bayard, Sr. a U. S. Senator from Wilmington, Delaware was, at the time of his engagement and marriage to Tryphena, an apprentice in Daniel Cady's law office, he was instrumental in nurturing Stanton's growing understanding of the explicit and implicit gender hierarchies within the legal system. Slavery did not end in New York State until July 4, 1827, like many men of his day, Stanton's father was a slaveowner. Peter Teabout, a slave in the Cady household, freed in Johnstown, took care of Stanton and her sister Margaret. While she makes no mention of Teabout's position as a slave in her family's household, he is remembered with particular fondness by Stanton in her memoir, Eighty Years & More. Among other things, she reminisces about the pleasure she took in attending the Episcopal church with Teabout, where she and her sisters enjoyed sitting with him in the back of the church rather than alone in front with the white families of the congregation.
It seems it was, not that her family owned at least one slave, but her exposure to the abolition movement as a young woman visiting her cousin, Gerrit Smith, in Peterboro, New York, that led to her staunch abolitionist sentiments. Unlike many women of her era, St
Whig Party (United States)
The Whig Party was a political party active in the middle of the 19th century in the United States. Four presidents belonged to the party while in office, it emerged in the 1830s as the leading opponent of Jacksonian democracy, pulling together former members of the National Republican and the Anti-Masonic Party. It had some links to the upscale traditions of the long-defunct Federalist Party. Along with the rival Democratic Party, it was central to the Second Party System from the early 1840s to the mid-1860s, it formed in opposition to the policies of President Andrew Jackson and his Democratic Party. It became a formal party within his second term, receded influence after 1854. In particular terms, the Whigs supported the supremacy of Congress over the presidency and favored a program of modernization and economic protectionism to stimulate manufacturing, it appealed to entrepreneurs, planters and the emerging urban middle class, but had little appeal to farmers or unskilled workers. It included many active Protestants and voiced a moralistic opposition to the Jacksonian Indian removal.
Party founders chose the "Whig" name to echo the American Whigs of the 18th century who fought for independence. The political philosophy of the American Whig Party was not related to the British Whig party. Historian Frank Towers has specified a deep ideological divide: The Whig Party nominated several presidential candidates in 1836. General William Henry Harrison of Ohio was nominated in 1840, former Senator Henry Clay of Kentucky in 1844, General Zachary Taylor of Louisiana in 1848, General Winfield Scott of New Jersey in 1852 and the last nominee, former President Millard Fillmore from New York in 1856. In its two decades of existence, the Whig Party had two of its candidates and Taylor, elected president and both died in office. John Tyler succeeded to the presidency after Harrison's death in 1841, but was expelled from the party that year. Millard Fillmore, who became President after Taylor's death in 1850, was the last Whig President; the party fell apart because of internal tension over the expansion of slavery to the territories.
With deep fissures in the party on this question, the anti-slavery faction prevented the nomination for a full term of its own incumbent President Fillmore in the 1852 presidential election—instead, the party nominated General Scott. Most Whig Party leaders quit politics or changed parties; the Northern voter base gravitated to the new Republican Party. In the South, most joined the Know Nothing Party, which unsuccessfully ran Fillmore in the 1856 presidential election, by which time the Whig Party had become defunct having endorsed Millard Fillmore's candidacy; some former Whigs became Democrats. The Constitutional Union Party experienced significant success from conservative former Whigs in the Upper South during the 1860 presidential election. Whig ideology as a policy orientation persisted for decades, played a major role in shaping the modernizing policies of the state governments during Reconstruction; the name "Whig" repeated the term that Patriots used to refer to themselves during the American Revolution.
It indicated hostility to the king. Despite the identical name it did not directly derive from the British Whig Party; the American Whigs were modernizers who saw President Andrew Jackson as "a dangerous man on horseback"—like a king—with a "reactionary opposition" to the forces of social and moral modernization. The Democratic-Republicans who formed the Whig Party, led by Kentucky Senator Henry Clay, drew on a Jeffersonian tradition of compromise, balance in government and territorial expansion combined with national unity and support for a Federal transportation network and domestic manufacturing. Casting their enemy as "King Andrew", they sought to identify themselves as modern-day opponents of governmental overreaching. Despite the apparent unity of Jefferson's Democratic-Republicans from 1800 to 1824, the American people preferred partisan opposition to popular political agreement; as Jackson purged his opponents, vetoed internal improvements and killed the Second Bank of the United States, alarmed local elites fought back.
In 1831, Henry Clay started planning a new party. He defended national rather than sectional interests. Clay's plan for distributing the proceeds from the sale of lands in the public domain among the states was intended to serve the nation by providing the states with funds for building roads and canals, which would stimulate growth and knit the sections together. However, his Jacksonian opponents distrusted the federal government and opposed all federal aid for internal improvements and they again frustrated Clay's plan. Jacksonians promoted opposition to the National Bank and internal improvements and support of egalitarian democracy, state power and hard money; the Tariff of Abominations of 1828 had outraged Southern feelings—the South's leaders held that the high duties on foreign imports gave an advantage to the North. Clay's own high tariff schedule of 1832 further disturbed them as did his stubborn defense of high duties as necessary to his American System. However, Clay moved to pass the Compromise of 1833, which met Southern complaints by a gradual reduction of the rates on imports to a maximum of twenty percent.
Controlling the Senate for a while, Whigs passed a censure motion denouncing Jackson's arrogant assumption of executive power in the face of the true will of the people as represented by Congress. The Whig Party began to take shape in 1833. Clay had run as a National Republican against J
Middletown is a city located in Middlesex County, along the Connecticut River, in the central part of the state, 16 miles south of Hartford. In 1650, it was incorporated as a town under Mattabeseck, it received its present name in 1653. Middletown was included within Hartford County upon its creation on May 10, 1666. In 1784, the central settlement was incorporated as a city distinct from the town. Both were included within newly formed Middlesex County in May 1785. In 1923, the City of Middletown was consolidated with the Town. A busy sailing port and an industrial center, it is now residential with its downtown—mainly Main Street—serving as a popular retail and bar district somewhat close to Wesleyan University. Middletown was the county seat of Middlesex County from its creation in 1785 until the elimination of county government in 1960; as of the 2010 census, the city had a total population of 47,648. Middletown, Connecticut is considered the southernmost city in the Hartford-Springfield Knowledge Corridor Metropolitan Region, which features a combined metro population of 1.9 million.
The land on the western bank of the Connecticut River where Middletown now lies was home to the Mattabesett Native Americans. At the time the first European settlers arrived in the region, the Mattabesetts were a part of the group of tribes in the Connecticut Valley, under a single chief named Sowheag. Plans for the colonial settlement were drawn up by the General Court in 1646. On September 11, 1651, the General Court of Connecticut established the town of "Mattabesett". A couple of years in November of 1653, the settlement was renamed Middletown, it was chosen because the site was approximate halfway between Windsor and Saybrook on the Great River. Life was not easy among these early colonial Puritans. Law, was harsh among the Puritans; the Mattabesett and other tribes referred to the Mohegan as "destroyers of men." Sowheag hoped. They did not. Smallpox, afflicted the Mattabesett lessening their ability to resist and their cohesion as a tribe. Records show that, over time, Sowheag was forced to sell off most of the Mattabesett property to the local colonists.
Similar milieus of tragic interaction between Native Americans and colonists were common in 17th century New England. During the 18th century, Middletown became the largest and most prosperous settlement in Connecticut. By the time of the American Revolution, Middletown was a thriving port with one-third of its citizens involved in merchant and maritime activities. Slavery was part of the early economy of Middletown. Middletown merchant traders pushed for the clearance of the Saybrook Bar at the mouth of the Connecticut River, sought the creation of Middlesex County in 1785; the name'Middlesex' was chosen because the intention was to make Middletown the head of a long river port, much as London was at the head of its long river port in Middlesex County, England. The same persons established the Middlesex Turnpike to link all the settlements on the western side of the Connecticut, again with the intent of creating one long port; the port's decline began in the early 19th century with strained American-British relations and resulting trade restrictions, which led to the War of 1812.
The port never recovered. During this period, Middletown became a major center for firearms manufacturing. Numerous gun manufacturers in the area supplied the majority of pistols to the United States government during the War of 1812. After that war, the center of this business passed to Springfield, Hartford and New Haven, Connecticut. 1831 saw the establishment of Wesleyan University, to become one of the United States' leading liberal arts institutions. The institution replaced an earlier institution on the same site, Partridge's American Literary and Military Academy, which had moved to Norwich and became Norwich University; the two main buildings of the original campus were built by the people of Middletown with the intent of attracting an academic institution to the city. In 1841, Middletown established the state's first public high school, which at first enrolled all students from age nine through age sixteen who had previous attended district schools; the mid-19th century saw manufacturing replace trade as Middletown's economic mainstay.