Congress of Industrial Organizations
The Congress of Industrial Organizations was a federation of unions that organized workers in industrial unions in the United States and Canada from 1935 to 1955. Created in 1935 by John L. Lewis, a part of the United Mine Workers, it was called the Committee for Industrial Organization but changed its name in 1938 when it broke away from the American Federation of Labor, it changed names because it was not successful with organizing unskilled workers with the AFL. The CIO supported Franklin D. Roosevelt and the New Deal Coalition, was open to African Americans. Both the CIO and its rival the AFL grew during the Great Depression; the rivalry for dominance was sometimes violent. The CIO was founded on November 9, 1936, by eight international unions belonging to the American Federation of Labor. In its statement of purpose, the CIO said it had formed to encourage the AFL to organize workers in mass production industries along industrial union lines; the CIO failed to change AFL policy from within.
On September 10, 1936, the AFL suspended all 10 CIO unions. In 1938, these unions formed the Congress of Industrial Organizations as a rival labor federation; the Taft-Hartley Act of 1947 required union leaders to swear. Many CIO leaders refused to obey that requirement found unconstitutional. In 1955, the CIO rejoined the AFL, forming the new entity known as the American Federation of Labor-Congress of Industrial Organizations; the CIO was born out of a fundamental dispute within the United States labor movement over whether and how to organize industrial workers. The eight union chiefs who founded the CIO were not happy with how the AFL was unwilling to work with America's manufacturing combines; those who favored craft unionism believed that the most effective way to represent workers was to defend the advantages that they had secured through their skills. They focused on the hiring of skilled workers, such as carpenters and railroad engineers in an attempt to maintain as much control as possible over the work their members did by enforcement of work rules, zealous defense of their jurisdiction to certain types of work, control over apprenticeship programs, exclusion of less-skilled workers from membership.
Craft unionists were opposed to organizing workers on an industrial basis, into unions that represented all of the production workers in a particular enterprise, rather than in separate units divided along craft lines. The proponents of industrial unionism, on the other hand believed that craft distinctions may have been appropriate in those industries in which craft unions had flourished, such as construction or printing, but they were unworkable in industries such as steel or auto production. In their view, dividing workers in a single plant into a number of different crafts represented by separate organizations, each with its own agenda, would weaken the workers' bargaining power and leave the majority, who had few traditional craft skills unrepresented. While the AFL had always included a number of industrial unions, such as the United Mine Workers and the Brewery Workers, the most dogmatic craft unionists had a strong hold on power within the federation by the 1930s, they used that power to quash any drive toward industrial organizing.
Industrial unionism became more fierce in the 1930s, when the Great Depression in the United States caused large membership drops in some unions, such as the United Mine Workers and the International Ladies' Garment Workers' Union. A number of labor leaders John L. Lewis of the United Mine Workers, came to the conclusion that their own unions would not survive while the great majority of workers in basic industry remained nonunion, they started to press the AFL to change its policies in this area. The AFL, in fact and added more new members than the CIO; the AFL had long permitted the formation of "federal" unions, which were affiliated directly with the AFL. The AFL did not, promise to allow the unions to maintain a separate identity indefinitely; that meant the unions might be broken up to distribute their members among the craft unions that claimed jurisdiction over their work. The AFL, in fact, dissolved hundreds of federal unions in late 1934 and early 1935. While the bureaucratic leadership of the AFL was unable to win strikes, three victorious strikes exploded onto the scene in 1934.
These were the Minneapolis Teamsters Strike of 1934, the leadership of which included some members of the Trotskyist Communist League of America. Victorious industrial unions with militant leaderships were the catalyst that brought about the rise of the CIO; the AFL authorized organizing drives in the automobile and steel industries at its convention in 1934 but gave little financial support or effective leadership to those unions. The AFL's timidity succeeded only in making it less credible among the workers that it was trying to organize; that was significant in those industries, such as auto and rubber, in which workers had achieved some organizing success, at great personal risk. The dispute came to a head at the AFL's convention in Atlantic City in 1935, when William Hutcheson, the President of the United Carpenters, made a slighting comment about a rubber worker, delivering an organizing report. Lewis responded that Hutcheson's comment was "small potatoes," and Hu
Wilmington, Los Angeles
Wilmington is a neighborhood in the Los Angeles Harbor Region area of Los Angeles, covering 9.14 square miles. Featuring a heavy concentration of industry and the third-largest oil field in the continental United States, this neighborhood has a high percentage of Latino and foreign-born residents, it is the site of Banning High School, ten other primary and secondary schools. Wilmington has six parks. Wilmington dates its history back to a 1784 Spanish land grant, it became a separate city in 1863, it joined the city of Los Angeles in 1909. Places of interest include the headquarters U. S. Army for Southern California and the Drum Barracks built to protect the nascent Los Angeles harbor during the American Civil War. Wilmington shares borders with Carson to the north, Long Beach to the east, San Pedro to the south and west and Harbor City to the northwest. A total of 53,815 people were living within Wilmington's 9.14 square miles, according to the 2010 U. S. census—averaging 5,887 people per square mile, among the lowest population densities in the city as a whole.
The median age was 28. The percentages of people from birth through age 34 were among the county's highest. Population was estimated at 54,512 in 2008. Wilmington is not considered diverse ethnically, with a diversity index of 0.245. In 2000, Latinos made up 86.6% of the population, while whites were at 6.4%, Asians at 4.8%, blacks at 2.6% and others at 1.7%. Mexico and Guatemala were the most common places of birth for the 44.5% of the residents who were born abroad, considered a high percentage of foreign-born when compared with the city and the county as a whole. The $40,627 median household income in 2008 dollars was average for the city. Renters occupied 61.5% of the housing units, with homeowners occupying the rest. In 2000 there were 1,524 military veterans, or 4.6% of the population low in comparison to the city and county as a whole. The Port of Los Angeles district of Wilmington was included in the 1784 Spanish land grant of Rancho San Pedro. Phineas Banning acquired the land that would become Wilmington from Manuel Dominguez, heir of the original concession holder Juan Jose Dominguez, in 1858 to build a harbor for the city of Los Angeles.
Known as New San Pedro from 1858 to 1863, it was subsequently renamed Wilmington by “Father of the Harbor” Banning after his birthplace, Delaware. In 1861, at the beginning of the Civil War and Benjamin Wilson gave the federal government 60 acres of land to build Drum Barracks to protect the nascent Los Angeles harbor from Confederate attack. Wilmington was a township in the 1870 census; the township consisted of the present-day South Bay communities and western Long Beach. Census records report a population of 942 in 1870; the township had been named San Pedro Township in 1860. Wilson College, precursor to the University of Southern California, opened in Wilmington in 1874 as the first coeducational college west of the Mississippi. Los Angeles annexed Wilmington in 1909, today it and neighboring San Pedro form the waterfront of one of the world's largest import/export centers. Citizens of Wilmington were dubious that annexation would be in their best interests, fearing that it would shift economic activity out of their city and towards Los Angeles.
Because the city government of Los Angeles so wanted to have the growing port inside the city limits, it made a number of promises to Wilmington and to the equally-dubious citizens of the-then independent city of San Pedro. Among these promises were that $10 million would be invested in improvements to the port and that as much would be spent inside the city on public works as was collected in taxes. In the 1920s, William Wrigley Jr. built innovative housing in Wilmington, dubbed the “Court of Nations.” Wilmington is adjacent to the Wilmington Oil Field, discovered in 1932. It is the third largest oil field in the continental United States. There are at least 8 major refineries in the Wilmington area, many of them dating back to the original strike. During World War II the United States Military operated the Los Angeles Port of Embarkation in Wilmington, from which soldiers and sailors were sent abroad to battle zones; the LAPE was controlled by the San Francisco Port of Embarkation from its inception in 1942 until late 1943 when it became autonomous.
The California Shipbuilding Corporation, famous for building victory ships during the war, operated in Wilmington as well. Drum Barracks Civil War Museum – U. S. Army headquarters for Southern California and the Arizona territory during the Civil War; the bright green "THE DON" neon sign atop a brick building once welcomed visitors entering the city. The first Der Wienerschnitzel restaurant; the Phillips 66 refinery in Wilmington is home to the "world's largest jack-o'-lantern", which in fact is a 3 million gallon storage tank decorated every year for Halloween. Decorated annually since 1952, the jack-o'-lantern draws 30,000 visitors annually; the Banning Museum - Phineas Banning—entrepreneur, the founder of the city of Wilmington, “the Father of the Port of Los Angeles”—built the 23-room residence in 1864. The Los Angeles County Department of Health Services operates the Torrance Health Center in Harbor Gateway, Los Angeles, near Torrance and serving Wilmington; the United States Postal Service Wilmington Post Office is located at 1008 North Avalon Boulevard.
Only 5.1% of Wilmington residents aged 25 or older had completed a four-year degree by 2000, a low figure when compared with the city and the county at large, the percentage of those residents with less than a high school diploma was high for the county. Wilmington is part of the Los
The Korean War was a war between North Korea and South Korea. The war began on 25 June 1950 when North Korea invaded South Korea following a series of clashes along the border; as a product of the Cold War between the Soviet Union and the United States, Korea had been split into two sovereign states in 1948. A socialist state was established in the north under the communist leadership of Kim Il-sung and a capitalist state in the south under the anti-communist leadership of Syngman Rhee. Both governments of the two new Korean states claimed to be the sole legitimate government of all of Korea, neither accepted the border as permanent; the conflict escalated into warfare when North Korean military forces—supported by the Soviet Union and China—crossed the border and advanced south into South Korea on 25 June 1950. The United Nations Security Council authorized the formation and dispatch of UN forces to Korea to repel what was recognized as a North Korean invasion. Twenty-one countries of the United Nations contributed to the UN force, with the United States providing around 90% of the military personnel.
After the first two months of war, South Korean and U. S. forces dispatched to Korea were on the point of defeat, forced back to a small area in the south known as the Pusan Perimeter. In September 1950, an amphibious UN counter-offensive was launched at Incheon, cut off many North Korean troops; those who escaped envelopment and capture were forced back north. UN forces approached the Yalu River—the border with China—but in October 1950, mass Chinese forces crossed the Yalu and entered the war; the surprise Chinese intervention triggered a retreat of UN forces which continued until mid-1951. In these reversals of fortune, Seoul changed hands four times, the last two years of fighting became a war of attrition, with the front line close to the 38th parallel; the war in the air, was never a stalemate. North Korea was subject to a massive bombing campaign. Jet fighters confronted each other in air-to-air combat for the first time in history, Soviet pilots covertly flew in defense of their communist allies.
The fighting ended on 27 July 1953. The agreement created the Korean Demilitarized Zone to separate North and South Korea, allowed the return of prisoners. However, no peace treaty was signed, according to some sources the two Koreas are technically still at war, engaged in a frozen conflict. In April 2018, the leaders of North and South Korea met at the demilitarized zone and agreed to work towards a treaty to formally end the Korean War. In South Korea, the war is referred to as "625" or the "6–2–5 Upheaval", reflecting the date of its commencement on June 25. In North Korea, the war is referred to as the "Fatherland Liberation War" or alternatively the "Chosǒn War". In China, the war is called the "War to Resist America and Aid Korea", although the term "Chaoxian War" is used in unofficial contexts, along with the term "Hán War" more used in regions such as Hong Kong and Macau. In the U. S. the war was described by President Harry S. Truman as a "police action" as the United States never formally declared war on its opponents and the operation was conducted under the auspices of the United Nations.
It has been referred to in the English-speaking world as "The Forgotten War" or "The Unknown War" because of the lack of public attention it received both during and after the war, in relation to the global scale of World War II, which preceded it, the subsequent angst of the Vietnam War, which succeeded it. Imperial Japan destroyed the influence of China over Korea in the First Sino-Japanese War, ushering in the short-lived Korean Empire. A decade after defeating Imperial Russia in the Russo-Japanese War, Japan made Korea its protectorate with the Eulsa Treaty in 1905 annexed it with the Japan–Korea Annexation Treaty in 1910. Many Korean nationalists fled the country; the Provisional Government of the Republic of Korea was founded in 1919 in Nationalist China. It failed to achieve international recognition, failed to unite nationalist groups, had a fractious relationship with its U. S.-based founding president, Syngman Rhee. From 1919 to 1925 and beyond, Korean communists led internal and external warfare against the Japanese.
In China, the Nationalist National Revolutionary Army and the communist People's Liberation Army helped organize Korean refugees against the Japanese military, which had occupied parts of China. The Nationalist-backed Koreans, led by Yi Pom-Sok, fought in the Burma Campaign; the communists, led by Kim Il-sung among others, fought the Japanese in Manchuria. At the Cairo Conference in November 1943, the United Kingdom, the United States all decided that "in due course Korea shall become free and independent". At the Tehran Conference in November 1943 and the Yalta Conference in February 1945, the Soviet Union promised to join its allies in the Pacific War within three months of the victory in Europe. Accordingly, it declared war o
South Los Angeles
South Los Angeles is a region in southern Los Angeles County and lies within the city limits of Los Angeles, just south of downtown. According to the Los Angeles Times, South Los Angeles ”is defined on Los Angeles city maps as a 16-square-mile rectangle with two prongs at the south end.” In 2003, the Los Angeles City Council renamed this area "South Los Angeles". The name South Los Angeles can refer to a larger 51-square mile area that includes areas within the city limits of Los Angeles as well as five unicorporated neighborhoods in the southern portion of the County of Los Angeles; the City of Los Angeles delineates South Los Angeles as an area of 15.5 square miles. Adjacent neighborhoods include West Adams, Baldwin Hills, Leimert Park to the west and the Southeast Los Angeles region of the city on the east. According to the Los Angeles Times Mapping Project, South Los Angeles comprises 51 square miles, consisting of 25 neighborhoods within the City of Los Angeles as well as three unincorporated neighborhoods in the County of Los Angeles.
Google Maps delineates a similar area to the Los Angeles Times Mapping Project with notable differences on the western border. On the northwest, it omits a section of Los Angeles west of La Brea Avenue. On the southwest, it includes a section of the City of Inglewood north of Century Boulevard. According to the Mapping L. A. survey of the Los Angeles Times, the South Los Angeles region consists of the following neighborhoods: In 1880, the University of Southern California, in 1920, the Doheny Campus of Mount St. Mary's College, were founded in South Los Angeles; the 1932 and 1984 Olympic Games took place near the USC campus at neighboring Exposition Park, where the Los Angeles Coliseum is located. Until the 1920s, the South Los Angeles neighborhood of West Adams was one of the most desirable areas of the City; as the wealthy were building stately mansions in West Adams and Jefferson Park, the white working class was establishing itself in Crenshaw and Hyde Park. Affluent blacks moved into West Adams and Jefferson Park.
As construction along the Wilshire Boulevard corridor increased in the 1920s, the development of the city was drawn west of downtown and away from South Los Angeles. At the same time, the area of modest bungalows and low-rise commercial buildings along Central Avenue emerged as the heart of the black community in southern California, it had one of the first jazz scenes in the western U. S. with trombonist Kid Ory a prominent resident. Under racially restrictive covenants, blacks were allowed to own property only within the Main-Slauson-Alameda-Washington box and in Watts, as well as in small enclaves elsewhere in the city; the working- and middle-class blacks who poured into Los Angeles during the Great Depression and in search of jobs during World War II found themselves penned into what was becoming a overcrowded neighborhood. During the war, blacks faced such dire housing shortages that the Housing Authority of the City of Los Angeles built the all-black and Latino Pueblo Del Rio project, designed by Richard Neutra.
When the Supreme Court banned the legal enforcement of race-oriented restrictive covenants in 1948's Shelley v. Kraemer, blacks began to move into areas outside the overcrowded Slauson-Alameda-Washington-Main settlement area. For a time in the early 1950s, southern Los Angeles became the site of significant racial violence, with whites bombing, firing into, burning crosses on the lawns of homes purchased by black families south of Slauson. In an escalation of behavior that began in the 1920s, white gangs in nearby cities such as South Gate and Huntington Park accosted blacks who traveled through white areas; the black mutual protection clubs that formed in response to these assaults became the basis of the region's fearsome street gangs. As in most urban areas, 1950s freeway construction radically altered the geography of southern Los Angeles. Freeway routes tended to reinforce traditional segregation lines. Beginning in the 1970s, the rapid decline of the area's manufacturing base resulted in a loss of the jobs that had allowed skilled union workers to have a middle class life.
Downtown Los Angeles' service sector, which had long been dominated by unionized African Americans earning high wages, replaced most black workers with newly arrived Mexican and Central American immigrants. Widespread unemployment and street crime contributed to the rise of street gangs in South Central, such as the Crips and Bloods, they became more powerful with money from drugs the crack cocaine trade, dominated by gangs in the 1980s. By the early 2000s, the crime rate of South Los Angeles had declined significantly. Redevelopment, improved police patrol, community-based peace programs, gang intervention work, youth development organizations lowered the murder and crime rates to levels that had not been seen since the 1940s and'50s. South Los Angeles was still known for its gangs at the time. In mid 2003, the City of Los Angeles changed the region's name from South Central to South Los Angeles, a move supporters said would "help erase a stigma that has dogged the southern part of the city."On August 11, 2014, just two days after the shooting of Michael Brown in Ferguson, Missouri, a resident of South L.
A. Ezell Ford, described as "a mentally ill 25-year-old man," was fatally shot by two Los Angeles police officers. Since a number of protests focused on events in Ferguson have taken place in South Los Angeles. After the 2008 economic recession, housing prices in South Los Angeles recovered and by 2018, many had come to see South Los Angeles as a
Port of Los Angeles
The Port of Los Angeles called America's Port, is a port complex that occupies 7,500 acres of land and water along 43 miles of waterfront and adjoins the separate Port of Long Beach. The port is located in San Pedro Bay in the San Pedro and Wilmington neighborhoods of Los Angeles 20 miles south of downtown. A department of the City of Los Angeles, the Port of Los Angeles supports employment for 517,000 people throughout the LA County Region and 1.6 million worldwide. The cargo coming into the port represents 20% of all cargo coming into the United States; the Port's Channel Depth is 53 feet. The port has 27 cargo terminals, 86 container cranes, 8 container terminals, 113 miles of on-dock rail; the LA Port imports furniture, electronics, automobile parts, plastics. The Port exports wastepaper and animal feed, scrap metal and soybeans; the port's major trading partners are China, Hong Kong, South Korea and Vietnam. For public safety, the Port of Los Angeles utilizes the Los Angeles Port Police for police service in the port and to its local communities, the Los Angeles Fire Department to provide fire and EMS services to the port and its local communities, the U.
S. Coast Guard for water way security at the port, Homeland Security to protect federal land at the port, the Los Angeles County Lifeguards to provide lifeguard services for open water outside the harbor while Los Angeles City Recreation & Parks Department lifeguards patrol the inner Cabrillo Beach. In 1542, Juan Rodriquez Cabrillo discovered the "Bay of Smokes." The south-facing San Pedro Bay was a shallow mudflat, too soft to support a wharf. Visiting ships had two choices: stay far out at anchor and have their goods and passengers ferried to shore, or beach themselves; that sticky process is described in Two Years Before the Mast by Richard Henry Dana, Jr., a crew member on an 1834 voyage that visited San Pedro Bay. Phineas Banning improved shipping when he dredged the channel to Wilmington in 1871 to a depth of 10 feet; the port handled 50,000 tons of shipping that year. Banning owned a stagecoach line with routes connecting San Pedro to Salt Lake City and Yuma, in 1868 he built a railroad to connect San Pedro Bay to Los Angeles, the first in the area.
After Banning's death in 1885, his sons pursued their interests in promoting the port, which handled 500,000 tons of shipping in that year. The Southern Pacific Railroad and Collis P. Huntington wanted to create Port Los Angeles at Santa Monica and built the Long Wharf there in 1893. However, the Los Angeles Times publisher Harrison Gray Otis and U. S. Senator Stephen White pushed for federal support of the Port of Los Angeles at San Pedro Bay; the Free Harbor Fight was settled when San Pedro was endorsed in 1897 by a commission headed by Rear Admiral John C. Walker. With U. S. government support, breakwater construction began in 1899, the area was annexed to Los Angeles in 1909. The Los Angeles Board of Harbor Commissioners was founded in 1907. In 1912 the Southern Pacific Railroad completed its first major wharf at the port. During the 1920s, the port surpassed San Francisco as the West Coast's busiest seaport. In the early 1930s, a massive expansion of the port was undertaken with the construction of a breakwater three miles out and over two miles in length.
In addition to the construction of this outer breakwater, an inner breakwater was built off Terminal Island with docks for seagoing ships and smaller docks built at Long Beach. It was this improved harbor. During World War II, the port was used for shipbuilding, employing more than 90,000 people. In 1959, Matson Navigation Company's Hawaiian Merchant delivered 20 containers to the port, beginning the port's shift to containerization; the opening of the Vincent Thomas Bridge in 1963 improved access to Terminal Island and allowed increased traffic and further expansion of the port. In 1985, the port handled one million containers in a year for the first time. In 2000, the Pier 400 Dredging and Landfill Program, the largest such project in America, was completed. By 2013, more than half a million containers were moving through the Port every month. Since 2018, the SpaceX BFR, designed for human missions to Mars, is being produced in a factory at the port; the port district is an independent, self-supporting department of the government of the City of Los Angeles.
The port is under the control of a five-member Board of Harbor Commissioners appointed by the mayor and approved by the city council, is administered by an executive director. The port maintains the highest rating attainable for self-funded ports; the port has about a dozen pilots, including two chiefs. Pilots have specialized knowledge of San Pedro Bay, they meet the ships waiting to enter the harbor and provide advice as the vessel is steered through the congested waterway to the dock. The port's container volume was 9.3 million twenty-foot equivalent units in calendar year 2017, a 5.5% increase over 2016's record-breaking year of 8.8 million TEU. It's the most cargo moved annually by a Western Hemisphere port; the port is the busiest port in the United States by container volume, the 19th-busiest container port in the world, the 10th-busiest worldwide when combined with the neighboring Port of Long Beach. The port is the number-one freight gateway in the United States when ranked by the value of shipments passing through it.
The port's top trading partners in 2016 were: China/Hong Kong Japan Vietnam South Korea Tai
Fremont Peak State Park
Fremont Peak State Park is a California State Park located in Monterey County and San Benito County, California. The park encompasses the summit of 3,169-foot Fremont Peak in the Gabilan Range; the park features expansive views of Pacific Ocean from its hiking trails. Other vistas include the San Benito Valley, Salinas Valley, the Santa Lucia Mountains east of Big Sur; the 162-acre park was established in 1934. Pine and California oak woodlands, of the California chaparral and woodlands ecoregion, cover much of the park and are home to many birds and mammals. Fremont Peak State Park has picnic facilities and 22 campsites. Fremont Peak Day is held every April, features a picnic and other activities; the Fremont Peak Observatory opened in 1986, has operated every summer since, despite having battled the brutal mountaintop weather. The astronomical observatory has a 30-inch telescope. Fremont Peak State Park was one of the 48 California state parks proposed for closure in January 2008 by Governor Arnold Schwarzenegger as part of a deficit reduction program.
The closures were avoided by cutting hours and maintenance system-wide. List of California state parks George H. Moore, Los Angeles City Council member 1943–51, chairman of a group that established the park Parks.ca.gov: official Fremont Peak State Park website
Fletcher Bowron was an American lawyer and politician. He was the 35th mayor of Los Angeles, from September 26, 1938, until June 30, 1953, he was the longest-serving mayor to date in the city, was the city's second longest-serving mayor after Tom Bradley, presiding over the war boom and heavy population growth, building freeways to handle them. Bowron was born in Poway, the youngest of three children, his Yankee parents, who had migrated from the Midwest, sent him to Los Angeles High School, where he graduated in 1904. In 1907, he began studies at UC Berkeley, where his two brothers had graduated enrolled in the University of Southern California Law School two years where he became a member of the Delta Chi Fraternity, he dropped out of law school and became a reporter for San Francisco and Los Angeles newspapers, working the City Hall and court beats in the latter city. He was admitted to the bar in 1917. Upon the U. S. entry into World War I in 1917, Bowron enlisted in the Army, serving in the 14th Field Artillery before transferring to the military intelligence division.
Upon his return, he once again practiced law before he married Irene Martin in 1922. The following year, he was appointed as a deputy state corporations commissioner, his work in that capacity caught the attention of California governor, Friend Richardson, who hired him as executive secretary in 1925, appointed him to the superior court in 1926. In his first tenure as a superior court judge, which lasted 12 years, Bowron became the first jurist on the West Coast to use the pre-trial calendar system, he was elected mayor of Los Angeles on a fusion ticket in 1938 in the wake of the corruption arising from the previous administration of Frank L. Shaw, earned the reputation of being lawful, unlike his predecessor; this was part of. Los Angeles grew enormously during the war years, with large defense industries. After the war Bowron began construction of the Los Angeles International Airport and the 1st phases of the elaborate freeway system, he obtained hundred million dollars from the Federal Housing Authority for the construction of 10,000 units.
As president of the American Municipal Association, representing 9500 cities, he was the leader of the nation's mayors in their dealings with the federal government. A high priority was eliminating organized crime from the city's police department, he forced the resignation of numerous officers, prevented Los Angeles from becoming a wide open town. Bowron ran on nonpartisan fusion tickets; the Los Angeles Citizens Committee demanded his recall, claiming he was responsible for high taxes and continued police corruption. In 1952 he lost his reelection bid in the Republican primary to Norris Poulson, a conservative opponent of public housing, he served during the era of World War II, most notably supporting the removal of Japanese Americans from California and their subsequent Internment. In January 1942 Bowron began to call for relocating Japanese Americans away from the coast and putting them to work in farm camps, he forced all Japanese American employees of the City of Los Angeles to take a leave of absence and circulated propaganda targeted at people of Japanese descent.
By February he was pushing for internment on his radio show, quoted on Abraham Lincoln's birthday in support of the camps: "There isn't a shadow of a doubt but that Lincoln, the mild-mannered man whose memory we regard with saint-like reverence, would make short work of rounding up the Japanese and putting them where they could do no harm." He continued by talking about "the people born on American soil who have secret loyalty to the Japanese Emperor." Bowron attempted to pass a constitutional amendment under which American-born Japanese would be stripped of their citizen rights if they held dual U. S.-Japanese citizenship or if their parents were ineligible for U. S. citizenship. He additionally proposed allowing the government to ignore portions of the Selective Service Act and call Japanese Americans, including women and those whose age or physical status would otherwise exempt them, into non-combat military service if the war required it, he lost re-election in 1953 after having survived a number of recall attempts, with his defeat linked because his liberal backing began to wane as a result of McCarthyism.
In 1956, he once again ran for superior court judge, defeating Joseph L. Call in the November election. Serving one six-year term, he retired from political office in 1962, but remained active in city activities, he played himself on the January 29, 1953 episode of "The George Burns and Gracie Allen Show," titled "The Tax Refund." On January 4, 1961, his wife Irene died at the Madison Lodge Sanitarium after spending nearly five years at the facility. Ten months Bowron married his long-time executive assistant, Albine Norton. Following his retirement from the bench, he served as director of the Metropolitan Los Angeles History Project, hiring Robert C. Post a graduate student at UCLA, as his chief researcher. In 1967, Bowron was named chairman of the city's Citizen's Committee on Zoning Practices and Procedures. After finishing work on September 11, 1968 he suffered a fatal heart attack while driving home. While his body lay in state in the Los Angeles City Hall rotunda, people came to pay their respects.
He is buried at Inglewood Park Cemetery. Employers Group, which, as the Merchants and Manufacturers Association, opposed Bowron's policies Stephen W. Cunningham, Republican City Council member who ran against Bowron in 1941 Harold Harby, Los Angeles City Council member, 1939–42, 1943–57, complained about Bowron's radio talks John C