Atheism is, in the broadest sense, the absence of belief in the existence of deities. Less broadly, atheism is the rejection of belief. In an narrower sense, atheism is the position that there are no deities. Atheism is contrasted with theism, which, in its most general form, is the belief that at least one deity exists; the etymological root for the word atheism originated before the 5th century BCE from the ancient Greek ἄθεος, meaning "without god". In antiquity it had multiple uses as a pejorative term applied to those thought to reject the gods worshiped by the larger society, those who were forsaken by the gods, or those who had no commitment to belief in the gods; the term denoted a social category created by orthodox religionists into which those who did not share their religious beliefs were placed. The actual term atheism emerged first in the 16th century. With the spread of freethought, skeptical inquiry, subsequent increase in criticism of religion, application of the term narrowed in scope.
The first individuals to identify themselves using the word atheist lived in the 18th century during the Age of Enlightenment. The French Revolution, noted for its "unprecedented atheism," witnessed the first major political movement in history to advocate for the supremacy of human reason; the French Revolution can be described as the first period where atheism became implemented politically. Arguments for atheism range from the philosophical to historical approaches. Rationales for not believing in deities include arguments that there is a lack of empirical evidence, the problem of evil, the argument from inconsistent revelations, the rejection of concepts that cannot be falsified, the argument from nonbelief. Nonbelievers contend that atheism is a more parsimonious position than theism and that everyone is born without beliefs in deities. Although some atheists have adopted secular philosophies, there is no one ideology or set of behaviors to which all atheists adhere. Since conceptions of atheism vary, accurate estimations of current numbers of atheists are difficult.
According to global Win-Gallup International studies, 13% of respondents were "convinced atheists" in 2012, 11% were "convinced atheists" in 2015, in 2017, 9% were "convinced atheists". However, other researchers have advised caution with WIN/Gallup figures since other surveys which have used the same wording for decades and have a bigger sample size have reached lower figures. An older survey by the British Broadcasting Corporation in 2004 recorded atheists as comprising 8% of the world's population. Other older estimates have indicated that atheists comprise 2% of the world's population, while the irreligious add a further 12%. According to these polls and East Asia are the regions with the highest rates of atheism. In 2015, 61 % of people in China reported; the figures for a 2010 Eurobarometer survey in the European Union reported that 20% of the EU population claimed not to believe in "any sort of spirit, God or life force". Writers disagree on how best to define and classify atheism, contesting what supernatural entities are considered gods, whether it is a philosophic position in its own right or the absence of one, whether it requires a conscious, explicit rejection.
Atheism has been regarded as compatible with agnosticism, has been contrasted with it. A variety of categories have been used to distinguish the different forms of atheism; some of the ambiguity and controversy involved in defining atheism arises from difficulty in reaching a consensus for the definitions of words like deity and god. The plurality of wildly different conceptions of God and deities leads to differing ideas regarding atheism's applicability; the ancient Romans accused Christians of being atheists for not worshiping the pagan deities. This view fell into disfavor as theism came to be understood as encompassing belief in any divinity. With respect to the range of phenomena being rejected, atheism may counter anything from the existence of a deity, to the existence of any spiritual, supernatural, or transcendental concepts, such as those of Buddhism, Hinduism and Taoism. Definitions of atheism vary in the degree of consideration a person must put to the idea of gods to be considered an atheist.
Atheism has sometimes been defined to include the simple absence of belief. This broad definition would include newborns and other people who have not been exposed to theistic ideas; as far back as 1772, Baron d'Holbach said. George H. Smith suggested that: "The man, unacquainted with theism is an atheist because he does not believe in a god; this category would include the child with the conceptual capacity to grasp the issues involved, but, still unaware of those issues. The fact that this child does not believe in god qualifies him as an atheist." Implicit atheism is "the absence of theistic belief without a conscious rejection of it" and explicit atheism is the conscious rejection of belief. For the purposes of his paper on "philosophical atheism", Ernest Nagel contested including mere absence of theistic belief as a type of atheism. Graham Oppy classifies as innocents those who never considered the question because they lack any understanding of what a god is. According to Oppy, these could be one-month-old babies, humans with severe traumatic brain injuries, or patients with advanced dementia.
Philosophers such as Antony Flew and Michael Martin have contrasted positive (st
Tom G. Palmer
Tom Gordon Palmer is a libertarian author and theorist, a Senior Fellow at the Cato Institute and Vice President for International Programs at the Atlas Network. Palmer earned his B. A. in liberal arts from St. John's College, his M. A. in philosophy from The Catholic University of America, his doctorate in political science from Oxford University, where he was an H. B. Earhart Fellow at Hertford College. Palmer has been active in the promotion of libertarian and classical liberal ideas and policies since the early 1970s, he has been editor of several publications, including Dollars & Sense and the Humane Studies Review, has published articles in such newspapers and magazines as the New York Times, the Washington Post, the Los Angeles Times, the Spectator of London, National Review, Slate and the Cato Journal. He teaches political economy and legal and constitutional history for the Institute for Humane Studies the Institute of Economic Studies Europe, he works with such organizations as Liberty Fund, the Council on Public Policy, He blogs at his own website and at Cato@Liberty and is a contributor to the Independent Gay Forum.
Palmer is the director of a summer seminar sponsored by the Cato Institute. Palmer is a Senior Fellow of the Cato Institute, where he was also Vice President for International Programs and director of its Center for the Promotion of Human Rights, he remains director of Cato University. On January 1, 2009, the Center's programs were shifted to the Atlas Economic Research Foundation and as the Atlas Global Initiative for Free Trade and Prosperity. Palmer is Executive Vice President of the Atlas Network and General Director of its Global Initiative, which has since expanded its programs; the Atlas Economic Research Foundation was founded by Antony Fisher, the moving force behind Britain's classical liberal Institute of Economic Affairs. Before joining the Cato Institute, he was a vice president of the Institute for Humane Studies at George Mason University. During the late 1980s and the early 1990s he worked with the Institute for Humane Studies and other organizations to spread classical-liberal/libertarian ideas in Eastern Europe.
He traveled throughout the region to hold seminars and smuggled books, cash and fax machines from an office in Vienna, Austria. He arranged for translation and publication into a variety of central and eastern European languages of textbooks in economics and law, as well as seminal works by Ludwig von Mises, F. A. Hayek, Milton Friedman, other thinkers in the libertarian and liberal traditions, he remains active in the region as speaker at various conferences and seminars, like Liberty Seminars in Slovenia. Palmer is attempting to duplicate in the Middle East some of the work he did in Eastern Europe, he has commissioned translation into Middle Eastern languages and publication of works by Frederic Bastiat, F. A. Hayek, James Madison, other libertarian influences, has published essays in Middle Eastern languages on such topics as "Challenges of Democratization" and "Religion and the Law." In April 2005 Palmer addressed members of the Iraqi parliament in the parliamentary assembly hall on constitutionalism and has written on Iraq.
He has promoted the creation of a libertarian web site, lampofliberty.org, where it is available in Arabic, Azerbaijani and Persian. He continues to lecture in the Middle East and works with Arabic and Persian bloggers, he has been involved in campaigning for free speech rights in the Middle East, notably with the campaign to free Abdelkareem Nabil Soliman, through articles in the Washington Post, the Daily Star of Lebanon, other activities. Palmer opposed the invasion of Iraq before it criticized its conduct afterwards. Palmer has published essays on the philosophy of individual rights (e.g. in an essay from Individual Rights Reconsidered, edited by Tibor Machan, a substantive response to G. A. Cohen's attack on property rights, several responses to the theories of Cass Sunstein and Stephen Holmes, essays on multicultural politics, on globalization, on globalization and personal and cultural identity, on libertarian political philosophy. Palmer published an extensive bibliographical essay on libertarianism in The Libertarian Reader, edited by David Boaz.
He has published law review articles on intellectual property that have garnered substantial attention within the legal and technological community for his general critique of patents and copyrights and his suggestions of contractual and technological solutions to the problems for which intellectual property rights are proposed as solutions. Palmer currently publishes a popular blog Tom G. Palmer's Blog. In 2009, many of his essays and op-eds were published as Realizing Freedom: Libertarian Theory and Practice and a 2nd expanded edition of the book was published as well, he served as editor for The Morality of Capitalism: What Your Professors Won't Tell You, published in 2011 and featured essays from Nobel Prize winners Mario Vargas Llosa and Vernon L. Smith, Whole Foods Market CEO and founder John Mackey, scholars from around the world. After the Welfare State: Politicians Stole Your Future, You Can Get It Back, published in 2012, was another book for which he served as editor and contributed essays.
Over 150,000 copies of After The Welfare State was distributed by Students for Liberty to student groups for free. In 2013, Why Liberty: Your Life, Your Choices, Your Future was published, which featured Dr. Palmer as editor and cont
William Wollaston was a school teacher, Church of England priest, scholar of Latin and Hebrew, a major Enlightenment era English philosopher. He is remembered today for one book, which he completed two years before his death: The Religion of Nature Delineated, he led a cloistered life, but in terms of eighteenth-century philosophy and the concept of natural religion, he is ranked with British Enlightenment philosophers such as Locke and Hume. Wollaston's work contributed to the development of two important intellectual schools: British Deism, "the pursuit of happiness" moral philosophy of American Practical Idealism, a phrase which appears in the United States Declaration of Independence. Wollaston was born at Coton Clanford in Staffordshire, on 26 March 1659, he was born to a family long-established in Staffordshire, was distantly related to Sir John Wollaston, the Alderman and Lord Mayor of London. However, his family was not wealthy. At the age of ten, he began school at a Latin school newly opened in Shenstone and continued in country free schools until he was admitted to Sidney Sussex College, Cambridge, at the age of 15, in June 1674.
From his writings it is clear that he was an excellent scholar, "extremely well versed" in languages and literature. In his last year at Cambridge, Wollaston published anonymously a small book, On the Design of the Book of Ecclesiastes, or the Unreasonableness of Men's Restless Contention for the Present Enjoyments, represented in an English Poem. Embarrassed by his own work, Wollaston immediately suppressed it. After leaving Cambridge in September 1681, he became an assistant master at King Edward's School and took holy orders. At this time, he became Perpetual curate of St Mary's Church, Moseley from 1684 – 1686. In 1688 a cousin left him a fortune and the family estates, including Finborough manor and Shenton Hall, in November of the same year he settled in London. There Wollaston devoted himself to private study of learning and philosophy leaving the city and declining to accept any public employment. In retirement, he published The Religion of Nature Delineated in a private edition, he wrote extensively on language, philosophy and history, but in the last few years of his life, he committed most of his manuscripts to the flames, as his health worsened and he began to feel that he would never be able to complete them to his satisfaction.
Wollaston suffered from fragile health throughout his life. Just after completing The Religion of Nature Delineated, he broke his arm in an accident, his strength declined and illnesses increased until his death on 29 October 1724, his body was carried to Great Finborough in Suffolk. The Religion of Nature Delineated was an attempt to create a system of ethics without recourse to revealed religion, he claimed originality for his theory that the moral evil is the practical denial of a true proposition and moral good the affirmation of it, writing that this attempt to use mathematics to create a rationalist ethics was "something never met with anywhere". Wollaston "held that religious truths were plain as Euclid, clear to all who contemplated Creation." Newton had induced natural laws from a mathematical model of the physical world. More than 10,000 copies were sold in the just first few years alone with 22 imprints prior to 1800. There was Wollaston's private edition in 1722. Wollaston's idea of a Natural religion without revelation inspired and revived the movement known as Deism in England.
Some today consider him a "Christian Deist", while others note that there is no "significant evidence that William Wollaston was not a more or less orthodox Christian."Although Wollaston's ideas could be argued to have anticipated both Scottish Common Sense Realism and Utilitarianism proponents of schools of philosophy criticised and sometimes ridiculed Wollaston. These included Francis Hutcheson, David Hume, Richard Price, Jeremy Bentham. After 1759 no further editions of his work was published in the rest of the century. Benjamin Franklin, worked as a compositor on one of the 1726 editions of the book and wrote the short pamphlet A Dissertation on Liberty and Necessity and Pain although he found it "so shallow and unconvincing as to be embarrassing", burned as many copies as he could find. Although rejecting Deism he retained a fondness for the "pursuit of happiness" believing that God was best served by doing good works and helping other people, it was a major influence on the American educator Rev. Dr. Samuel Johnson's college philosophy textbooks.
Its focus on practice as well as speculation attracted a more mature Franklin, who commissioned and published Johnson's textbook Elementa Philosophica in 1752 promoted it in the College of Philadelphia. On 26 November 1689, Wollaston married Catharine Charlton, they had eleven children together. They included: Charlton, the eldest son, died unmarried in 1729 William, Member of Parliament for Ipswich Francis FRS, third son John, fifth son, died 1720. John Nichols, Illustrations of the Literary History of the Eighteenth Century p. 833 John Clarke: A Preface containing A General Account of the Life and Writings of the Author, from the 1750 edition of The Religion of Nature Delineated. Portraits of William Wollaston at the National Portrait
BIBSYS is an administrative agency set up and organized by the Ministry of Education and Research in Norway. They are a service provider, focusing on the exchange and retrieval of data pertaining to research and learning – metadata related to library resources. BIBSYS are collaborating with all Norwegian universities and university colleges as well as research institutions and the National Library of Norway. Bibsys is formally organized as a unit at the Norwegian University of Science and Technology, located in Trondheim, Norway; the board of directors is appointed by Norwegian Ministry of Research. BIBSYS offer researchers and others an easy access to library resources by providing the unified search service Oria.no and other library services. They deliver integrated products for the internal operation for research and special libraries as well as open educational resources; as a DataCite member BIBSYS act as a national DataCite representative in Norway and thereby allow all of Norway's higher education and research institutions to use DOI on their research data.
All their products and services are developed in cooperation with their member institutions. BIBSYS began in 1972 as a collaborative project between the Royal Norwegian Society of Sciences and Letters Library, the Norwegian Institute of Technology Library and the Computer Centre at the Norwegian Institute of Technology; the purpose of the project was to automate internal library routines. Since 1972 Bibsys has evolved from a library system supplier for two libraries in Trondheim, to developing and operating a national library system for Norwegian research and special libraries; the target group has expanded to include the customers of research and special libraries, by providing them easy access to library resources. BIBSYS is a public administrative agency answerable to the Ministry of Education and Research, administratively organised as a unit at NTNU. In addition to BIBSYS Library System, the product portfolio consists of BISBYS Ask, BIBSYS Brage, BIBSYS Galleri and BIBSYS Tyr. All operation of applications and databases is performed centrally by BIBSYS.
BIBSYS offer a range of services, both in connection with their products and separate services independent of the products they supply. Open access in Norway Om Bibsys
Herbert Spencer was an English philosopher, anthropologist and prominent classical liberal political theorist of the Victorian era. Spencer developed an all-embracing conception of evolution as the progressive development of the physical world, biological organisms, the human mind, human culture and societies; as a polymath, he contributed to a wide range of subjects, including ethics, anthropology, political theory, literature, biology and psychology. During his lifetime he achieved tremendous authority in English-speaking academia. "The only other English philosopher to have achieved anything like such widespread popularity was Bertrand Russell, and, in the 20th century." Spencer was "the single most famous European intellectual in the closing decades of the nineteenth century" but his influence declined after 1900: "Who now reads Spencer?" asked Talcott Parsons in 1937. Spencer is best known for the expression "survival of the fittest", which he coined in Principles of Biology, after reading Charles Darwin's On the Origin of Species.
This term suggests natural selection, yet as Spencer extended evolution into realms of sociology and ethics, he made use of Lamarckism. Spencer was born in England, on 27 April 1820, the son of William George Spencer. Spencer's father was a religious dissenter who drifted from Methodism to Quakerism, who seems to have transmitted to his son an opposition to all forms of authority, he ran a school founded on the progressive teaching methods of Johann Heinrich Pestalozzi and served as Secretary of the Derby Philosophical Society, a scientific society, founded in 1783 by Erasmus Darwin, the grandfather of Charles Darwin. Spencer was educated in empirical science by his father, while the members of the Derby Philosophical Society introduced him to pre-Darwinian concepts of biological evolution those of Erasmus Darwin and Jean-Baptiste Lamarck, his uncle, the Reverend Thomas Spencer, vicar of Hinton Charterhouse near Bath, completed Spencer's limited formal education by teaching him some mathematics and physics, enough Latin to enable him to translate some easy texts.
Thomas Spencer imprinted on his nephew his own firm free-trade and anti-statist political views. Otherwise, Spencer was an autodidact who acquired most of his knowledge from narrowly focused readings and conversations with his friends and acquaintances. Both as an adolescent and as a young man, Spencer found it difficult to settle to any intellectual or professional discipline, he worked as a civil engineer during the railway boom of the late 1830s, while devoting much of his time to writing for provincial journals that were nonconformist in their religion and radical in their politics. From 1848 to 1853 he served as sub-editor on the free-trade journal The Economist, during which time he published his first book, Social Statics, which predicted that humanity would become adapted to the requirements of living in society with the consequential withering away of the state, its publisher, John Chapman, introduced Spencer to his salon, attended by many of the leading radical and progressive thinkers of the capital, including John Stuart Mill, Harriet Martineau, George Henry Lewes and Mary Ann Evans, with whom he was romantically linked.
Spencer himself introduced the biologist Thomas Henry Huxley, who would win fame as'Darwin's Bulldog' and who remained his lifelong friend. However it was the friendship of Evans and Lewes that acquainted him with John Stuart Mill's A System of Logic and with Auguste Comte's positivism and which set him on the road to his life's work, he disagreed with Comte. The first fruit of his friendship with Evans and Lewes was Spencer's second book, Principles of Psychology, published in 1855, which explored a physiological basis for psychology; the book was founded on the fundamental assumption that the human mind was subject to natural laws and that these could be discovered within the framework of general biology. This permitted the adoption of a developmental perspective not in terms of the individual, but of the species and the race. Through this paradigm, Spencer aimed to reconcile the associationist psychology of Mill's Logic, the notion that human mind was constructed from atomic sensations held together by the laws of the association of ideas, with the more'scientific' theory of phrenology, which located specific mental functions in specific parts of the brain.
Spencer argued that both these theories were partial accounts of the truth: repeated associations of ideas were embodied in the formation of specific strands of brain tissue, these could be passed from one generation to the next by means of the Lamarckian mechanism of use-inheritance. The Psychology, would do for the human mind what Isaac Newton had done for matter. However, the book was not successful and the last of the 251 copies of its first edition was not sold until June 1861. Spencer's interest in psychology derived from a more fundamental concern, to establish the universality of natural law. In common with others of his generation, including the members of Chapman's salon, he was possessed with the idea of demonstrating that it was possible to show that everything in the universe – including human culture and morality – could be explained by laws of universal validity; this was in contrast to the views of many theologians of the time who insisted that some parts of creation, in particular the human soul, were beyond the realm of scientific investigation.
Comte's Système de Philosophie Po
Atheism: The Case Against God
Atheism: The Case Against God is a 1974 book by George H. Smith, in which the author argues against theism and for atheism. Smith describes the purpose of the book as to show that belief in God is irrational: It is not my purpose to convert people to atheism... demonstrate that the belief in God is irrational to the point of absurdity. If a person wishes to continue believing in a god, his prerogative, but he can no longer excuse his belief in the name of reason and moral necessity; the philosopher Michael Martin published a review in April 1982 and stated that it was "a hard hitting attack against belief" with "some limitations". The God Delusion Anthony Flood's review of Atheism: The Case against God on AnthonyFlood.com Michael Martin's review of "Atheism: The Case Against God"
YouTube is an American video-sharing website headquartered in San Bruno, California. Three former PayPal employees—Chad Hurley, Steve Chen, Jawed Karim—created the service in February 2005. Google bought the site in November 2006 for US$1.65 billion. YouTube allows users to upload, rate, add to playlists, comment on videos, subscribe to other users, it offers a wide variety of corporate media videos. Available content includes video clips, TV show clips, music videos and documentary films, audio recordings, movie trailers, live streams, other content such as video blogging, short original videos, educational videos. Most of the content on YouTube is uploaded by individuals, but media corporations including CBS, the BBC, Hulu offer some of their material via YouTube as part of the YouTube partnership program. Unregistered users can only watch videos on the site, while registered users are permitted to upload an unlimited number of videos and add comments to videos. Videos deemed inappropriate are available only to registered users affirming themselves to be at least 18 years old.
YouTube and its creators earn advertising revenue from Google AdSense, a program which targets ads according to site content and audience. The vast majority of its videos are free to view, but there are exceptions, including subscription-based premium channels, film rentals, as well as YouTube Music and YouTube Premium, subscription services offering premium and ad-free music streaming, ad-free access to all content, including exclusive content commissioned from notable personalities; as of February 2017, there were more than 400 hours of content uploaded to YouTube each minute, one billion hours of content being watched on YouTube every day. As of August 2018, the website is ranked as the second-most popular site in the world, according to Alexa Internet. YouTube has faced criticism over aspects of its operations, including its handling of copyrighted content contained within uploaded videos, its recommendation algorithms perpetuating videos that promote conspiracy theories and falsehoods, hosting videos ostensibly targeting children but containing violent and/or sexually suggestive content involving popular characters, videos of minors attracting pedophilic activities in their comment sections, fluctuating policies on the types of content, eligible to be monetized with advertising.
YouTube was founded by Chad Hurley, Steve Chen, Jawed Karim, who were all early employees of PayPal. Hurley had studied design at Indiana University of Pennsylvania, Chen and Karim studied computer science together at the University of Illinois at Urbana–Champaign. According to a story, repeated in the media and Chen developed the idea for YouTube during the early months of 2005, after they had experienced difficulty sharing videos, shot at a dinner party at Chen's apartment in San Francisco. Karim did not attend the party and denied that it had occurred, but Chen commented that the idea that YouTube was founded after a dinner party "was very strengthened by marketing ideas around creating a story, digestible". Karim said the inspiration for YouTube first came from Janet Jackson's role in the 2004 Super Bowl incident, when her breast was exposed during her performance, from the 2004 Indian Ocean tsunami. Karim could not find video clips of either event online, which led to the idea of a video sharing site.
Hurley and Chen said that the original idea for YouTube was a video version of an online dating service, had been influenced by the website Hot or Not. Difficulty in finding enough dating videos led to a change of plans, with the site's founders deciding to accept uploads of any type of video. YouTube began as a venture capital-funded technology startup from an $11.5 million investment by Sequoia Capital and an $8 million investment from Artis Capital Management between November 2005 and April 2006. YouTube's early headquarters were situated above a pizzeria and Japanese restaurant in San Mateo, California; the domain name www.youtube.com was activated on February 14, 2005, the website was developed over the subsequent months. The first YouTube video, titled Me at the zoo, shows co-founder Jawed Karim at the San Diego Zoo; the video was uploaded on April 23, 2005, can still be viewed on the site. YouTube offered the public a beta test of the site in May 2005; the first video to reach one million views was a Nike advertisement featuring Ronaldinho in November 2005.
Following a $3.5 million investment from Sequoia Capital in November, the site launched on December 15, 2005, by which time the site was receiving 8 million views a day. The site grew and, in July 2006, the company announced that more than 65,000 new videos were being uploaded every day, that the site was receiving 100 million video views per day. According to data published by market research company comScore, YouTube is the dominant provider of online video in the United States, with a market share of around 43% and more than 14 billion views of videos in May 2010. In May 2011, 48 hours of new videos were uploaded to the site every minute, which increased to 60 hours every minute in January 2012, 100 hours every minute in May 2013, 300 hours every minute in November 2014, 400 hours every minute in February 2017; as of January 2012, the site had 800 million unique users a month. It is estimated that in 2007 YouTube consumed as much bandwidth as the entire Internet in 2000. According to third-party web analytics providers and SimilarWeb, YouTube is the second-most visited website in the world, as of December 2016.