Lowell is a city in the U. S. Commonwealth of Massachusetts. Located in Middlesex County, Lowell was a county seat until Massachusetts disbanded county government in 1999. With an estimated population of 109,945 in 2014, it is the fourth-largest city in Massachusetts, the second-largest in the Boston metropolitan statistical area; the city is part of a smaller Massachusetts statistical area called Greater Lowell, as well as New England's Merrimack Valley region. Incorporated in 1826 to serve as a mill town, Lowell was named after Francis Cabot Lowell, a local figure in the Industrial Revolution; the city became known as the cradle of the American Industrial Revolution, due to a large series of textile mills and factories. Many of the Lowell's historic manufacturing sites were preserved by the National Park Service to create Lowell National Historical Park. During the Cambodian genocide, the city took in an influx of refugees, leading to a Cambodia Town and America's second-largest Cambodian-American population.
Lowell is home to two institutions of higher education. Founded in the 1820s as a planned manufacturing center for textiles, Lowell is located along the rapids of the Merrimack River, 25 miles northwest of Boston in what was once the farming community of East Chelmsford, Massachusetts; the so-called Boston Associates, including Nathan Appleton and Patrick Tracy Jackson of the Boston Manufacturing Company, named the new mill town after their visionary leader, Francis Cabot Lowell, who had died five years before its 1823 incorporation. As Lowell's population grew, it acquired land from neighboring towns, diversified into a full-fledged urban center. Many of the men who composed the labor force for constructing the canals and factories had immigrated from Ireland, escaping the poverty and Potato Famines of the 1830s and 1840s; the mill workers, young single women called Mill Girls came from the farm families of New England. By the 1850s, Lowell had the largest industrial complex in the United States.
The textile industry wove cotton produced in the South. In 1860, there were more cotton spindles in Lowell than in all eleven states combined that would form the Confederacy, yet the city did not finish raw materials produced in the American South, but rather became involved in the South in another way, too. Many of the coarse cottons produced in Lowell returned to the South to clothe enslaved people, according to historian Sven Beckert, "'Lowell' became the generic term slaves used to describe coarse cottons." The city continued to thrive as a major industrial center during the 19th century, attracting more migrant workers and immigrants to its mills. Next were the Catholic Germans, followed by a large influx of French Canadians during the 1870s and 1880s. Waves of immigrants included Portuguese, Lithuanians, Swedes and eastern European Jews, they came to work in Lowell and settled in ethnic neighborhoods, with the city's population reaching 50% foreign-born by 1900. By the time World War I broke out in Europe, the city had reached its economic and population peak of over 110,000 people.
The Mill Cities' manufacturing base declined as companies began to relocate to the South in the 1920s. The city fell into hard times, was referred to as a "depressed industrial desert" by Harper's Magazine in 1931, as the Great Depression worsened. At this time, more than one-third of its population was "on relief", as only three of its major textile corporations remained active. Several years the mills were reactivated, making parachutes and other military necessities for the World War II effort. However, this economic boost was short-lived and the post-war years saw the last textile plants close. In the 1970s, Lowell became part of the Massachusetts Miracle, being the headquarters of Wang Laboratories. At the same time, Lowell became home to thousands of new immigrants, many from Cambodia, following the genocide at the hands of the Khmer Rouge; the city continued focusing more on culture. The former mill district along the river was restored and became part of the Lowell National Historical Park, founded in the late 1970s.
Although Wang went bankrupt in 1992, the city continued its cultural focus by hosting the nation's largest free folk festival, the Lowell Folk Festival, as well as many other cultural events. This effort began to attract other families back to the urban center. Additional historic manufacturing and commercial buildings were adapted as residential units and office space. By the 1990s, Lowell had built a new ballpark and arena, which became home to two minor league sports teams, the Lowell Devils and Lowell Spinners; the city began to have a larger student population. The University of Massachusetts Lowell and Middlesex Community College expanded their programs and enrollment. During the period of time when Lowell was part of the Massachusetts Miracle, the Lowell City Development Authority created a Comprehensive Master Plan which included recommendations for zoning adaptations within the city; the city's original zoning code was adopted in 1926 and was revised in 1966 and 2004, with changes included to respond to concerns about overdevelopment.
In 2002, in lieu of updating the Comprehensive Master Plan, more broad changes were recommended so that the land use and development would be consistent with the current master plan. The most significant revision to the 1966 zoning code is the adoption of an inclusion of a transect-based zoning code and some aspects of a form-based code style of zoning that emphasizes urban design elements as a means to ensure that infill development will respect the character of the neighborhood or district in question. By 2004, the recommended zoning changes were unanim
The Olympic Club of Washington, D. C. or Washington Olympics in modern nomenclature, was an early professional baseball team. When the National Association of Base Ball Players permitted professional clubs for the 1869 season, the Olympics were one of twelve to go pro. Two years they were a founding member of the first professional sports league, the National Association of Professional Base Ball Players; the Olympics played home games at Olympics Grounds in Washington. They were founded by Nicholas Young, an outfielder who continued as non-playing business and field manager after 1870. For 1871 the Olympics hired five players from the famous Cincinnati Red Stockings; the new Boston Red Stockings hired the other half including his selection. With the name "Red Stockings" taken, local writers dubbed the Olympic club the "Blue Stockings"; the Boston club lost a close pennant race. During their two league seasons they won 17 games and lost 22 for a winning percentage of.436. 1871 Washington Olympics season 1872 Washington Olympics season Baseball Reference team index
Buffalo Bisons (NL)
The original Buffalo Bisons baseball club played in the National League between 1879 and 1885. The Bisons played their games at Olympic Park in Buffalo, New York; the NL Bisons are included in the history of the minor-league team of the same name that still plays today. Dan Brouthers Bill Crowley Davy Force Pud Galvin Charley Radbourn Jim O'Rourke Hardy Richardson Jack Rowe Deacon WhiteBrouthers, Galvin, O'Rourke and White are members of the Baseball Hall of Fame. 1877: A precursor to the Bisons played an independent schedule, finishing with a 79-28-3 record. The team subsequently joined the National League. 1880: Future Hall of Fame pitcher Charlie Radbourn debuted as a second baseman on May 5 1880: Pud Galvin pitched a no-hitter against the Worcester Ruby Legs on Aug. 20 1881: 2B Davy Force recorded 12 putouts, seven assists, two unassisted double plays, participated in a triple play, made just one error in 20 chances in a 12-inning game against Worcester, on September 15. 1882: Ireland-born Curry Foley became the first major league player to hit for the cycle, on May 25, Dan Brouthers led the National League with a.368 batting average 1883: Brouthers won his second consecutive NL batting title with a.374 average and Galvin posted 46 wins 1884: Brouthers hit triples in four consecutive games, set a season team-record with 14 home runs, Galvin won 46 games for the second year in a row.
Galvin threw another no-hitter, on August 4. The Bisons 18-0 score remains the greatest margin of victory in a no-hitter in Major League history. Two years after Foley, Jim O'Rourke became the fourth player in MLB history to hit for the cycle, on June 16. 1885: Brouthers hit.359, ending second in the NL batting race behind Roger Connor Buffalo Bisons all-time roster 1879 Buffalo Bisons season 1880 Buffalo Bisons season 1881 Buffalo Bisons season 1882 Buffalo Bisons season 1883 Buffalo Bisons season 1884 Buffalo Bisons season 1885 Buffalo Bisons season Buffalo Bisons 19th century National League teams Baseball Almanac Team index page at Baseball Reference Buffalo Bisons history
In baseball, a triple is the act of a batter safely reaching third base after hitting the ball, with neither the benefit of a fielder's misplay nor another runner being put out on a fielder's choice. A triple is sometimes called a "three-bagger" or "three-base hit". For statistical and scorekeeping purposes it is denoted by 3B. Triples have become somewhat rare in Major League Baseball, it requires a ball hit to a distant part of the field, or the ball taking an unusual bounce in the outfield. It usually requires that the batter hit the ball solidly, be a speedy runner, it often requires that the batter's team have a good strategic reason for wanting the batter on third base, as a double will put the batter in scoring position and there will be little strategic advantage to taking the risk of trying to stretch a double into a triple.. The trend for modern ballparks is to have smaller outfields. A walk-off triple occurs infrequently. For example, the 2016 MLB season saw only three walk-off triples, excluding one play, a triple plus an error.
List of Major League Baseball career triples leaders List of Major League Baseball triples records List of Major League Baseball single-season triples leaders List of career triples leaders, Baseball-Reference.com List of single-season triples leaders, Baseball-Reference.com
The Atlantic Base Ball Club of Brooklyn was baseball's first champion and its first dynasty. The team was the first baseball club to visit the White House in 1865 at the invitation of President Andrew Johnson. Established on August 14, 1855, Atlantic was a founding member of the National Association of Base Ball Players in 1857. In 1859, with a record of 11 wins and 1 loss, Atlantic emerged as the recognized champions of baseball. Atlantic held the championship through the 1861 season, albeit in controversial fashion. In a third and deciding game with Excelsior of Brooklyn, Excelsior was leading 8–6 and had men on base, but was forced to withdraw by a rowdy crowd of Atlantic partisans and gamblers; the game was declared a draw, the championship retained by Atlantic. Atlantic held the championship again through the 1861 season, shortened due to the American Civil War, before surrendering it to archrival Eckford of Brooklyn in 1862. Atlantic recaptured the pennant in 1866 with a season record of twenty wins, no defeats, a single tie as the only blemish on its record.
Atlantic went undefeated in 1865 with an 18–0 record, sweeping series against chief rivals Mutual of New York and Athletic of Philadelphia. Great players of this era included Joe Start, Dickey Pearce, Charlie Smith, Fred Crane, Tom Pratt. Atlantic's 36-game winning streak was broken in June, 1866 by Irvington, NJ. Atlantic retained the pennant that year by splitting a two-game series with Athletic of Philadelphia and declining to schedule a series with Union of Morrisania. Atlantic did surrender the title to Union in 1867; when Atlantic defeated Eckford to regain the pennant in 1869, Atlantic had lost to the Cincinnati Red Stockings. This allowed Atlantic to claim the championship over the undefeated Cincinnati club under the "challenge" format of the National Association of Base Ball Players, which resembled modern boxing championship rules rather than a league or tournament format; this outcome undoubtedly contributed to the tremendous anticipation when Cincinnati came to Brooklyn with an 89-game winning streak to meet the Atlantics on June 14, 1870 at Atlantic's home Capitoline Grounds.
An estimated crowd of fifteen thousand paid 50 cents a piece to see Atlantic win 8–7 in extra innings in one of the most significant games in baseball history. Atlantic surrendered the title in the year, though, to Mutual. After the 1865 season, the Atlantics became the first baseball team to visit the White House. Arthur Gorman, one of the founders of the Washington Nationals Base Ball Club and an acquaintance of President Andrew Johnson, organized a tournament featuring his team, the Athletic Base Ball Club of Philadelphia and the Atlantics. Philadelphia refused to play in the final game as they would not receive any of the gate revenue and left. Having known President Johnson since his days as a page in the United States Senate, Gorman offered to take the visiting team to the White House to meet the President. Brooklyn accepted and visited on August 30, 1865. Atlantic had been among the first clubs to declare themselves professional when allowed to do so in 1869. However, when the major professional clubs formed the National Association of Professional Base Ball Players in 1871, Atlantic declined to field a team.
As a result, their best players, including George Zettlein, Bob Ferguson, Joe Start and Lip Pike, jumped to other clubs. When Atlantic did join the professional circuit in 1872, it was unable to reestablish itself as a leading club, suffering losing records in each of its four seasons in the league. Atlantic was not invited to join the National League when that circuit was formed in 1876, but continued to play an independent schedule until at least 1882. A remnant Atlantic was invited to join the upstart American Association in 1882 but failed to satisfy the requirements for doing so. For many years afterwards, the term Atlantic batting referred to a big inning late in the game. Source for season records: Wright has published records for dozens of NABBP teams each season, relying on a mix of game and season records in contemporary newspapers and guides. Dozens of leading clubs by number of matches are included; the records do not cover either all games played or all championship matches between NABBP members.
1872 Brooklyn Atlantics season 1873 Brooklyn Atlantics season 1874 Brooklyn Atlantics season 1875 Brooklyn Atlantics season The 1865 Atlantics are said to have been on the first baseball card. The only known card was archived at the Library of Congress since the 1880s, when the photographer Charles Williamson submitted the photo for copyright, it remained the only "card" known to exist until 2013, when another card was found in an old photo album at a yard sale. The 148-year-old team photo was sold to an unnamed bidder for $92,000.00 when it went up for auction on February 6, 2013 in Maine. Baseball-Reference. "Brooklyn Atlantics Team Index". Retrieved 2006-09-17. Retrosheet. "Brooklyn Atlantics". Retrieved 2006-09-17. Wright, Marshall; the National Association of Base Ball Players, 1857–1870. Jefferson, NC: McFarland & Co. ISBN 0-7864-0779-4 Brooklyn Atlantics – a vintage base ball club Brooklyn Atlantics at Baseball Reference
A right fielder, abbreviated RF, is the outfielder in baseball or softball who plays defense in right field. Right field is the area of the outfield to the right of a person standing at home plate and facing towards the pitcher's mound. In the numbering system used to record defensive plays, the right fielder is assigned the number 9. Outfielders must cover large distances, so speed and quickness to react to the ball are key, they must be able to catch fly balls above their head and on the run, as well as prevent balls hit down the right field foul line from getting past them. Being situated 250–300 feet from home plate, they must be able to throw the ball over a long distance to be effective. Of all outfield positions, the right fielder has the strongest arm, because they are the farthest from third base; as well as the requirements above, the right fielder backs up first base on all throws from the catcher and pitcher, when possible, all bunted balls, since the catcher or the first baseman must be available for fielding the ball.
The right fielder backs up second base on any ball thrown from the left side of the field, i.e. shortstop, third base, or foul line territory. The right fielder backs up first base when the first baseman is in a run down between 3rd base and home; the right fielder tends to be a stronger offensive player than defensive, as right-handed batters, which are more common than left-handed ones, tend to pull the ball to left field in Little League. Right field has developed a reputation in Little League as being a position where less talented players can be "hidden" without damaging a team's defense in any significant way. Unlike the major league level, where hitters have the ability to drive the ball into the outfield in all directions, most little league batters are unable to hit the ball out of the infield with any regularity. Additionally, since most batters are right-handed, the left fielder will have far more opportunities to make a play than the right fielder. Lucy van Pelt Evelyn Gardner Baseball Hall of Fame Gold Glove Award Outfielder
William H. Craver was an American Major League Baseball player from Troy, New York who played as a middle infielder, but did play many games at catcher as well during his seven-year career, he played in two leagues. He was expelled from the Major Leagues in the infamous Louisville gambling scandal in 1877. Before his baseball career, Craver had served in the military during the Civil War with the 13th Heavy Artillery Regiment out of New York, he enlisted on January 21, 1864, as a Private in Company K, mustered out on June 28 in Norfolk, Virginia. When the war, his military career was over, he began his organized baseball career as a catcher in 1866 with the Union Baseball Club of Rensselaer County, which became the Unions of Lansingburgh; the Unions gained the nickname of Haymakers in August of that year after a visit to the Capitoline Grounds and the Elysian Fields. In 1870, while playing for a Chicago team, he was accused of breaking his contract with the team. In 1871, Craver joined the Troy Haymakers, who entered the National Association of Professional Base Ball Players in the league's first season.
He played second base, after just four games, he replaced Lip Pike as manager. He played well, batting.322. For the next two seasons, he joined the Baltimore Canaries, the first of which he was player-manager, he was replaced at manager in the year by Everett Mills, but stayed with the team through the 1873 season. Playing for the Philadelphia White Stockings in 1874, he led the league in games played, as a second baseman, he led the league in putouts and errors. Craver had his best offensive season that year, leading the league in stolen bases. In 1875, he moved over the Philadelphia Centennials, he played in just 13 games for them when, together with George Bechtel, he was traded to the Philadelphia Athletics to replace injured players Dave Eggler and Wes Fisler in exchange for $1,500. He led the NA in triples in 1875 with 13; the National Association folded following the 1875 season, Craver joined the 1876 New York Mutuals, a team that he managed. It was his only season in New York, as the Mutuals were expelled from the league for not making the required western trip.
It was during this season that Craver was reputedly savagely beaten by a gambler for doublecrossing him on a fix. He gained infamy his final season, when playing for the Louisville Grays. In 1877, the Grays were ahead in the league standings, with a 27-13 record with only 15 games left to play, but lost their lead through horrible play, losing eight straight games at one point; the trouble began when third baseman Bill Hague was injured and needed to be replaced. George Hall suggested; the errors by Nichols and Craver began to accumulate, owner Charles Chase became suspicious when he noticed that Nichols was still in the line-up though Hague was healthy. The players were soon seen around town with new clothes and jewelry. Chase confronted pitcher Jim Devlin and didn't receive a confession, but Hall thought Devlin did confess and he made a full confession. Hall claimed that Nichols was the person in contact with the gamblers and all three had thrown games. Chase requested from each member of the team permission to see all the Western Union telegrams sent and received.
Craver was the only man on the team to refuse. The telegrams proved; the National League subsequently expelled all four players "for conduct in contravention of the objects of this League." Craver was banned though it was not proven that he participated in throwing any games, but there were reports of his gambling and insubordination in his past, along with his refusal to cooperate with this investigation. After his forced retirement, Craver became a police officer, along with fellow "criminal" Devlin, he began to receive military disability on July 1, 1892, as a result of time as a soldier, which would continue on to his widow, Catherine C. Craver. Craver died at the age of 57 of heart disease in his hometown of Troy, is interred at Oakwood Cemetery. Denny Mack – the Radcliffe affair Career statistics and player information from Baseball-Reference New York State Military Museum – 13th Heavy Artillery Regiment