A given name is a part of a person's personal name. It identifies a person, differentiates that person from the other members of a group who have a common surname; the term given name refers to the fact that the name is bestowed upon a person to a child by their parents at or close to the time of birth. A Christian name, a first name, given at baptism, is now typically given by the parents at birth. In informal situations, given names are used in a familiar and friendly manner. In more formal situations, a person's surname is more used—unless a distinction needs to be made between people with the same surname; the idioms "on a first-name basis" and "being on first-name terms" refer to the familiarity inherent in addressing someone by their given name. By contrast, a surname, inherited, is shared with other members of one's immediate family. Regnal names and religious or monastic names are special given names bestowed upon someone receiving a crown or entering a religious order; such a person typically becomes known chiefly by that name.
The order given name – family name known as the Western order, is used throughout most European countries and in countries that have cultures predominantly influenced by European culture, including North and South America. The order family name – given name known as the Eastern order, is used in East Asia, as well as in Southern and North-Eastern parts of India, in Hungary; this order is common in Austria and Bavaria, in France, Belgium and Italy because of the influence of bureaucracy, which puts the family name before the given name. In China and Korea, part of the given name may be shared among all members of a given generation within a family and extended family or families, in order to differentiate those generations from other generations; the order given name – father's family name – mother's family name is used in Spanish-speaking countries to acknowledge the families of both parents. Today the order can be changed in Spain and Uruguay using given name – mother's family name – father's family name.
The order given name – mother's family name – father's family name is used in Portuguese-speaking countries to acknowledge the families of both parents. In many Western cultures, people have more than one given name. One of those, not the first in succession might be used as the name which that person goes by, such as in the cases of John Edgar Hoover and Mary Barbara Hamilton Cartland. A child's given name or names are chosen by the parents soon after birth. If a name is not assigned at birth, one may be given at a naming ceremony, with family and friends in attendance. In most jurisdictions, a child's name at birth is a matter of public record, inscribed on a birth certificate, or its equivalent. In western cultures, people retain the same given name throughout their lives. However, in some cases these names may be changed by repute. People may change their names when immigrating from one country to another with different naming conventions. In certain jurisdictions, a government-appointed registrar of births may refuse to register a name that may cause a child harm, considered offensive or which are deemed impractical.
In France, the agency can refer the case to a local judge. Some jurisdictions, such as Sweden, restrict the spelling of names. Parents may choose a name because of its meaning; this may be a personal or familial meaning, such as giving a child the name of an admired person, or it may be an example of nominative determinism, in which the parents give the child a name that they believe will be lucky or favourable for the child. Given names most derive from the following categories: Aspirational personal traits. For example, the name Clement means "merciful". English examples include Faith and August. Occupations, for example George means "earth-worker", i.e. "farmer". Circumstances of birth, for example Thomas meaning "twin" or the Latin name Quintus, traditionally given to the fifth male child. Objects, for example Peter means "rock" and Edgar means "rich spear". Physical characteristics, for example Calvin means "bald". Variations on another name to change the sex of the name or to translate from another language.
Surnames, for example Winston and Ross. Such names can honour other branches of a family, where the surname would not otherwise be passed down. Places, for example Brittany and Lorraine. Time of birth, for example day of the week, as in Kofi Annan, whose given name means "born on Friday", or the holiday on which one was born, for example, the name Natalie meaning "born on Christmas day" in Latin. Tuesday, May, or June. Combination of the above, for example the Armenian name Sirvart means "love rose". In many cultures, given names are reused to commemorate ancestors or those who are admired, resulting in a limited repertoire of names that sometimes vary by orthography; the most familiar example of this, to Western readers, is the use of Biblical and saints' names in most of the Christian countries (with Ethiopia, in which names were ideals or abstractions
1911 Australian census
The 1911 Australian census was the first national population census held in Australia. The day used for the census, was taken for the night between the 2 and 3 April 1911; the total population of the Commonwealth of Australia was counted as 4,455,005 - an increase of 681,204 people, 18.05% over the 1901 "Federation" Census. The Census Volumes II and III were published on 30 September 1914. At that time it was intended to issue shortly thereafter Volume 1; the first Commonwealth Statistician was George Handley Knibbs. He began his career as a licensed surveyor in government service. On Monday 3 April 1911, census collectors set out all over Australia under clear skies to begin gathering in Australia's first national census forms, they covered suburbs to the outback. They travelled by bike or horse where they had the transport, needed to cover large areas, most travelled by foot; some in Northern Queensland had to find their way through a flooded landscape while others in South Australia had difficulties finding water and fodder for their horses due to droughts.
They had distributed the forms prior to the census day. There was a permanent staff of the ‘Bureau of Census and Statistics’ which consisted of the Statistician and many assistants, some young men working as clerks as well as a couple of messenger boys. A female typist had joined soon after, they worked in the old Rialto Building in Melbourne. Collectors had to supply their own transport and cover any associated costs such as fodder and petrol, they were paid according to their method of transport. Collectors on foot were paid ten shilling a day, those on bicycle fifteens shillings a day and those on horse 20 shillings a day. Police were used in the days following the census to get travellers and campers to provide their information. Train conductors and ships' captains were used as collectors in the 1911 census and several subsequent censuses, to cover people travelling overnight on census night. For Every Person present in the Night from 2 to 3 April 1911. Name in full Sex -, Date of Birth: Day If married, write M.
If widowed, write W. If divorced, write D. If never married, write N. M. Date of existing Marriage: Year................. Number of Children from existing Marriage..................... Number of Children: from previous Marriage............... Relation to Head of Household State if Blind or Deaf and Dumb................ Country where born If a British subject by parentage. Write P. If a British subject by Naturalization. Write N. Race - If born outside Commonwealth, state length of residence therein Date of Arrival in Commonwealth Religion Education At present receiving Education Profession or Occupation State if Employer or Employee, &c If out of work, state period Occupation of Employer. Population counts for Australian states and territories had 4,455,005 and 19,939 full-Aboriginals for a total population of 4,474,944. Note: All figures are for the census resident population count. At the Census of the 3rd April, 1911, each person was asked to state on a " personal" card, the" Country or Australian State where born," and to state on a "personal" card, the Country or Australian State where born," and from the replies to this query, taken in conjunction with the other data furnished, the tables contained in Part II.
At the first Australian census in 1911 only those "aboriginal natives" living near European settlements were enumerated, the main population tables included only those of half or less Aboriginal descent. Details of those "full-blood" Aborigines enumerated were included in separate tables. According to these figures it appears that of the 4,455,005 people in Australia on census day 4,274,414 were Christians, 36,785 non-Christians, 14,673 are described as indefinite, 10,016 were of no religion, 83,003 objected to state to what faith, if any, they belonged, the remaining 36,114 were unspecified. 1911 in Australia Census in Australia Australian Bureau of Statistics
A knight is a man granted an honorary title of knighthood by a monarch, bishop or other political or religious leader for service to the monarch or a Christian church in a military capacity. In Europe, knighthood was conferred upon mounted warriors. During the High Middle Ages, knighthood was considered a class of lower nobility. By the Late Middle Ages, the rank had become associated with the ideals of chivalry, a code of conduct for the perfect courtly Christian warrior. A knight was a vassal who served as an elite fighter, a bodyguard or a mercenary for a lord, with payment in the form of land holdings; the lords trusted the knights. Knighthood in the Middle Ages was linked with horsemanship from its origins in the 12th century until its final flowering as a fashion among the high nobility in the Duchy of Burgundy in the 15th century; this linkage is reflected in the etymology of chivalry and related terms. The special prestige accorded to mounted warriors in Christendom finds a parallel in the furusiyya in the Muslim world, the Greek hippeis and Roman eques of classical antiquity.
In the late medieval period, new methods of warfare began to render classical knights in armour obsolete, but the titles remained in many nations. The ideals of chivalry were popularized in medieval literature the literary cycles known as the Matter of France, relating to the legendary companions of Charlemagne and his men-at-arms, the paladins, the Matter of Britain, relating to the legend of King Arthur and his Round Table. Today, a number of orders of knighthood continue to exist in Christian Churches, as well as in several Christian countries and their former territories, such as the Roman Catholic Order of the Holy Sepulchre and Order of Malta, the Protestant Order of Saint John, as well as the English Order of the Garter, the Swedish Royal Order of the Seraphim, the Royal Norwegian Order of St. Olav; each of these orders has its own criteria for eligibility, but knighthood is granted by a head of state, monarch, or prelate to selected persons to recognise some meritorious achievement, as in the British honours system for service to the Church or country.
The modern female equivalent in the United Kingdom is Dame. The word knight, from Old English cniht, is a cognate of the German word Knecht; this meaning, of unknown origin, is common among West Germanic languages. Middle High German had the phrase guoter kneht, which meant knight; the meaning of cniht changed over time from its original meaning of "boy" to "household retainer". Ælfric's homily of St. Swithun describes a mounted retainer as a cniht. While cnihtas might have fought alongside their lords, their role as household servants features more prominently in the Anglo-Saxon texts. In several Anglo-Saxon wills cnihtas are left either money or lands. In his will, King Æthelstan leaves his cniht, eight hides of land. A rādcniht, "riding-servant", was a servant on horseback. A narrowing of the generic meaning "servant" to "military follower of a king or other superior" is visible by 1100; the specific military sense of a knight as a mounted warrior in the heavy cavalry emerges only in the Hundred Years' War.
The verb "to knight" appears around 1300. An Equestrian was a member of the second highest social class in the Roman Republic and early Roman Empire; this class is translated as "knight". In the Roman Empire, the classical Latin word for horse, was replaced in common parlance by the vulgar Latin caballus, sometimes thought to derive from Gaulish caballos. From caballus arose terms in the various Romance languages cognate with the English cavalier: Italian cavaliere, Spanish caballero, French chevalier, Portuguese cavaleiro, Romanian cavaler; the Germanic languages have terms cognate with the English rider: German Ritter, Dutch and Scandinavian ridder. These words are derived from Germanic rīdan, "to ride", in turn derived from the Proto-Indo-European root reidh-. In ancient Rome there was a knightly class Ordo Equestris; some portions of the armies of Germanic peoples who occupied Europe from the 3rd century AD onward had been mounted, some armies, such as those of the Ostrogoths, were cavalry.
However, it was the Franks who fielded armies composed of large masses of infantry, with an infantry elite, the comitatus, which rode to battle on horseback rather than marching on foot. When the armies of the Frankish ruler Charles Martel defeated the Umayyad Arab invasion at the Battle of Tours in 732, the Frankish forces were still infantry armies, with elites riding to battle but dismounting to fight. In the Early Medieval period any well-equipped horseman could be described as a knight, or miles in Latin; the first knights appeared during the reign of Charlemagne in the 8th century. As the Carolingian Age progressed, the Franks were on the attack, larger numbers of warriors took to their horses to ride with the Emperor in his wide-ranging campaigns of conquest. At about this time the Franks remained on horseback to fight on the battlefield as true cavalry rather than mounted in
Virtual International Authority File
The Virtual International Authority File is an international authority file. It is a joint project of several national libraries and operated by the Online Computer Library Center. Discussion about having a common international authority started in the late 1990s. After a series of failed attempts to come up with a unique common authority file, the new idea was to link existing national authorities; this would present all the benefits of a common file without requiring a large investment of time and expense in the process. The project was initiated by the US Library of Congress, the German National Library and the OCLC on August 6, 2003; the Bibliothèque nationale de France joined the project on October 5, 2007. The project transitioned to being a service of the OCLC on April 4, 2012; the aim is to link the national authority files to a single virtual authority file. In this file, identical records from the different data sets are linked together. A VIAF record receives a standard data number, contains the primary "see" and "see also" records from the original records, refers to the original authority records.
The data are available for research and data exchange and sharing. Reciprocal updating uses the Open Archives Initiative Protocol for Metadata Harvesting protocol; the file numbers are being added to Wikipedia biographical articles and are incorporated into Wikidata. VIAF's clustering algorithm is run every month; as more data are added from participating libraries, clusters of authority records may coalesce or split, leading to some fluctuation in the VIAF identifier of certain authority records. Authority control Faceted Application of Subject Terminology Integrated Authority File International Standard Authority Data Number International Standard Name Identifier Wikipedia's authority control template for articles Official website VIAF at OCLC
Système universitaire de documentation
The système universitaire de documentation or SUDOC is a system used by the libraries of French universities and higher education establishments to identify and manage the documents in their possession. The catalog, which contains more than 10 million references, allows students and researcher to search for bibliographical and location information in over 3,400 documentation centers, it is maintained by the Bibliographic Agency for Higher Education. Official website
David Low (cartoonist)
Sir David Alexander Cecil Low was a New Zealand political cartoonist and caricaturist who lived and worked in the United Kingdom for many years. Low was a self-taught cartoonist. Born in New Zealand, he worked in his native country before migrating to Sydney in 1911, to London, where he made his career and earned fame for his Colonel Blimp depictions and his merciless satirising of the personalities and policies of German dictator Adolf Hitler, Italian dictator Benito Mussolini, Soviet dictator Joseph Stalin, other leaders of his times. Low was educated in New Zealand, his first work was published. His professional career began at The Canterbury Times in 1910; the following year he worked for The Bulletin. His work attracted the attention of Henry Cadbury, the part owner of The Star, Low moved to London in 1919, working for that paper until 1927, when he moved to the Evening Standard. There he produced his most famous work, chronicling the rise of fascism in the 1930s, the policy of Appeasement, the conflict of World War II.
His stinging depictions of Hitler and Mussolini led to his work being banned in Italy and Germany, his being named in The Black Book. The son of chemist David Brown Low and Jane Caroline Flanagan, David Low was born in Dunedin on 7 April 1891, attended primary school there, his family moved to Christchurch, where Low attended Christchurch Boys' High School. However following the death of his eldest brother, Low was taken out of school, as his parents believed that he had been weakened by over studying. Low's first cartoon was published in 1902, when he was 11 years old, a three-picture strip in the British comic Big Budget. Low began his career as a professional cartoonist with the Canterbury Times in 1910. In 1911 he moved to Australia to join The Bulletin. During his employment at The Bulletin, Low became well known for a 1916 cartoon satirising Billy Hughes the Prime Minister of Australia, entitled The Imperial Conference. After that success, Low published many cartoons depicting Hughes' forceful and eccentric personality.
Hughes was not impressed and called Low a "bastard" to his face. A collection of Low's cartoons of Hughes entitled The Billy Book, which he published in 1918, brought Low to the notice of Henry Cadbury, part-owner of the London Star. In 1919 Cadbury offered Low a job with the Star. In England, Low worked at the London Star from 1919 to 1927; the London Star sympathised with his own moderately left-wing views. In 1927, he accepted an invitation from Max Aitken to join the conservative Evening Standard on the strict understanding that there would be no editorial interference with his output. Low produced numerous cartoons about the Austrian Civil War, the Italian invasion of Ethiopia, the 1936 Summer Olympics, the Spanish Civil War, other events of the interwar period, he worked with Horace Thorogood to produce illustrated whimsical articles on the London scene, under the byline "Low & Terry". John Gunther called Low "the greatest caricaturist in the world". In 1937, Nazi Propaganda Minister Joseph Goebbels told British Foreign Secretary Lord Halifax that British political cartoons those of Low's, were damaging Anglo-German relations.
In 1937 Low had produced an occasional strip about "Hit and Muss", but after Germany made official complaints he substituted a composite dictator, "Muzzler". After the war, Low is said to have found his name in The Black Book, the list of those the Nazis planned to arrest in the aftermath of an invasion of Great Britain, his works are featured in many British history textbooks. On 1 September, the Germans invaded Poland from the west and, on 17 September, the Soviets invaded from the east. Low depicted these events in one of his most famous cartoons, first published in the Evening Standard on 20 September 1939, it satirises the cynicism which lay at the heart of the Molotov–Ribbentrop Pact, showing Hitler and Soviet dictator Joseph Stalin bowing politely across the dead body of Poland, but greeting each other as "the scum of the earth, I believe?" and "the bloody assassin of the workers, I presume?". The words are based on those used by Henry Morton Stanley at his meeting with David Livingstone in 1871.
The Harmony Boys of 2 May 1940 depicts Hitler, Italian dictator Benito Mussolini, Spanish dictator Francisco Franco "harmonizing" and getting along quite well. When this cartoon was published, the German invasion of the Soviet Union was still more than a year in the future, his satirical works met much criticism in the British public eye. The British press called him a "war monger," and many citizens felt disdain for his depictions of appeasement. Low remained in the United Kingdom for the rest of his career, he left the Evening Standard in 1950. That same year, he moved to the Daily Herald and stayed there until 1953. Low moved to the Manchester Guardian and was there from 1953. Low received a knighthood in the 1962 Birthday Honours and died at his home in London on 19 September 1963, his obituary in The Guardian described him as "the dominant cartoonist of the western world". A blue plaque commemorates Low at Kensington. Low married Madeline Grieve Kenning of Auckland on 7 June 1920 in Covent Garden.
The couple had two daughters: in 1939, Time described Low's breakfast as "a political meeting, with the cartoonist, his wife, his two young daughters threshing out the news." His wife and daughters survived him. United Kingdom British Cartoon Archive, University of KentPolitical Cartoon Gallery 16
Camberwell is a suburb of Melbourne, Australia, 10 km east of Melbourne's Central Business District. Its local government area is the City of Boroondara. At the 2016 Census, Camberwell had a population of 22,081; the western and eastern boundaries of the suburb follow Burke Road, Toorak Road and Warrigal Road respectively. The northern boundary follows Riversdale Road, except for an area in the northwest where it extends upwards to Canterbury Road, incorporating Camberwell, East Camberwell and Riversdale railway stations. Known for grand, historic residences and tranquil, leafy streets, Camberwell is regarded as one of Melbourne's most prestigious and exclusive suburbs. Camberwell is designated one of 26 Principal Activity Centres in the Melbourne 2030 Metropolitan Strategy. A feature of Camberwell is the Burke Road shopping strip, which stretches north 600 m from Camberwell Junction, where three tram routes converge—the 70, 72, 75. Halfway up the shopping strip is Camberwell railway station, which services the Belgrave and Alamein train lines.
East Camberwell, Riversdale and Hartwell stations lie within the suburb's boundaries. Several bus routes cover the area; the historic Rivoli Cinemas sit just west of Camberwell Junction, in the adjacent suburb of Hawthorn East. Camberwell has several parks and playgrounds, most notably, Frog Hollow Reserve, Fordham Gardens, Cooper Reserve, Bowen Gardens, Lynden Park, Highfield Park, Riversdale Park and Willison Park. Camberwell is home to a number including Pacific Brands and Bakers Delight. Camberwell received its name as a result of an early settler being reminded of the way three roads intersected in the south London district of Camberwell; this intersection is now known as Camberwell Junction. The development that followed was a product of the expansion of Melbourne's suburban rail network in the 1880s. Camberwell Post Office opened on 12 October 1864; the Prospect Hill Road Precinct area is adjacent to the railway station and is the oldest part of the suburb. The original subdivision was generous blocks, which were filled with fine Victorian and Edwardian houses.
Due to its hilly topography, many east-west streets in the Prospect Hill area have an excellent view of Melbourne's Central Business District. Its main commercial centre developed along Burke Road from its railway station to Camberwell Junction, 500 m to the south. Several tram routes converge on this point. Though the area was agricultural, Camberwell is now one of the most well-established of Melbourne's affluent suburbs, it is part of the City of Boroondara, the local government area with the lowest socio-economic disadvantage index in Australia. There is no industrial land in Camberwell, commercial uses are concentrated near the Burke Road precinct, which has long been one of the busiest in suburban Melbourne. House prices in Boroondara are well above the metropolitan median and those in the Prospect Hill Road Precinct are several times the Boroondara median; the median price of a four bedroom detached house in Camberwell in April 2018 stood at a little over A$2.5 million while the median rent was A$895 a week.
In the 1980s a planned major development to the east of the Burke Road shopping strip met substantial opposition from local residents. National Mutual Life Association proposed a 24,000 sq.m. three-storey enclosed shopping centre, which drew substantial objection. Developer Floyd Podgornik's Podgor Group purchased the site from National Mutual in 1987 and submitted revised plans to Camberwell Council; when the Council approved Podgor's plans in 1988, 400 residents stormed the meeting. At elections that year, anti-development protesters won control of the Council and although the developer subsequently proposed a lesser development, in 1990 it rescinded its decision to approve the shopping centre. Subsequently, Podgor was awarded $25m in damages. Similar opposition was mounted regarding plans dating from 1999 to develop Camberwell railway station to incorporate retail and office development. High-profile present and past residents Geoffrey Rush and Barry Humphries supported the protest action, but the development was approved in 2009.
East Camberwell, Hartwell and Willison are four named neighbourhoods, within the general area of the railway stations of the same name. The southern areas of the Prospect Hill Precinct were developed for the Riversdale Estate, Kasouka Estate and Gladstone Park Estates from the late nineteenth century; the Kasouka Estate was created in 1891 and included Kasouka Road, Prospect Hill and Riversdale Roads. Kasouka Road has a high level of visual cohesion and is dominated by Victorian and Edwardian period villas. According to the 2016 census of Population, there were 22,081 people in Camberwell. 66.9% of people were born in Australia. The next most common countries of birth were China 5.4%, England 3.5%, India 2.2%, New Zealand 1.9% and Malaysia 1.7%. 72.6% of people spoke only English at home. Other languages spoken at home included Mandarin 6.8%, Greek 2.6%, Cantonese 2.0%, Italian 1.6% and French 1.2%. The most common responses for religion were No Religion 36.2%, Catholic 22.1% and Anglican 11.0%.
Marie Collier, soprano Peter Costello, Former Federal Treasurer and former MP for Higgins Sir Rupert Hamer, Victorian Premier 1971–1981 Barry Humphries, Australian comedian, best known for his alter ego Dame Edna Everage.