Earth Liberation Front
The Earth Liberation Front known as "Elves" or "The Elves", is the collective name for autonomous individuals or covert cells who, according to the ELF Press Office, use "economic sabotage and guerrilla warfare to stop the exploitation and destruction of the environment". The ELF was founded in Brighton in the United Kingdom in 1992 and spread to the rest of Europe by 1994, it is now an international organization with actions reported in 17 countries and is regarded as descending from Animal Liberation Front because of the relationship and cooperation between the two movements. Using the same leaderless resistance model, as well as similar guidelines to the ALF, sympathizers say that it is an eco-defense group dedicated to taking the profit motive out of environmental destruction by causing economic damage to businesses through the use of property damage; the ELF was classified as the top "domestic terror" threat in the United States by the Federal Bureau of Investigation in March 2001, its members classified as eco-terrorists.
On the lack of deaths from ELF attacks, the FBI's deputy assistant director for counterterrorism has said, "I think we're lucky. Once you set one of these fires they can go way out of control." The name came to public prominence when they were featured on the television show 60 Minutes in 2005. The group was further highlighted in the 2011 Academy Award nominated documentary If a Tree Falls: A Story of the Earth Liberation Front. ELF "monkeywrenching" is carried out against facilities and companies involved in logging, genetic engineering, GMO crops, sport utility vehicle sales, urban sprawl, rural cluster and developments with larger homes, energy production and distribution, a wide variety of other activities, all charged by the ELF with exploiting the Earth, its environment and inhabitants; the Earth Liberation Front has no formal leadership, membership or official spokesperson and is decentralized. Individuals are known to work in affinity groups, known as cells, are self-funded. Techniques involve destruction of property, by either using tools to disable or the use of arson to destroy what activists believe is being used to injure animals, people or the environment.
These actions are sometimes called ecotage and there are marked differences between their actions in the United States and the United Kingdom. With many different reasons why ELF activists carry out economic sabotage, a communique to the press claiming the responsibility for an arson against urban sprawl in December 2000, described the reason a cell took an action; as Elves do, they claimed that burning down the house was non-violent, because it was searched for any living creatures. Some of the most common and notable attacks are against the development of multimillion-dollar houses, a frequent target in the ELF campaign. In a communique to the press from the group's "above-ground spokesperson", Craig Rosebraugh, published in The Environmental Magazine, the group said in November 2000: Urban sprawl has undoubtedly served to alter nearly 90 percent of Long Island's habitats, either by physically removing them, paving them, or polluting them with toxic man-made materials, making them either undesirable or unsustainable for most species.
The North American Earth Liberation Front Press Office was relaunched in October 2008, receiving anonymous communiques from activists, for distributing to the press and public, to discuss the motives and history behind such actions. Craig Rosebraugh served as an unofficial spokesperson for the ELF Press Office in North America from 1997 to early September 2001. Doubts have been raised about whether Rosebraugh or other unofficial spokespeople have ties to the cells involved, although the press office claim they do not know the identities of ELF members. Prisoner support networks support ELF prisoners, such as Spirit of Freedom, an English website listing all Earth Liberation prisoners, as well as a variety of other prisoners of conscience. There are ELF support networks in Belgium, North America, Poland, which collectively coordinate the support of prisoners, as well as websites for specific prisoners, such as for; the networks distribute literature written by those in prison, to their supporters and other support groups, sometimes raise funds for those who require financial aid in their cases.
Earth liberationists, are a diverse group of individuals with a variety of different ideologies and theories. These include. Elves argue that direct action is required in order to aid the earth liberation movement referred to as eco-resistance movement, a part of the radical environmental movement; the ELF claim that it would be similar to how the ALF has projected forward the animal liberation movement. There was the intention that in the same way animal liberationists "help out" with legal campaigns, earth liberationists would aid above-ground environmental organisations, notably Earth First!, by acts of ecotage. The Earth Liberation Front was founded in 1992 in Brighton, England by members of the Earth First! environmental movement at the first national meeting. At the time, EF! had become popular, so people's concerns were based on maintaining this popularity and by doing so not associating with overt law breaking. There was no universal agreement over this, but it was accepted amongst the movement that British EF! would instead
Jonathan Troy was Edward Abbey's first published novel, as detailed in James M. Cahalan's biography of Abbey. Only 5,000 copies were printed and immediately after it was released the author wanted to disown the work, he asked that it never be published again, it has not been, making it rare and the only one of his eight novels that many Edward Abbey fans have not read. When a fan once asked where they could find a copy of the novel, Abbey is reported to have told them "I don't know where you can find one, but if you do, burn it." Copies of the book offered for sale online start at $1,300 and go up to $7,500. Abbey's disgust with the novel was immediate. According to James M. Cahalan's biography, Edward Abbey, A Life, he could get through the galleys before the book was published, he said it seemed "even worse than I had thought," too "juvenile, succeeded in nothing. Too much empty rhetoric, not enough meat and bone. Not convincing. All the obvious faults of the beginner." In 1984 Abbey was quoted by William Plummer in "Edward Abbey's Desert Solecisms" as saying that Jonathan Troy "was a disgusting novel long out of print....
It's about the agonies of growing up in a small town: masturbation. There's a Faulkner chapter, an entire chapter in one sentence... There's a Thomas Wolfe wind-through-the-trees-outside-the-farmhouse chapter, a Joyce chapter, of course there are newspaper clips all through the thing, like in Dos Passos's Nineteen Nineteen." This is the only one of Abbey's eight novels, set east of the Mississippi River and away from his beloved deserts of the Southwestern United States. He does spend a good portion of The Fool's Progress in West Virginia, but it starts in Tucson and follows a road trip to its climax. In high school Abbey kept a journal and used the moniker Jonathan Troy to refer to himself. While no one has claimed that the book is in any way an autobiographical account, it was not well received by people who had known Abbey during his senior year of high school; the contempt Jonathan shows for the residents of his home town was a hard blow to people Abbey knew in high school, a fact that may have had something to do with Abbey's regret at having published this book.
Still, as with his novels, the book contains more fiction than fact. For example, in the book, Jonathan lives alone with his one-eyed father. In real life, both of Abbey's parents were living and his father had two good eyes. According to the back of the book jacket, Abbey began writing Jonathan Troy as a creative writing assignment at the University of New Mexico in Albuquerque under the sponsorship of Professor C. V. Wicker. After receiving his B. A. degree in 1951, Abbey spent a year at the University of Edinburgh. It was there. Many of the other characters in the book refer to Jonathan Troy as the golden boy. He's a senior at the local high school and they call him that because he has everything: Looks and talent, but he is not an easy character for the reader to like. We're given an insight into the mind of a teen-age boy, where he holds nearly everyone he meets in contempt—especially his father and his favorite teacher, Feathersmith; the book is written as a series of different events none of them related.
Jonathan has had an ongoing relationship with Etheline. But once he succeeds in seducing her, he begins to lose interest when she starts talking about marriage. A chance meeting with a new girl in town, gives him new inspiration and he begins pursuit of her. Abbey introduces the only major gay character in any of his eight novels, Phillip Feathersmith. Abbey doesn't come right out and say he's gay, but he describes his "fairy-flower" hands, talks about what a pink little fellow he is, Jonathan calls him "Fairysmith" in his own mind. Feathersmith shows an attraction to Jonathan, not subtle. Most of the story is set in a western Pennsylvania town called Powhattan, it was based on the town near where Abbey grew up, Pennsylvania. Abbey uses some of the names of businesses in Indiana in the 1940s for his story; the Blue Star Restaurant becomes the Blue Bell Bar, the business under the apartment Jonathan Troy shares with his father. There are many hints of the greatness Abbey would fine tune in his works, including his love of the desert.
One of the memorable characters in the book is Fatgut, a pathological liar who Jonathan seems close to. But for most of the book you figure Jonathan has no friends because he's too full of himself. You hear his every thought, it's all brutally honest; the key secondary character of the story is Nathaniel Troy. He is a Communist living in 1950s America, right about the time of the Red Scare, he receives daily threats to his well-being. Jonathan avoids his father as much as possible, living a independent life, but the climax of the story comes when some town drunks decide they're going to make the Communist kiss the American flag. Another character in the novel is Red Ginter, who would be a character in The Fool's Progress. In this book, Ginter is the neighborhood bully. In the latter book, he's a member of a baseball team who hits the game-winning home run, but refuses to run the bases. There was a real person named Earl "Red" Ginter, part of Abbey's early life and seems to be the inspiration for these characters.
There is no nobility in Jonathan Troy. Having access to his thoughts kills any affection you might be able to muster. He's rude to nearly everyone he
Eric John Ernest Hobsbawm was a British historian of the rise of industrial capitalism and nationalism. He is considered as one of the world's best-known historians. Ideologically a life-long Marxist, his socio-political convictions influenced the character of his work, his best-known works include his trilogy about what he called the "long 19th century", The Age of Extremes on the short 20th century, an edited volume that introduced the influential idea of "invented traditions". Hobsbawm was born in Egypt but spent his childhood in Vienna and Berlin. Following the death of his parents and the rise to power of Adolf Hitler, Hobsbawm moved to London with his adoptive family obtained his PhD in history at the University of Cambridge before serving in the Second World War. In 1998 he was appointed to the Order of the Companions of Honour, he was President of University of London from 2002 until his death. In 2003 he received the Balzan Prize for European History since 1900 "for his brilliant analysis of the troubled history of 20th century Europe and for his ability to combine in-depth historical research with great literary talent."
Eric Hobsbawm was born in 1917 in Egypt. His father was Leopold Percy Hobsbaum, a merchant from the East End of London of Polish Jewish descent, his mother was Nelly Hobsbaum, from a middle-class Austrian Jewish family. Eric's early childhood was spent in Vienna and Berlin, Germany. A clerical error at birth altered his surname from Hobsbaum to Hobsbawm. Although the family lived in German-speaking countries, Eric grew up speaking English as his first language, his childhood spent in Austria and Germany created the widespread belief that Hobsbawm was a refugee who had left Germany for England in 1933, though he was English by birth because of his father. In 1929, when Hobsbawm was 12, his father died, he started contributing to his family's support by working as an au pair and English tutor. Upon the death of their mother in 1931, he and Nancy were adopted by their maternal aunt and paternal uncle, who married and had a son named Peter. Hobsbawm was a student at the Prinz Heinrich-Gymnasium Berlin when the Nazi Party came to power in 1933.
That year the family moved to London. Hobsbawm attended King's College, from 1936, where he joined the Communist Party "in the form of the university's Socialist Club." He took a double-starred first in History and was elected to the Cambridge Apostles. He received a doctorate in History from Cambridge University for his dissertation on the Fabian Society. During the Second World War, he served in the Army Educational Corps. Hobsbawm's first marriage was to Muriel Seaman in 1943, they divorced in 1951. His second marriage was to Marlene Schwarz, with whom he had two children, Julia Hobsbawm and Andy Hobsbawm. Julia is chief executive of Hobsbawm Media and Marketing and a visiting professor of public relations at the College of Communication, University of the Arts London, he had an out-of-wedlock son, Joshua Bennathan, who died in November 2014. His political affiliation sometimes impacted Hobsbawm's ability to find employment. In 1945 he applied to the BBC for a full-time post making educational broadcasts to help servicemen adjust to civilian life after a long period in the forces, but the appointment was swiftly vetoed by MI5.
MI5 found Hobsbawm not " to lose any opportunity he may get to disseminate propaganda and obtain recruits for the Communist party”. In 1947, he became a lecturer in history at Birkbeck, he became reader in 1959, professor between 1970 and 1982 and an emeritus professor of history in 1982. He was a Fellow of King's College, from 1949 to 1955. Hobsbawm said there was a weaker version of McCarthyism that took hold in Britain and affected Marxist academics: "you didn't get promotion for 10 years, but nobody threw you out". Hobsbawm was denied a lectureship at Cambridge by political enemies, given that he was blocked for a time from a professorship at Birkbeck for the same reasons, spoke of his good fortune at having got a post at Birkbeck in 1948 before the Cold War started to take off. Conservative commentator David Pryce-Jones has questioned the existence of such career obstacles. Hobsbawm helped found the academic journal Past & Present in 1952, he was a visiting professor at Stanford in the 1960s.
In 1970s, he was appointed professor and in 1976 he became a Fellow of the British Academy. He was elected a Foreign Honorary Member of the American Academy of Arts and Sciences in 1971 and a Fellow of the Royal Society of Literature in 2006, he retired in 1982 but stayed as visiting professor at The New School for Social Research in Manhattan between 1984 and 1997. He was, until his death, president of Birkbeck and professor emeritus in the New School for Social Research in the Political Science Department. A polyglot, he spoke German, French and Italian fluently, read Portuguese and Catalan. Hobsbawm wrote extensively on many subjects as one of Britain's most prominent historians; as a Marxist historiographer he has focused on analysis of the "dual revolution". He saw their effect as a driving force behind the predominant trend towards liberal capitalism today. Another recurring theme in his work was social banditry, which Hobsbawm placed in a social and historical context, thus countering the traditional view of it being a spontaneous and unpredictable form of pri
A hajduk is a type of peasant irregular infantry found in Central and Southeast Europe from the early 17th to mid 19th centuries. They have reputations ranging from bandits to freedom fighters depending on time and their enemies. In the European lands of the Ottoman Empire, the term hajduk was used to describe bandits and brigands of the Balkans, while in Central Europe for the West Slavs and Germans it was used to refer to outlaws who protected Christians against provocative actions by the Ottomans. In the 17th century they were established in the Ottoman Balkans, related to increased taxes, Christian victories against the Ottomans, general security decline. Hajduk bands predominantly numbered one hundred men each, with a firm hierarchy under one leader, they targeted Ottoman representatives and rich people rich Turks, for plunder or punishment to oppressive Ottomans, or revenge or a combination of all. In Balkan folkloric tradition, the hajduk is a romanticised hero figure who steals from, leads his fighters into battle against, the Ottoman or Habsburg authorities.
They are somewhat comparable to the English legend of Robin Hood and his merry men, who stole from the rich and gave to the poor, while defying unjust laws and authority. The hajduci of the 17th, 18th and 19th centuries were as much guerrilla fighters against the Ottoman rule as they were bandits and highwaymen who preyed not only on Ottomans and their local representatives, but on local merchants and travellers; as such, the term could refer to any robber and carry a negative connotation. The etymology of the word "hajduk" is unclear. One theory is that hajduk was derived from the Turkish word haidut or haydut, used by the Ottomans to refer to Hungarian and Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth infantry soldiers. Another theory suggests. Indeed, these two theories do not contradict each other, as the Balkan word is said to be derived from the Turkish word haiduk or hayduk. Other spellings in English include ajduk, haiduk, hayduck, hayduk. In 1604–1606, István Bocskay, Lord of Bihar, led an insurrection against the Habsburg Emperor, whose army had occupied Transylvania and begun a reign of terror.
The bulk of Bocskay's army was composed of serfs who had either fled from the war and the Habsburg drive toward Catholic conversion, or been discharged from the Imperial Army. These peasants, freelance soldiers, were known as the hajduk; as a reward for their service, Bocskay emancipated the hajduk from the jurisdiction of their lords, granted them land, guaranteed them rights to own property and to personal freedom. The emancipated hajduk constituted a new "warrior estate" within Hungarian feudal society. Many of the settlements created at this time still bear the prefix Hajdú such as Hajdúbagos, Hajdúböszörmény, Hajdúdorog, Hajdúhadház, Hajdúnánás, Hajdúsámson, Hajdúszoboszló, Hajdúszovát, Hajdúvid etc. and the whole area is called Hajdúság. The word hajduk was a colloquial term for a style of footsoldier, Hungarian or Turco-Balkan in inspiration, that formed the backbone of the Polish infantry arm from the 1570s until about the 1630s. Unusually for this period, Polish-Lithuanian hajduks wore uniforms of grey-blue woolen cloth, with red collar and cuffs.
Their principal weapon was a small calibre matchlock firearm, known as an arquebus. For close combat they carried a heavy variety of sabre, capable of hacking off the heads of enemy pikes and polearms. Contrary to popular opinion, the small axe they wore tucked in their belt was not a combat weapon, but rather was intended for cutting wood. In the mid-17th century hajduk-style infantry fell out of fashion in Poland-Lithuania, were replaced by musket-armed infantry of Western style. However, commanders or hetmans of the Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth continued to maintain their own liveried bodyguards of hajduks, well into the 18th century as something of a throwback to the past though they were now used as field troops. In imitation of these bodyguards, in the 18th century wealthy members of the szlachta hired liveried domestic servants whom they called hajduks, thereby creating the meaning of the term'hajduk' as it is understood in modern Polish; the Serbs established a Hajduk army. The army was divided in four groups.
In this period, the most notable obor-kapetans were Vuk Isaković from Crna Bara, Mlatišuma from Kragujevac and Kosta Dimitrijević from Paraćin. The Croatian football team HNK Hajduk Split; the surnames of the fictional character George Washington Hayduke, invented by Edward Abbey, actress Stacy Haiduk, US national soccer team defender Frankie Hejduk, Czech Republic national ice hockey team forward Milan Hejduk and Montenegrin theoretical physicist Dragan Hajduković, are derived from this word. The term "haiduci" was used by the Romanian resistance movement Haiducii Muscelului, between 1947 and 1959, which opposed the Soviet occupation and the Communist government. In the early 1970s, after the publication of the now classic sociological studies Primitive Rebels and Bandits by historian Eric Hobsba
Good News (novel)
Good News is a 1980 novel by Edward Abbey. It is set in a Arizona of the near future after the economy and government have collapsed. Small bands of people are trying to live but a would-be military dictator has other plans and is trying to set up a dictatorship using Phoenix as his base. Good News is Abbey's only work of science fiction
Special Forces (United States Army)
The United States Army Special Forces, colloquially known as the Green Berets due to their distinctive service headgear, are a special operations force of the United States Army tasked with five primary missions: unconventional warfare, foreign internal defense, special reconnaissance, direct action, counter-terrorism. The first two emphasize language and training skills in working with foreign troops. Other duties include combat search and rescue, counter-narcotics, counter-proliferation, hostage rescue, humanitarian assistance, humanitarian demining, information operations, psychological operations, security assistance, manhunts. S. government activities may specialize in these secondary areas. Many of their operational techniques are classified, but some nonfiction works and doctrinal manuals are available; as special operations units, Special Forces are not under the command authority of the ground commanders in those countries. Instead, while in theater, SF units may report directly to a geographic combatant command, USSOCOM, or other command authorities.
The Central Intelligence Agency's secretive Special Activities Division and more its Special Operations Group recruits from the Army's Special Forces. Joint CIA–Army Special Forces operations go back to the MACV-SOG branch during the Vietnam War; the cooperation still is seen in the War in Afghanistan. The primary mission of the Army Special Forces is to train and lead unconventional warfare forces, or a clandestine guerrilla force in an occupied nation; the 10th Special Forces Group was the first deployed SF unit, intended to train and lead UW forces behind enemy lines in the event of a Warsaw Pact invasion of Western Europe. As the U. S. became involved in Southeast Asia, it was realized that specialists trained to lead guerrillas could help defend against hostile guerrillas, so SF acquired the additional mission of Foreign Internal Defense, working with Host Nation forces in a spectrum of counter-guerrilla activities from indirect support to combat command. Special Forces personnel qualify both in advanced military skills and the regional languages and cultures of defined parts of the world.
While they are best known for their unconventional warfare capabilities, they undertake other missions that include direct action raids, peace operations, counter-proliferation, counter-drug advisory roles, other strategic missions. As strategic resources, they report either to a regional Unified Combatant Command. To enhance their DA capability, specific Commanders In-Extremis Force teams were created with a focus on the direct action side of special operations. SF team members work together and rely on one another under isolated circumstances for long periods of time, both during extended deployments and in garrison; because of this, they develop long-standing personal ties. SF non-commissioned officers spend their entire careers in Special Forces, rotating among assignments to detachments, higher staff billets, liaison positions, instructor duties at the U. S. Army John F. Kennedy Special School, they are required to move to staff positions or to higher command echelons. With the creation of USSOCOM, SF commanders have risen to the highest ranks of U.
S. Army command, including command of USSOCOM, the Army's Chief of Staff, the Chairman of the Joint Chiefs of Staff. Special Forces traces its roots as the Army’s premier proponent of unconventional warfare from purpose-formed special operations units like the Alamo Scouts, Philippine guerrillas, First Special Service Force, the Operational Groups of the Office of Strategic Services. Although the OSS was not an Army organization, many Army personnel were assigned to the OSS and used their experiences to influence the forming of Special Forces. During the Korean War, individuals such as former Philippine guerrilla commanders Col. Wendell Fertig and Lt. Col. Russell W. Volckmann used their wartime experience to formulate the doctrine of unconventional warfare that became the cornerstone of the Special Forces. In 1951, Major General Robert A. McClure chose former OSS member Colonel Aaron Bank as Operations Branch Chief of the Special Operations Division of the Psychological Warfare Staff in the Pentagon.
In June 1952, the 10th Special Forces Group was formed under Col. Aaron Bank, soon after the establishment of the Psychological Warfare School, which became today’s John F. Kennedy Special Warfare Center and School; the 10th Special Forces Group was split, with the cadre that kept the designation 10th SFG deployed to Bad Tölz, Germany, in September 1953. The remaining cadre at Fort Bragg formed the 77th Special Forces Group, which in May 1960 was reorganized and designated as today’s 7th Special Forces Group. Since their establishment in 1952, Special Forces soldiers have operated in Vietnam, Laos, North Vietnam, Nicaragua, El Salvador, Panama, Somalia, Kosovo, 1st Gulf War, Iraq, the Philippines, Yemen, Niger and, in an FID role, East Africa. 1st Special Forces Command In 1957 the two original special forces groups were joined by the 1st, stationed in the Far East. Additional groups were formed in 1961 and 1962 after President John F. Kennedy visited the Special Forces at Fort Bragg in 1961.
Nine groups were organized for the reserve components in 1961.. Among them were the 16th and 17th Special Forces, Groups. However, 17th Special Forces Gr
The Ottoman Empire known in Western Europe as the Turkish Empire or Turkey, was a state that controlled much of Southeast Europe, Western Asia and North Africa between the 14th and early 20th centuries. It was founded at the end of the 13th century in northwestern Anatolia in the town of Söğüt by the Oghuz Turkish tribal leader Osman I. After 1354, the Ottomans crossed into Europe, with the conquest of the Balkans, the Ottoman beylik was transformed into a transcontinental empire; the Ottomans ended the Byzantine Empire with the 1453 conquest of Constantinople by Mehmed the Conqueror. During the 16th and 17th centuries, at the height of its power under the reign of Suleiman the Magnificent, the Ottoman Empire was a multinational, multilingual empire controlling most of Southeast Europe, parts of Central Europe, Western Asia, parts of Eastern Europe and the Caucasus, North Africa and the Horn of Africa. At the beginning of the 17th century, the empire contained numerous vassal states; some of these were absorbed into the Ottoman Empire, while others were granted various types of autonomy during the course of centuries.
With Constantinople as its capital and control of lands around the Mediterranean basin, the Ottoman Empire was at the centre of interactions between the Eastern and Western worlds for six centuries. While the empire was once thought to have entered a period of decline following the death of Suleiman the Magnificent, this view is no longer supported by the majority of academic historians; the empire continued to maintain a flexible and strong economy and military throughout the 17th and much of the 18th century. However, during a long period of peace from 1740 to 1768, the Ottoman military system fell behind that of their European rivals, the Habsburg and Russian empires; the Ottomans suffered severe military defeats in the late 18th and early 19th centuries, which prompted them to initiate a comprehensive process of reform and modernisation known as the Tanzimat. Thus, over the course of the 19th century, the Ottoman state became vastly more powerful and organised, despite suffering further territorial losses in the Balkans, where a number of new states emerged.
The empire allied with Germany in the early 20th century, hoping to escape from the diplomatic isolation which had contributed to its recent territorial losses, thus joined World War I on the side of the Central Powers. While the Empire was able to hold its own during the conflict, it was struggling with internal dissent with the Arab Revolt in its Arabian holdings. During this time, atrocities were committed by the Young Turk government against the Armenians and Pontic Greeks; the Empire's defeat and the occupation of part of its territory by the Allied Powers in the aftermath of World War I resulted in its partitioning and the loss of its Middle Eastern territories, which were divided between the United Kingdom and France. The successful Turkish War of Independence against the occupying Allies led to the emergence of the Republic of Turkey in the Anatolian heartland and the abolition of the Ottoman monarchy; the word Ottoman is a historical anglicisation of the name of Osman I, the founder of the Empire and of the ruling House of Osman.
Osman's name in turn was the Turkish form of the Arabic name ʿUthmān. In Ottoman Turkish, the empire was referred to as Devlet-i ʿAlīye-yi ʿOsmānīye, or alternatively ʿOsmānlı Devleti. In Modern Turkish, it is known as Osmanlı Devleti; the Turkish word for "Ottoman" referred to the tribal followers of Osman in the fourteenth century, subsequently came to be used to refer to the empire's military-administrative elite. In contrast, the term "Turk" was used to refer to the Anatolian peasant and tribal population, was seen as a disparaging term when applied to urban, educated individuals. In the early modern period, an educated urban-dwelling Turkish-speaker, not a member of the military-administrative class would refer to himself neither as an Osmanlı nor as a Türk, but rather as a Rūmī, or "Roman", meaning an inhabitant of the territory of the former Byzantine Empire in the Balkans and Anatolia; the term Rūmī was used to refer to Turkish-speakers by the other Muslim peoples of the empire and beyond.
In Western Europe, the two names "Ottoman Empire" and "Turkey" were used interchangeably, with "Turkey" being favoured both in formal and informal situations. This dichotomy was ended in 1920–23, when the newly established Ankara-based Turkish government chose Turkey as the sole official name. Most scholarly historians avoid the terms "Turkey", "Turks", "Turkish" when referring to the Ottomans, due to the empire's multinational character; as the Seljuk Sultanate of Rum declined in the 13th century, Anatolia was divided into a patchwork of independent Turkish principalities known as the Anatolian Beyliks. One of these beyliks, in the region of Bithynia on the frontier of the Byzantine Empire, was led by the Turkish tribal leader Osman I, a figure of obscure origins from whom the name Ottoman is derived. Osman's early followers consisted both of Turkish tribal groups and Byzantine renegades, many but not all converts to Islam. Osman extended the control of his principality by conquering Byzantine towns along the Sakarya River.
It is not well understood how the early Ottomans came to dominate their