Wilfred Rhodes was an English professional cricketer who played 58 Test matches for England between 1899 and 1930. In Tests, Rhodes took 127 wickets and scored 2,325 runs, becoming the first Englishman to complete the double of 1,000 runs and 100 wickets in Test matches, he holds the world records both for the most appearances made in first-class cricket, for the most wickets taken. He completed the double of 1,000 runs and 100 wickets in an English cricket season a record 16 times. Rhodes played for Yorkshire and England into his fifties, in his final Test in 1930 was, at 52 years and 165 days, the oldest player who has appeared in a Test match. Beginning his career for Yorkshire in 1898 as a slow left arm bowler, a useful batsman, Rhodes established a reputation as one of the best slow bowlers in the world. However, by the First World War he had developed his batting skills to the extent that he was regarded as one of the leading batsmen in England and had established an effective opening partnership with Jack Hobbs.
The improvement in Rhodes's batting was accompanied by a temporary decline in his bowling performances, but the loss of key Yorkshire bowlers after the war led to Rhodes resuming his role as a front-line bowler. He played throughout the 1920s as an all-rounder before retiring after the 1930 cricket season, his first appearance for England was in 1899 and he played in Tests until 1921. Recalled to the team in the final Ashes Test of 1926 aged 48, Rhodes played a significant part in winning the match for England who thus regained the Ashes for the first time since 1912, he ended his Test career in the West Indies in April 1930. As a bowler, Rhodes was noted for his great accuracy, variations in flight and, in his early days, sharp spin. Throughout his career he was effective on wet, rain affected pitches where he could bowl sides out for low scores, his batting was regarded as solid and dependable but unspectacular, critics accused him of excessive caution at times. However, they considered him to be an astute cricket thinker.
Following his retirement from playing cricket, he coached at Harrow School but was not a great success. His eyesight began to fail from around 1939 to the point where he was blind by 1952, he was given honorary membership of the Marylebone Cricket Club in 1949 and remained a respected figure within the game until his death in 1973. On 9 August 2009, Rhodes was inducted into the ICC Cricket Hall of Fame. Rhodes was born in the village of Kirkheaton, just outside Huddersfield, in 1877, his family moved to a farm two miles away while he was young. He went to school in nearby Hopton, to Spring Grove School in Huddersfield, his father, Alfred Rhodes, was captain of the Kirkheaton cricket team's Second XI and encouraged his son to play cricket, buying him equipment and having a pitch laid near their home for Wilfred to practice. By the time Rhodes left school, aged 16, he had joined Kirkheaton Cricket Club and started to take cricket seriously: he watched Yorkshire when they played close to his home and began to consider a career as a professional cricketer.
Around 1893 he took a job working on the railway in the local town of Mirfield. By now playing for Kirkheaton Second XI, Rhodes's keenness to reach one game on time led him to ring the off-duty bell before the end of the shift and as a result he lost his job. Subsequently, he worked on a local farm. By 1895 he achieved a place in the Kirkheaton first team, was recommended to Gala Cricket Club, of Galashiels, Scotland, as a professional. Rhodes played for Gala Cricket Club in 1896 and 1897, as an all-rounder who opened the batting and bowled medium paced seamers, he took 92 wickets in his first season, discovered that bowling an occasional slow ball brought him some success. He decided to change his bowling style to spin, spent the winter of 1896–97 practising on the family farm while working again on the railway, this time as a signalman. Over several months, Rhodes used his practice sessions to develop control of spin and different types of delivery. In his second season at Galashiels, now bowling slow left-arm, he took fewer wickets but at a better average.
At the end of the 1897 season, encouraged by a Scottish member of the MCC, he resigned from Gala to look for work in England. In response to an advertisement, Rhodes applied to join the groundstaff of Warwickshire County Cricket Club, but the club were unable to offer him an engagement for financial reasons. At this time, Yorkshire were looking for a slow left arm spinner to replace Bobby Peel, sacked following a disciplinary lapse on the field in front of his captain Lord Hawke in August 1897. Rhodes applied for a place in a Yorkshire Colts team to play against the County XI. However, by his own admission, Rhodes had a poor match, while his rival for Peel's place in the side, Albert Cordingley, took nine wickets. In early spring 1898, Rhodes was invited to the nets at Headingley, which led to him playing in some friendly matches. Rhodes went on to make his first-class debut for Yorkshire on 12 May 1898 against the MCC, taking six wickets in the match. In his second game, he made his County Championship debut on 16 May 1898 against Somerset, taking 13 wickets for 45 runs.
In the 1898 season, according to Wisden Cricketers' Almanack Rhodes "sprang at once into fame, bowling in match after match for Yorkshire with astounding success." By the end of the season he had taken 154 wickets at an average of 14.60, was named as one of the Wisden Cricketers of the Year for 1899. The citation stated: "There can be no doubt as to the greatness of his achie
A cricket ball is a hard, solid ball used to play cricket. A cricket ball consists of cork covered by leather, manufacture is regulated by cricket law at first-class level; the manipulation of a cricket ball, through employment of its various physical properties, is a staple component of bowling and dismissing batsmen. Movement in the air, off the ground, is influenced by the condition of the ball, the efforts of the bowler and the pitch, while working on the cricket ball to obtain optimum condition is a key role of the fielding side; the cricket ball is the principal manner through which the batsman scores runs, by manipulating the ball into a position where it would be safe to take a run, or by directing the ball through or over the boundary. In day Test cricket, professional domestic games that spread over a multitude of days, the entirety of amateur cricket, the traditional red cricket ball is used. In many one day cricket matches, a white ball is used instead in order to remain visible under floodlights, since 2010, pink has been introduced to contrast with players' white clothing and for improved night visibility during day/night Test matches.
Training balls of white and pink are common, tennis balls and other similar-sized balls can be used for training or informal cricket matches. During cricket matches, the quality of the ball changes to a point where it is no longer usable, during this decline its properties alter and thus can influence the match. Altering the state of the cricket ball outside the permitted manners designated in the rules of cricket is prohibited during a match, so-called "ball tampering" has resulted in numerous controversies. Injuries and fatalities have been caused by cricket balls during matches; the hazards posed by cricket balls were a key motivator for the introduction of protective equipment. British Standard BS 5993 specifies the construction details, dimensions and performance of cricket balls. A cricket ball is made with a core of cork, layered with wound string, covered by a leather case with a raised sewn seam. In a top-quality ball suitable for the highest levels of competition, the covering is constructed of four pieces of leather shaped similar to the peel of a quartered orange, but one hemisphere is rotated by 90 degrees with respect to the other.
The "equator" of the ball is stitched with string to form the ball's prominent seam, with six rows of stitches. The remaining two joins between the leather pieces are stitched internally forming the quarter seam. Lower-quality balls with a two-piece covering are popular for practice and lower-level competition due to their lower cost; the nature of the cricket ball varies with its manufacturer. White Kookaburra balls are used in one-day and Twenty20 international matches, while red Kookaburras are used in test matches played in most of the ten test-playing nations, except for the West Indies and England, who use Dukes, India, who use SG balls. Cricket balls are traditionally red, red balls are used in Test cricket and First-class cricket. White balls were introduced when one-day matches began being played at night under floodlights, as they are more visible at night; the white balls have been found to behave differently to the red balls, most notably that they swing a lot more during the first half of an innings than the red ball, that they deteriorate more quickly.
Manufacturers claim that white and red balls are manufactured using the same methods and materials, other than the dying treatment of the leather. Another problem associated with white cricket balls used in One Day Internationals is that they become dirty or dull in colour, which makes it more difficult for batsmen to sight the ball after 30-40 overs of use. Since October 2012, this has been managed by the use of two new white balls in each innings, with a different ball used from each bowling end. Between October 2007 and October 2012, the issue had been managed using one new ball from the start of the innings swapping it at the end of the 34th over with a "reconditioned ball", neither new nor too dirty to see. Before October 2007, except during 1992 and 1996 World Cups, only one ball was used during an innings of an ODI and it was the umpires discretion to change the ball if it was difficult to see. Pink balls were developed in the 2000s to enable first-class matches played at night; the red ball is unsuited to night tests due to poor visibility, the white ball is unsuited to first-class cricket because its rapid deterioration makes it unable to be used for eighty overs as specified in the rules, so the pink ball was designed to provide a satisfactory compromise on both issues.
It is still considered more difficult to see than a white ball. It has performed well enough in testing and first-class cricket to be approved for use in international cricket. A pink ball was used for the first time in an international match in July 2009 when the England Woman's team defeated Australia in a one-day match at Wormsley, a pink ball was used in a day-night Test match for the first time in November 2015. Other colours were experimented with, such as yellow and orange, for improved night visibility, but pink proved to be the preferred option; as of 2014, the ball used in Test match cricket in England has a recommended retail price of 100 pounds sterling. In test match cricket this ball is used for a minimum of 80 overs (theo
John William Henry Tyler Douglas was an English cricketer, active in the early decades of the twentieth century. Douglas was an all-rounder who played for Essex County Cricket Club from 1901 to 1928 and captained the county from 1911 to 1928, he played for England and captained the England team both before and after the First World War with markedly different success. As well as playing cricket, Douglas was a notable amateur boxer who won the middleweight gold medal at the 1908 Olympic Games. Douglas was the son of John Herbert Douglas and Julia Ann and was born at Stoke Newington, London in what is now Belfast Road, he was educated at Moulton Grammar School and Felsted School and joined his father's wood-importing firm, which supported his amateur status in cricket and boxing. Douglas played football once for the England amateur side, he served in the Bedfordshire Regiment throughout World War I as major. In 1908 Douglas won an Olympic gold medal as a middleweight boxer. All three of his bouts, including the final, described by The Times as "one of the most brilliant exhibitions of skilful boxing, allied to tremendous hitting seen.", were held on the same day.
The silver medal winner, Snowy Baker, 44 years falsely claimed that Douglas's father was the sole judge and referee. Baker never publicly contested the close points verdict which Douglas, who scored a second-round knockdown over him and won in their Olympic final. Yet, in a 1952 interview, he claimed that Douglas's father had refereed the fight, leading to widespread suspicion of a dodgy decision. In reality Douglas senior was at ringside, to present the medals, in his role as president of the Amateur Boxing Association of England; the real referee was Eugene Corri, who did not have to give a casting vote as the two judges agreed that Douglas was a narrow winner. Douglas Jr, his father and his younger brother, Cecil were all prominent referees and officials in the ABA, the last being the leading referee in the professional sport in the 1930s. Besides his Olympic gold, Douglas won the 1905 ABA middleweight title. Defeated René Doudelle KO round 1 2nd round bye Defeated Ruben Warnes KO round 2 Defeated Snowy Baker Decision Douglas was an untiring fast-medium bowler and obdurate batsman, nicknamed with a play on his initials JWHT as "Johnny Will Hit Today", or conversely "Johnny Won't Hit Today" by Australian hecklers.
He captained the school teams at Felsted and was a member of Wanstead C. C, he played for Essex in 1902 and for London County in 1903. In 1904 he returned to Essex where he remained, captaining the side from 1911 to 1928, he played for England after the First World War. Douglas was named as a Wisden Cricketer of the Year in 1915, but play was suspended during the war years. After the war until 1923 had to carry Essex's bowling on his shoulders except when George Louden turned out, he took over 100 wickets in a season seven times with a best of 147 in 1920. The following year against Derbyshire he produced the most remarkable all-round performance in English first-class cricket history. After taking nine for 47, Douglas stopped a breakdown against Bill Bestwick with an unbeaten 210 that tired him so much he did not bowl until the end of Derbyshire's second innings, he took two for none, giving him a match record of eleven for 47. Douglas captained England eighteen times, with a Test match record of won eight, lost eight, drawn two.
Successful as stand-in captain in Australia in 1911, he won the series 4–1. On the 1920/21 tour of Australia he led a depleted post-war side which suffered a 0–5'whitewash', a scoreline not repeated in an Ashes series until the 2006/7 England team lost by the same margin. Reappointed reluctantly by the M. C. C. in 1921, he lost the first two Tests at home to Warwick Armstrong's side and was displaced as captain but retained in the XI. He captained England in one further Test match, against South Africa in July 1924, played his final Test on the 1924/25 England tour of Australia. Douglas married Evelyn Ruby, the widow of Captain Thomas Elphinstone Case, of the Coldstream Guards, daughter of Adolphus Ferguson, on 25 December 1916, he had no children but the actor Gerald Case. He drowned when the Oberon, on which he and his father were travelling, was wrecked seven miles south of the Laeso Trindel Lightship, Denmark, it had collided with a sister-vessel in foggy weather when the two captains who were brothers were attempting to exchange Christmas greetings.
According to a witness at the post mortem enquiry, Douglas may well have been trying to save his father. They had been purchasing timber in Finland, he was aged 48. Media related to Johnny Douglas at Wikimedia Commons Johnny Douglas at ESPNcricinfo Corinthian Casuals F. C. - Player profiles
Test cricket is the form of the sport of cricket with the longest duration, is considered the game's highest standard. Test matches are played between national representative teams with "Test status", as determined and conferred by the International Cricket Council; the term Test stems from the fact of the form's long, gruelling matches being both mentally and physically testing. Two teams of 11 players each play a four-innings match, it is considered the most complete examination of a team's endurance and ability. The first recognised Test match took place between 15 and 19 March 1877 and was played between England and Australia at the Melbourne Cricket Ground, where Australia won by 45 runs. A Test match to celebrate 100 years of Test cricket was held in Melbourne between 12 and 17 March 1977, in which Australia beat England by 45 runs—the same margin as that first Test. In October 2012, the ICC recast the playing conditions for Test matches, permitting day/night Test matches; the first day/night game took place between Australia and New Zealand at the Adelaide Oval, Adelaide, on 27 November – 1 December 2015.
Women's Test cricket is played over four days, with slight differences in format from men's Tests. Test matches are the highest level of cricket, statistically, their data form part of first-class cricket. Matches are played between national representative teams with "Test status", as determined by the International Cricket Council; as of June 2017, twelve national teams have Test status, the most promoted being Afghanistan and Ireland on 22 June 2017. Zimbabwe's Test status was voluntarily suspended, because of poor performances between 2006 and 2011. In January 2014, during an ICC meeting in Dubai, the pathway for new potential Test nations was laid out with the winners of the next round of the ICC Intercontinental Cup playing a 5-day match against the bottom ranked Test nation. If the Associate team defeats the Test nation they could be added as the new Test country and granted full membership. A list of matches, defined as "Tests", was first drawn up by Australian Clarence Moody in the mid-1890s.
Representative matches played by simultaneous England touring sides of 1891–92 and 1929–30 are deemed to have "Test status". In 1970, a series of five "Test matches" was played in England between England and a Rest of the World XI; these matches scheduled between England and South Africa, were amended after South Africa was suspended from international cricket because of their government's policy of apartheid. Although given Test status, this was withdrawn and a principle was established that official Test matches can only be between nations. Despite this, in 2005, the ICC ruled that the six-day Super Series match that took place in October 2005, between Australia and a World XI, was an official Test match; some cricket writers and statisticians, including Bill Frindall, ignored the ICC's ruling and excluded the 2005 match from their records. The series of "Test matches" played in Australia between Australia and a World XI in 1971–72 do not have Test status; the commercial "Supertests" organised by Kerry Packer as part of his World Series Cricket enterprise and played between "WSC Australia", "WSC World XI" and "WSC West Indies" from 1977 to 1979 have never been regarded as official Test matches.
There are twelve Test-playing men's teams. The teams all represent individual, independent nations, except for England, the West Indies and Ireland. Test status is conferred upon a group of countries by the International Cricket Council. Teams that do not have Test status can play in the ICC Intercontinental Cup designed to allow non-Test teams to play under conditions similar to Tests; the teams are listed below with the date of each team's Test debut: England Australia South Africa West Indies New Zealand India Pakistan Sri Lanka Zimbabwe Bangladesh Ireland Afghanistan In the mid 2010s, the ICC evaluated proposals for dividing Test cricket into two tiers, with promotion and relegation between Tier-1 and Tier-2. These proposals were opposed by others; these proposals were not implemented. A standard day of Test cricket consists of three sessions of two hours each, the breaks between sessions being 40 minutes for lunch and 20 minutes for tea; however the times of sessions and intervals may be altered in certain circumstances: if bad weather or a change of innings occurs close to a scheduled break, the break may be taken immediately.
Today, Test matches are scheduled to be played across five consecutive days
South Australia is a state in the southern central part of Australia. It covers some of the most arid parts of the country. With a total land area of 983,482 square kilometres, it is the fourth-largest of Australia's states and territories by area, fifth largest by population, it has a total of 1.7 million people, its population is the second most centralised in Australia, after Western Australia, with more than 77 percent of South Australians living in the capital, Adelaide, or its environs. Other population centres in the state are small. South Australia shares borders with all of the other mainland states, with the Northern Territory; the state comprises less than 8 percent of the Australian population and ranks fifth in population among the six states and two territories. The majority of its people reside in greater Metropolitan Adelaide. Most of the remainder are settled in fertile areas along River Murray; the state's colonial origins are unique in Australia as a settled, planned British province, rather than as a convict settlement.
Colonial government commenced on 28 December 1836, when the members of the council were sworn in near the Old Gum Tree. As with the rest of the continent, the region had been long occupied by Aboriginal peoples, who were organised into numerous tribes and languages; the South Australian Company established a temporary settlement at Kingscote, Kangaroo Island, on 26 July 1836, five months before Adelaide was founded. The guiding principle behind settlement was that of systematic colonisation, a theory espoused by Edward Gibbon Wakefield, employed by the New Zealand Company; the goal was to establish the province as a centre of civilisation for free immigrants, promising civil liberties and religious tolerance. Although its history is marked by economic hardship, South Australia has remained politically innovative and culturally vibrant. Today, it is known for numerous cultural festivals; the state's economy is dominated by the agricultural and mining industries. Evidence of human activity in South Australia dates back as far as 20,000 years, with flint mining activity and rock art in the Koonalda Cave on the Nullarbor Plain.
In addition wooden spears and tools were made in an area now covered in peat bog in the South East. Kangaroo Island was inhabited; the first recorded European sighting of the South Australian coast was in 1627 when the Dutch ship the Gulden Zeepaert, captained by François Thijssen and mapped a section of the coastline as far east as the Nuyts Archipelago. Thijssen named the whole of the country eastward of the Leeuwin "Nuyts Land", after a distinguished passenger on board; the coastline of South Australia was first mapped by Matthew Flinders and Nicolas Baudin in 1802, excepting the inlet named the Port Adelaide River, first discovered in 1831 by Captain Collet Barker and accurately charted in 1836–37 by Colonel William Light, leader of the South Australian Colonization Commissioners"First Expedition' and first Surveyor-General of South Australia. The land which now forms the state of South Australia was claimed for Britain in 1788 as part of the colony of New South Wales. Although the new colony included two-thirds of the continent, early settlements were all on the eastern coast and only a few intrepid explorers ventured this far west.
It took more than forty years before any serious proposal to establish settlements in the south-western portion of New South Wales were put forward. On 15 August 1834, the British Parliament passed the South Australia Act 1834, which empowered His Majesty to erect and establish a province or provinces in southern Australia; the act stated that the land between 132° and 141° east longitude and from 26° south latitude to the southern ocean would be allotted to the colony, it would be convict-free. In contrast to the rest of Australia, terra nullius did not apply to the new province; the Letters Patent, which used the enabling provisions of the South Australia Act 1834 to fix the boundaries of the Province of South Australia, provided that "nothing in those our Letters Patent shall affect or be construed to affect the rights of any Aboriginal Natives of the said Province to the actual occupation and enjoyment in their own Persons or in the Persons of their Descendants of any Lands therein now occupied or enjoyed by such Natives."
Although the patent guaranteed land rights under force of law for the indigenous inhabitants it was ignored by the South Australian Company authorities and squatters. Survey was required before settlement of the province, the Colonization Commissioners for South Australia appointed William Light as the leader of its'First Expedition', tasked with examining 1500 miles of the South Australian coastline and selecting the best site for the capital, with planning and surveying the site of the city into one-acre Town Sections and its surrounds into 134-acre Country Sections. Eager to commence the establishment of their whale and seal fisheries, the South Australian Company sought, obtained, the Commissioners' permission to send Company ships to South Australia, in advance of the surveys and ahead of the Commissioners' colonists; the Company's settlement of seven vessels and 636 people was temporarily made at Kingscote on Kangaroo Island, until
Bodyline known as fast leg theory bowling, was a cricketing tactic devised by the English cricket team for their 1932–33 Ashes tour of Australia to combat the extraordinary batting skill of Australia's Don Bradman. A bodyline delivery was one where the cricket ball was bowled at the body of the batsman, in the hope that when he defended himself with his bat, a resulting deflection could be caught by one of several fielders standing close by. Critics considered the tactic intimidating and physically threatening, to the point of being unfair in a game, supposed to uphold gentlemanly traditions. England's use of a tactic perceived by some as overly aggressive or unfair threatened diplomatic relations between the two countries before the situation was calmed. Although no serious injuries arose from any short-pitched deliveries while a leg theory field was set, the tactic still led to considerable ill feeling between the two teams when Australian batsmen suffered actual injuries in separate incidents, which inflamed the watching crowds.
The controversy spilled into the diplomatic arena. Short-pitched bowling continues to be permitted in cricket when aimed at the batsman. However, over time, several of the Laws of Cricket were changed to render the bodyline tactic less effective. Bodyline is a tactic devised for and used in the Ashes series between England and Australia in 1932–33; the tactic involved bowling at leg stump or just outside it, pitching the ball short so that it reared at the body of a batsman standing in an orthodox batting position. A ring of fielders ranged on the leg side would catch any defensive deflection from the bat; the batsman's options were to evade the ball through ducking or moving aside, allow the ball to strike his body or play the ball with his bat. The last course carried additional risks. Defensive shots brought few runs and could carry far enough to be caught by the fielders on the leg side. Bodyline bowling is intimidatory, was designed as an attempt to curb the prolific scoring of Donald Bradman, although other prolific Australian batsmen such as Bill Woodfull, Bill Ponsford and Alan Kippax were targeted.
Several different terms were used to describe this style of bowling before the name "bodyline" was used. Among the first to use it was former Australian Test cricketer Jack Worrall. Other writers used a similar phrase around this time, but the first use of "bodyline" in print seems to have been by the journalist Hugh Buggy in the Melbourne Herald, in his report on the first day's play of the first Test. In the 19th century, most cricketers considered it unsportsmanlike to bowl the ball at the leg stump or for batsmen to hit on the leg side, but by the early years of the 20th century, some bowlers slow or medium-paced, used leg theory as a tactic. Two English left-arm bowlers, George Hirst in 1903—04 and Frank Foster in 1911—12, bowled leg theory to packed leg side fields in Test matches in Australia. In the years before the First World War, several bowlers used leg theory in county cricket; when cricket resumed after the war, few bowlers maintained the tactic, unpopular with spectators owing to its negativity.
Fred Root, the Worcestershire bowler, used it and with considerable success in county cricket. Root defended the use of leg theory—and bodyline—observing that when bowlers bowled outside off stump, the batsmen were able to let the ball pass them without playing a shot; some fast bowlers experimented with leg theory prior to 1932, sometimes accompanying the tactic with short-pitched bowling. In 1925, Australian Jack Scott first bowled a form of what would have been called bodyline in a state match for New South Wales. Other Australian captains were less particular, including Vic Richardson who let Scott use those tactics when he moved to South Australia, he repeated them against the MCC in 1928–29. In 1927, in a Test trial match, "Nobby" Clark bowled short to a leg-trap, he was representing England in a side captained by Douglas Jardine. In 1928–29, Harry Alexander bowled fast leg theory at an England team, Harold Larwood used a similar tactic on that same tour in two Test matches. Freddie Calthorpe, the England captain, criticised Learie Constantine's use of short-pitched bowling to a leg side field in a Test match in 1930.
The Australian cricket team toured England in 1930. Australia won the five-Test series 2–1, Donald Bradman scored 974 runs at a batting average of 139.14, an aggregate record that still stands. By the time of the next Ashes series of 1932–33, Bradman's average hovered around 100 twice that of all other world-class batsmen; the English cricket authorities felt that new tactics would be required to prevent Bradman being more successful on Australian pitches.
England cricket team
The England cricket team represents England and Wales in international cricket. Since 1997 it has been governed by the England and Wales Cricket Board, having been governed by Marylebone Cricket Club from 1903 until the end of 1996. England, as a founding nation, is a full member of the International Cricket Council with Test, One Day International and Twenty20 International status; until the 1990s, Scottish and Irish players played for England as those countries were not yet ICC members in their own right. England and Australia were the first teams to play a Test match, these two countries together with South Africa formed the Imperial Cricket Conference on 15 June 1909. England and Australia played the first ODI on 5 January 1971. England's first T20I was played on 13 June 2005, once more against Australia; as of 12 March 2019, England has played 1010 Test matches, winning 365 and losing 300. The team has won The Ashes on 32 occasions. England has played 726 ODIs, winning 362, its record in major ODI tournaments includes finishing as runners-up in three Cricket World Cups, in two ICC Champions Trophys.
England has played 108 T20Is, winning 53. They won the ICC World Twenty20 in 2010, were runners-up in 2016; as of 12 March 2019, England are ranked fifth in Tests, first in ODIs and third in T20Is by the ICC. Though the team and coaching staff faced heavy criticism after their Group Stage exit in the 2015 Cricket World Cup, it has since adopted a more aggressive and modern playing style in ODI cricket, under the leadership of captain Eoin Morgan and head coach Trevor Bayliss; the first recorded incidence of a team with a claim to represent England comes from 9 July 1739 when an "All-England" team, which consisted of 11 gentlemen from any part of England exclusive of Kent, played against "the Unconquerable County" of Kent and lost by a margin of "very few notches". Such matches were repeated on numerous occasions for the best part of a century. In 1846 William Clarke formed the All-England Eleven; this team competed against a United All-England Eleven with annual matches occurring between 1847 and 1856.
These matches were arguably the most important contest of the English season if judged by the quality of the players. The first overseas tour occurred in September 1859 with England touring North America; this team had six players from the All-England Eleven, six from the United All-England Eleven and was captained by George Parr. With the outbreak of the American Civil War, attention turned elsewhere. English tourists visited Australia in 1861–62 with this first tour organised as a commercial venture by Messrs Spiers and Pond, restaurateurs of Melbourne. Most matches played during tours prior to 1877 were "against odds", with the opposing team fielding more than 11 players to make for a more contest; this first Australian tour were against odds of at least 18/11. The tour was so successful that George Parr led a second tour in 1863–64. James Lillywhite led a subsequent England team which sailed on the P&O steamship Poonah on 21 September 1876, they played a combined Australian XI, for once on terms of 11 a side.
The match, starting on 15 March 1877 at the Melbourne Cricket Ground came to be regarded as the inaugural Test match. The combined Australian XI won this Test match by 45 runs with Charles Bannerman of Australia scoring the first Test century. At the time, the match was promoted as James Lillywhite's XI v Combined Victoria and New South Wales; the teams played a return match on the same ground at Easter, 1877, when Lillywhite's team avenged their loss with a victory by four wickets. The first Test match on English soil occurred in 1880 with England victorious. G. Grace included in the team. England lost their first home series 1–0 in 1882 with The Sporting Times printing an obituary on English cricket: In Affectionate Remembrance of ENGLISH CRICKET, which died at the Oval on 29th AUGUST 1882, Deeply lamented by a large circle of sorrowing friends and acquaintances R. I. P. N. B. – The body will be cremated and the ashes taken to Australia. As a result of this loss the tour of 1882–83 was dubbed by England captain Ivo Bligh as "the quest to regain the ashes".
England with a mixture of amateurs and professionals won the series 2–1. Bligh was presented with an urn that contained some ashes, which have variously been said to be of a bail, ball or a woman's veil and so The Ashes was born. A fourth match was played which Australia won by 4 wickets but the match was not considered part of the Ashes series. England dominated many of these early contests with England winning the Ashes series 10 times between 1884 and 1898. During this period England played their first Test match against South Africa in 1889 at Port Elizabeth. England won the 1890 Ashes Series 2–0, with the third match of the series being the first Test match to be abandoned. England lost 2 -- 1 in the 1891 -- 92 series. England again won the 1894 -- 95 series. In 1895 -- 96 England played Test South Africa; the 1899 Ashes series was the first tour where the MCC and the counties appointed a selection committee. There were three active players: Lord Hawke, W. G. Grace and Herbert Bainbridge, the captain of Warwickshire.
Prior to this, England teams for home Tests had been chosen by the club on whose ground the match was to be played. England lost the 1899 Ashes series 1–0, with WG Grace making his final Test appearance in the first match of the series; the start of the