Daniel Coit Gilman
Daniel Coit Gilman was an American educator and academic. Gilman was instrumental in founding the Sheffield Scientific School at Yale College, subsequently served as the third president of the University of California, as the first president of Johns Hopkins University, as founding president of the Carnegie Institution, he was co-founder of the Russell Trust Association, which administers the business affairs of Yale's Skull and Bones society. Gilman served for twenty five years as president of Johns Hopkins. S." Born in Norwich, the son of Eliza and mill owner William Charles Gilman, a descendant of Edward Gilman, one of the first settlers of Exeter, New Hampshire, of Thomas Dudley, Governor of the Massachusetts Bay Colony and one of the founders of Harvard College, of Thomas Adgate, one of the founders of Norwich in 1659. Daniel Coit Gilman graduated from Yale College in 1852 with a degree in geography. At Yale he was a classmate of Andrew Dickson White, who would serve as first president of Cornell University.
The two were members of the Skull and Bones secret society, traveled to Europe together after graduation and remained lifelong friends. Gilman was a member of the Alpha Delta Phi Fraternity. Gilman would co-found the Russell Trust Association, the foundation behind Skull and Bones. After serving as attaché of the United States legation at St. Petersburg, Russia from 1853 to 1855, he returned to Yale and was active in planning and raising funds for the founding of Sheffield Scientific School. Gilman contemplated going into the ministry, took out a license to preach, but settled on a career in education. From 1856 to 1865 Gilman served as librarian of Yale College, was concerned with improving the New Haven public school system; when the Civil War broke out, Gilman became the recruiting sergeant for the Norton Cadets, a group of Yale graduates and faculty who drilled on the New Haven Green under the oversight of Yale professor William Augustus Norton. In 1863, Gilman was appointed professor of geography at the Sheffield Scientific School, became secretary and librarian as well in 1866.
Having been passed over for the presidency of Yale, for which post Gilman was said to have been the favorite of the younger faculty, he resigned these posts in 1872 to become the third president of the newly organized University of California. His work there was hampered by the state legislature, in 1875 Gilman accepted the offer to establish and become first president of Johns Hopkins University. Before being formally installed as president in 1876, he spent a year studying university organization and selecting an outstanding staff of teachers and scholars, his formal inauguration, on 22 February 1876, has become Hopkins' Commemoration Day, the day on which many university presidents have chosen to be installed in office. Among the legendary educators he assembled to teach at Johns Hopkins were classicist Basil Lanneau Gildersleeve, mathematician James Joseph Sylvester, historian Herbert Baxter Adams and chemist Ira Remsen. Gilman's primary interest was in fostering advanced instruction and research, as president he developed the first American graduate university in the German tradition.
The aim of the modern research university, said Gilman, was to "extend by minute accretions, the realm of knowledge" At his inaugural address at Hopkins, Gilman asked: "What are we aiming at?" The answer, he said, was "the encouragement of research and the advancement of individual scholars, who by their excellence will advance the sciences they pursue, the society where they dwell." In 1884, Gilman was elected a member of the American Antiquarian Society. Gilman was active in founding Johns Hopkins Hospital and Johns Hopkins Medical School, he founded and was for many years president of the Charity Organization of Baltimore, in 1897 he served on the commission to draft a new charter for Baltimore. From 1896 to 1897, he was a member of the commission to settle the boundary line between Venezuela and British Guiana. Gilman served as a trustee of the John F. Slater and Peabody education funds and as a member of John D. Rockefeller's General Education Board. In this capacity, he became active in the promotion of education in the southern United States.
He was president of the National Civil Service Reform League and the American Oriental Society, vice president of the Archaeological Institute of America, executive officer of the Maryland Geological Survey. He retired from Johns Hopkins in 1901, but accepted the presidency of the newly founded Carnegie Institution of Washington, his books include biographies of James Monroe and James Dwight Dana, a collection of addresses entitled University Problems, The Launching of a University. Gilman married twice, his first wife was daughter of Tredwell Ketcham of New York. They married on December 4, 1861, had two daughters: Alice, who married Everett Wheeler. Mary Ketcham Gilman died in 1869, Daniel Coit Gilman married his second wife, Elizabeth Dwight Woolsey, daughter of John M. Woolsey of Cleveland and niece of Yale president Theodore Dwight Woolsey, in 1877. Daniel Gilman's brother Dr. Edward Whiting Gilman was married to Julia Silliman, daughter of Yale Professor and chemist Benjamin Silliman. Daniel Coit Gilman died in Connecticut.
The original academic building on the Homewood campus of the Johns Hopkins University
Encyclopedia Americana is one of the largest general encyclopedias in the English language. Following the acquisition of Grolier in 2000, the encyclopedia has been produced by Scholastic; the encyclopedia has more than 45,000 articles, most of them more than 500 words and many running to considerable length. The work's coverage of American and Canadian geography and history has been a traditional strength. Written by 6,500 contributors, the Encyclopedia Americana includes over 9,000 bibliographies, 150,000 cross-references, 1,000+ tables, 1,200 maps, 4,500 black-and-white line art and color images, it has 680 factboxes. Most articles are signed by their contributors. Long available as a 30-volume print set, the Encyclopedia Americana is now marketed as an online encyclopedia requiring a subscription. In March 2008, Scholastic said that print sales remained good but that the company was still deciding on the future of the print edition; the company did not produce an edition in 2007, a change from its previous approach of releasing a revised print edition each year.
The most recent print edition of the Encyclopedia Americana was published in 2006. The online version of the Encyclopedia Americana, first introduced in 1997, continues to be updated and sold; this work, like the print set from which it is derived, is designed for high school and first-year college students along with public library users. It is available to libraries as one of the options in the Grolier Online reference service, which includes the Grolier Multimedia Encyclopedia, intended for middle and high school students, The New Book of Knowledge, an encyclopedia for elementary and middle school students. Grolier Online is not available to individual subscribers. There have been three separate works using the title Encyclopedia Americana; the first began publishing in the 1820s by the German exile Francis Lieber. The 13 volumes of the first edition were completed in 1833, other editions and printings followed in 1835, 1836, 1847-1848, 1849 and 1858. Lieber's work was based upon and was in no small part a translation of the 7th edition of the well established Konversations-Lexikon of Brockhaus.
Some material from this set was carried over into the modern version, as well as the Brockhaus short article method. A separate Encyclopedia Americana was published by J. M. Stoddart between 1883 and 1889, as a supplement to American reprintings of the 9th edition of the Encyclopædia Britannica, it was four quarto volumes meant to "extend and complete the articles in Britannica". Stoddart's work, however, is not connected to the earlier work by Lieber. In 1902 a new version in 16 volumes was published under the title Encyclopedia Americana, under the editorial supervision of Scientific American magazine; the magazine's editor, Frederick Converse Beach, was editor-in-chief, was said to be assisted by hundreds of eminent scholars and authorities who served as consulting editors or authors. The first publisher was R. S. Peale & Co; the relationship with Scientific American was terminated in 1911. From 1907 to 1912, the work was published as The Americana. A major new edition appeared with George Edwin Rines as editor-in-chief.
An Annual or Yearbook was published each year beginning in 1923 and continuing until 2000. The encyclopedia was purchased by Grolier in 1945. By the 1960s, sales of the Americana and its sister publications under Grolier—The Book of Knowledge, the Book of Popular Science, Lands and Peoples—were strong enough to support the company's occupancy of a large building in Midtown Manhattan, at 575 Lexington Avenue. Sales during this period were accomplished through mail-order and door-to-door operations. Telemarketing and third-party distribution through their Lexicon division added to sales volumes in the 1970s. By the late 1970s, Grolier had moved its operations to Connecticut. In 1988 Grolier was purchased by the French media company Hachette, which owned a well-known French-language encyclopedia, the Hachette Encyclopedia. Hachette was absorbed by the French conglomerate the Lagardère Group. A CD-ROM version of the encyclopedia was published in 1995. Although the text and images were stored on separate disks, it was in keeping with standards current at the time.
More the work had been digitized, allowing for release of an online version in 1997. Over the next few years the product was augmented with additional features, supplementary references, Internet links, current events journal. A redesigned interface and reengineered product, featuring enhanced search capabilities and a first-ever ADA-compliant, text-only version for users with disabilities, was presented in 2002; the acquisition of Grolier by Scholastic for US$400 million, took place in 2000. The new owners projected a 30% increase in operating income, although Grolier had experienced earnings of 7% to 8% on income. Staff reductions as a means of controlling costs followed soon thereafter while an effort was made to augment the sales force. Cuts occurred every year between 2000 and 2007, leaving a much-depleted work force to carry out the duties of maintaining a large encyclopedia database. Today, Encyclopedia Americana lives on as an integral database within the Grolier Online product. Frederick Converse Beach, 1902–1917.
Engineer and editor of Scientific American magazine. George Edwin Rines, 1917–1920. Author and editor. A. H. McDannald, 1920–1948. Reporter and author
New International Encyclopedia
The New International Encyclopedia was an American encyclopedia first published in 1902 by Dodd and Company. It descended from the International Cyclopaedia and was updated in 1906, 1914 and 1926; the New International Encyclopedia was the successor of the International Cyclopaedia. The International Cyclopaedia was a reprint of Alden's Library of Universal Knowledge, a reprint of the British Chambers's Encyclopaedia; the title was changed to The New International Encyclopedia in 1902, with editors Harry Thurston Peck, Daniel Coit Gilman, Frank Moore Colby. The encyclopedia was popular and reprints were made in 1904, 1905, 1907, 1909 and 1911; the 2nd edition appeared from 1914 to 1917 in 24 volumes. With Peck and Gilman deceased, Colby was joined by Talcott Williams; this edition was set up from new type and revised. It was strong in biography. A third edition was published in 1923, however this was a reprint with the addition of a history of the First World War in volume 24, a reading and study guide.
A two-volume supplement was published in 1925 and was incorporated into the 1927 reprint, which had 25 volumes. A further two volumes supplement in 1930 along with another reprint; the final edition was published in 1935, now under the Wagnalls label. This edition included another updating supplement, authored by Herbert Treadwell Wade; some material from the The New International would be incorporated into future books published by Funk and Wagnall's books such as Funk & Wagnalls Standard Encyclopaedia. The 1926 material was printed in Massachusetts, by Yale University Press. Boston Bookbinding Company of Cambridge produced the covers. Thirteen books enclosing 23 volumes comprise the encyclopedia, which includes a supplement after Volume 23; each book contains about 1600 pages. Like other encyclopedias of the time, The New International had a yearly supplement, The New International Yearbook, beginning in 1908. Like the encyclopedia itself, this publication was sold to Funk and Wagnalls in 1931.
It was edited by Frank Moore Colby until his death in 1925, by Wade. In 1937 Frank Horace Vizetelly became editor; the yearbook outlasted the parent encyclopedia, running to 1966. More than 500 men and women submitted and composed the information contained in the The New International Encyclopedia. Walsh, S. P.. Anglo-American general encyclopedias: a historical bibliography, 1703–1967. New York: Bowker. OCLC 577541. Works related to The New International Encyclopedia at Wikisource
The public domain consists of all the creative works to which no exclusive intellectual property rights apply. Those rights may have been forfeited, expressly waived, or may be inapplicable; the works of William Shakespeare and Beethoven, most early silent films, are in the public domain either by virtue of their having been created before copyright existed, or by their copyright term having expired. Some works are not covered by copyright, are therefore in the public domain—among them the formulae of Newtonian physics, cooking recipes, all computer software created prior to 1974. Other works are dedicated by their authors to the public domain; the term public domain is not applied to situations where the creator of a work retains residual rights, in which case use of the work is referred to as "under license" or "with permission". As rights vary by country and jurisdiction, a work may be subject to rights in one country and be in the public domain in another; some rights depend on registrations on a country-by-country basis, the absence of registration in a particular country, if required, gives rise to public-domain status for a work in that country.
The term public domain may be interchangeably used with other imprecise or undefined terms such as the "public sphere" or "commons", including concepts such as the "commons of the mind", the "intellectual commons", the "information commons". Although the term "domain" did not come into use until the mid-18th century, the concept "can be traced back to the ancient Roman Law, as a preset system included in the property right system." The Romans had a large proprietary rights system where they defined "many things that cannot be owned" as res nullius, res communes, res publicae and res universitatis. The term res nullius was defined as things not yet appropriated; the term res communes was defined as "things that could be enjoyed by mankind, such as air and ocean." The term res publicae referred to things that were shared by all citizens, the term res universitatis meant things that were owned by the municipalities of Rome. When looking at it from a historical perspective, one could say the construction of the idea of "public domain" sprouted from the concepts of res communes, res publicae, res universitatis in early Roman law.
When the first early copyright law was first established in Britain with the Statute of Anne in 1710, public domain did not appear. However, similar concepts were developed by French jurists in the 18th century. Instead of "public domain", they used terms such as publici juris or propriété publique to describe works that were not covered by copyright law; the phrase "fall in the public domain" can be traced to mid-19th century France to describe the end of copyright term. The French poet Alfred de Vigny equated the expiration of copyright with a work falling "into the sink hole of public domain" and if the public domain receives any attention from intellectual property lawyers it is still treated as little more than that, left when intellectual property rights, such as copyright and trademarks, expire or are abandoned. In this historical context Paul Torremans describes copyright as a, "little coral reef of private right jutting up from the ocean of the public domain." Copyright law differs by country, the American legal scholar Pamela Samuelson has described the public domain as being "different sizes at different times in different countries".
Definitions of the boundaries of the public domain in relation to copyright, or intellectual property more regard the public domain as a negative space. According to James Boyle this definition underlines common usage of the term public domain and equates the public domain to public property and works in copyright to private property. However, the usage of the term public domain can be more granular, including for example uses of works in copyright permitted by copyright exceptions; such a definition regards work in copyright as private property subject to fair-use rights and limitation on ownership. A conceptual definition comes from Lange, who focused on what the public domain should be: "it should be a place of sanctuary for individual creative expression, a sanctuary conferring affirmative protection against the forces of private appropriation that threatened such expression". Patterson and Lindberg described the public domain not as a "territory", but rather as a concept: "here are certain materials – the air we breathe, rain, life, thoughts, ideas, numbers – not subject to private ownership.
The materials that compose our cultural heritage must be free for all living to use no less than matter necessary for biological survival." The term public domain may be interchangeably used with other imprecise or undefined terms such as the "public sphere" or "commons", including concepts such as the "commons of the mind", the "intellectual commons", the "information commons". A public-domain book is a book with no copyright, a book, created without a license, or a book where its copyrights expired or have been forfeited. In most countries the term of protection of copyright lasts until January first, 70 years after the death of the latest living author; the longest copyright term is in Mexico, which has life plus 100 years for all deaths since July 1928. A notable exception is the United States, where every book and tale published prior to 1924 is in the public domain.
Napoleon Sarony was an American lithographer and photographer. He was a popular portrait photographer, best known for his portraits of the stars of late-19th-century American theater, his son, Otto Sarony, continued the family business as a film star photographer. Sarony was born in Quebec in 1821 and moved to New York City around 1836, he worked as an illustrator for Currier and Ives before joining with James Major and starting his own lithography business, Sarony & Major, in 1843. In 1845, James Major was replaced by Henry B. Major in Sarony & Major and it continued operating under that name until 1853. From 1853 to 1857, the firm was known as Sarony and Company, from 1857 to 1867, as Sarony, Major & Knapp. Sarony left the firm in 1867 and established a photography studio at 37 Union Square, during a time when celebrity portraiture was a popular fad. Photographers would pay their famous subjects to sit for them, retain full rights to sell the pictures. Sarony paid famed stage actress Sarah Bernhardt $1,500 to pose for his camera, the equivalent of more than $20,000 today.
In 1894 he published his portfolio of prints titled, "Sarony's Living Pictures." Included among the thousands of people that came into Sarony's world were many distinguished people, such as American Civil War General William T. Sherman and literary figures Samuel Clemens, Lew Wallace and Oscar Wilde. In 1888, Sarony photographed William T. Sherman, three years before he died in 1891. Sarony's photograph would be used as a model for the engraving of the first Sherman Postage stamp. Sarony took numerous photographs of Samuel Clemens. Clemens and Sarony shared many mutual acquaintances, they both belonged to the Lotos Club in New York City. Sarony helped in the founding of the Salmagundi Club, an association of artists, was a member of the Tile Club, whose members included well-known authors and journalists. In 1883, English author Wilkie Collins dedicated his anti-vivisection book Heart and Science to Sarony. In 1884, Sarony was a participant in an April Fool's joke played on Clemens when George Washington Cable arranged for 150 of Clemens's friends to write to him requesting his autograph.
As part of the joke, no stamps or envelopes were to be provided for a reply. One of Sarony's portraits of writer Oscar Wilde became the subject of a U. S. Supreme Court case, Burrow-Giles Lithographic Co. v. Sarony 111 U. S. 53, in which the Court upheld the extension of copyright protection to photographs. Sarony sued Burrow-Giles after it used unauthorized lithographs of Oscar Wilde No. 18 in an advertisement, won a judgment for $610, affirmed on appeal by the Second Circuit Court of Appeals and the Supreme Court. Sarony photographed the Supreme Court itself, to celebrate the centennial of the federal judiciary in 1890. Sarony was married twice, his first wife died in 1858. She rented elaborate costumes that she wore during her daily afternoon walk through Washington Square, wearing them once before returning them, his brother, Oliver François Xavier Sarony, was a portrait photographer, working in England, who died in 1879. Napoleon's son, continued the family name for a few years until his own death in 1903.
Sarony was buried in Green-Wood Cemetery in Brooklyn. Mathew Brady Alfred Cheney Johnston "Napoleon Sarony Dead". New York Times. November 10, 1896. A Biographical Chronology for Napoleon Sarony Article and rare pictures of Napoleon Sarony and his subject Mark Twain Portrait of Oliver Sarony The Sarony Photographs of Oscar Wilde
Charles Lee (general)
Charles Lee served as a general of the Continental Army during the American War of Independence. He served earlier in the British Army during the Seven Years War, he sold his commission after the Seven Years War and served for a time in the Polish army of King Stanislaus II. Lee bought an estate in Virginia; when the fighting broke out in the American War of Independence in 1775, he volunteered to serve with rebel forces. Lee's ambitions to become Commander in Chief of the Continental Army were thwarted by the appointment of George Washington to that post. During 1776, forces under his command repulsed a British attempt to capture Charleston, which boosted his standing with the army and Congress; that year, he was captured by British cavalry under Banastre Tarleton. During the Battle of Monmouth that year, Lee led an assault on the British that miscarried, he was subsequently court-martialed and his military service brought to an end. He died in Philadelphia in 1782. Lee was born on February 6 1732 in Darnhall, England, the son of Major General John Lee and his wife Isabella Bunbury.
He was sent to King Edward VI School, Bury St Edmunds, a free grammar school, to Switzerland, where he became proficient in several languages, including Latin and French. His father was colonel of the 55th Foot when he purchased a commission on April 9, 1747 for Charles as an ensign in the same regiment. After completing his schooling, Lee reported for duty with his regiment in Ireland. Shortly after his father's death, on May 2, 1751 he received a Lieutenant's commission in the 44th, he was sent with the regiment to North America in 1754 for service in the French and Indian War under Major General Edward Braddock, in what was a front for the Seven Years War between Britain and France. He was with Braddock at his defeat at the Battle of the Monongahela in 1755. During this time in America, Lee married the daughter of a Mohawk chief, his wife gave birth to twins. Lee was known to the Mohawk, who were allies of the English, as Ounewaterika or "Boiling Water". On June 11, 1756 Lee purchased a Captain's commission in the 44th for the sum of £900.
The following year he took part in an expedition against the French fortress of Louisbourg, on July 1, 1758 he was wounded in a failed assault on Fort Ticonderoga. He was sent to Long Island to recuperate. A surgeon whom he had earlier rebuked and thrashed attacked him. After recovering, Lee took part in the capture of Fort Niagara in 1759 and Montreal in 1760; this brought the war in the North American theater to an end by completing the Conquest of Canada. Lee went back to Europe, transferred to the 103rd Foot as a major, served as a lieutenant colonel in the Portuguese army, he fought against the Spanish during their unsuccessful invasion of the country, distinguished himself under John Burgoyne at the Battle of Vila Velha. He returned to England in 1763 following the Peace of Paris, his regiment was disbanded and he was retired on half pay as a major. In May 1772, although still inactive, he was promoted to lieutenant colonel. In 1765 Lee fought in Poland, serving as an aide-de-camp under King Stanislaus II.
After many adventures he came home to England. Unable to secure promotion in the British Army, in 1769 he returned to Poland and saw action in the Russo-Turkish War, he lost two fingers in a duel. Returning to England again, he found that he was sympathetic to the American colonists in their quarrel with Britain, he moved to the colonies in 1773 and in 1775 purchased an estate worth £3,000 in Berkeley County, near the home of his friend Horatio Gates. This area is now part of West Virginia, he spent ten months acquainting himself with patriots. When war appeared inevitable he resigned his Royal commission and volunteered his services to the colonies, he expected to be named Commander-in-Chief of the Continental Army, as he was the most experienced candidate in terms of military service. On the other hand, he was born in Britain, somewhat eccentric, slovenly in appearance, coarse in language, most of all, he wanted to be paid: by joining the rebellion, he forfeited all his properties in England, wanted to be compensated.
George Washington was sober, steady and best of all, would work without pay. Washington was a good political choice: a southern commander to pair with a New England fighting force. Washington received the appointment, Lee was offered the subordinate rank of major general; because of this, Lee had nothing but the utmost disdain for his superior. He once remarked, "Washington is not fit enough to command a Sergeant's Guard". Lee was considered second in command of the Continental forces, although Artemas Ward, not in good health held this position. During the encampment at Valley Forge in late 1777 and early 1778, Lee's headquarters was at the David Havard House. Lee received various other titles: in 1776, he was named commander of the so-called Canadian Department, although he never got to serve in this capacity, he was appointed as the first commander of the Southern Department. He served in this post for six months. During his time in the South, the British sent an expedition under Henry Clinton to recover Charleston, South Carolina.
Lee oversaw the fortification of the city. Fort Sullivan was a fortification built out of palmetto logs named for commander Col. William Moultrie. Lee ordered the
Lenox Library (New York City)
The Lenox Library was a library incorporated and endowed in 1870. It was both an intellectual landmark in Gilded Age-era New York City, it was founded by bibliophile and philanthropist James Lenox, located on Fifth Avenue between 70th and 71th Streets. Renowned architect Richard Morris Hunt designed the building, considered one of the city's most notable buildings, until its destruction in 1912; the library’s collection was unsurpassed in its collection of Bibles, included the first Gutenberg Bible to cross the Atlantic. It was known for its collection of Shakespeare and early American literature; the library became a part of the founding collection of the New York Public Library in 1895, opened to the public in this capacity in 1911. The Lenox Library began as the personal collection of James Lenox, was housed in his home at 53 Fifth Avenue, on the corner of Fifth Avenue and 12th Street. Lenox began collecting principally books, but fine paintings and sculpture, around 1845, he worked with the London literary agency Wiley & Putnam, with Henry Stevens of Vermont for the next thirty-five years, or the remainder of his life.
Stevens worked in Europe, locating fine and rare volumes for the growing Lenox collection. He sold them to Mr. Lenox with a ten percent commission. James Lenox had a cataloging system known only to him, kept his books bound and piled in the rooms of his townhouse, not on shelves or in according to any organized system, it was this overcrowding and lack of ease of use of the library that inspired him to build a separate institution with the express purpose of housing his book collection. The Lenox Library was incorporated by an act of the New York State Legislature on January 20, 1870; the nine named trustees were James Lenox, William H. Aspinwall, Hamilton Fish, Robert Ray, Alexander Van Rensselaer, Daniel Huntington, John Sheafe, James Donaldson, Aaron Belknap. Lenox built his library on a lot on Fifth Avenue between 71st streets. James Lenox had inherited some thirty acres of farmland between 68th and 73rd streets and Fifth and Madison avenues from his father, Robert, in 1839. After the construction of the Lenox Library, the Lenox farm continued operations in the surrounding lots.
Robert Lenox advised his son before his death not to sell the land too soon, for he predicted the city would expand uptown towards his land and raise its value. He was correct, when James Lenox did choose to sell some of his land in lots to wealthy homebuilders, he made a great deal of money. Lenox hired architect Richard Morris Hunt to design his library in 1870, by March 1871 work had begun on the foundation. Work progressed from there, it was not completed until 1877; the library was grand, was considered one of New York City’s greatest architectural works at the time of its completion at a cost of over $510,000, with the land valued at nearly the same amount. It was a fire-proof structure, with outside walls of Lockport limestone, with a front of 200 feet and a depth of 114 feet, it contained four spacious reading rooms, a gallery for paintings, another for sculpture. The galleries of paintings and sculpture opened to the public on January 15, 1877, the rare book rooms opened that year; the reading room was not available to the public until 1880.
In 1880, none of these resources were accessible to all. The first librarian, Samuel Austin Allibone, was appointed in 1879. On November 7, 1887, the library ceased requiring admission tickets, the visitation increased rapidly; the collection of the Lenox library was impressive by any standard – the collection of Bibles, in particular, was considered superior to the libraries of Oxford and the British Museum. Lenox was in possession of the first Gutenberg Bible to enter the New World. According to bibliographic legend, Henry Stevens instructed customs officials to remove their hats when they saw the bible, as it was such a great treasure, deserved reverence. Lenox focused on Milton and Americana, his library was “patchy” to a librarian seeking to have a broad array of resources, but valuable to a bibliophile like himself who developed passions about specific fields. The library was described by Wilberforce Eames as lacking "books on every subject besides the few subjects on which Mr. Lenox collected."The library held 83,331 books in 1894, composed chiefly of books from James Lenox, Evert Augustus Duyckinck, Felix Astoin, Joseph William Drexel, Robert Lenox Kennedy, Robert L. Stuart, George Bancroft, Wendell Prime, 45,000 newspapers purchased in 1894.
Lenox’s art collection was remarkable, included what are believed to be the first J. M. W. Turner paintings to cross the Atlantic, it included works by Thomas Gainsborough, Albert Bierstadt, Gilbert Stuart, Thomas Cole, Sir Joshua Reynolds, among others. There were 145 paintings on display, 15 sculptures, 59 items classified as “paintings on porcelain, mosaics, etc.”The Digital Recreation of the Lenox Library Picture Gallery, an interactive, 3D recreation of Lenox's art collection as it hung in the Lenox Library in the late 19th century, provides a deeper view of the collection, a glimpse into the mind of James Lenox as an art collector, a peek into late Victorian interior design strategies. This digital humanities project by Sally Webster and David Schwittek provides researchers with "varied functionalities