SUMMARY / RELATED TOPICS

Henryk Stepien

Henryk Mikołaj Stępień is a Polish endocrinologist and professor of medicine, head of the Department of Endocrinology at the Medical University of Lodz and was rector of the Medical Academy of Lodz from 1996 to 2002. Henryk Stepien graduated with honors from the Medical Academy of Lodz, where he studied medicine between 1966 and 1972, he received his Ph. D. in 1976 after completing his doctoral studies at the Institute of Endocrinology of the Medical Academy of Lodz. He worked as a senior lecturer and an associate professor at the Department of Experimental Endocrinology and Hormonal Diagnostics of the Institute of Endocrinology in Lodz, where in 1984, he received his habilitation and in 1992 became a professor. Henryk Stepien completed his scientific internships in the United States at the Institute of Biomedical Research of the University of Texas in Austin, where he worked with the biochemist, professor Karl Folkers between 1980 and 1982. In 1991 he worked as a visiting professor at McMaster University in Hamilton, with the team of a Canadian immunologist, professor Jack Gauldie.

During his academic career, he held various managerial positions at the University of Lodz. Between 1987 and 1990, he was the vice-dean of the Faculty of Medicine, from 1993 to 1996, the vice-rector for didactics and education. In 1996 he was elected Rector of the Medical University of Lodz, position which he held for two terms, until 2002. In 2002 Professor Stepien initiated establishment by the Parliament of the Republic of Poland, of the first Medical University in Poland. In the years 2008–2019, he was the head of the Department of Immunoendocrinology and the Department of Endocrinology of the Medical University in Lodz. Professor Stepien's academic achievements encompass over 300 publications, including 193 peer-reviewed articles in full version; the vast majority of papers have been published in international journals. His research papers have been cited in the world literature over 2,500 times, his scientific and research activity focuses on neuroimmunoendocrinology - an interdisciplinary field of research, dealing with connections between the nervous and endocrine systems.

That includes research on the effect of cytokines on the activity of the hypothalamic-pituitary system and diagnostics of immune-related endocrinopathies and the role of neoangiogenesis in the development of endocrine glands. Professor Stepien has significantly contributed to the organization of science and the development of higher medical education in Poland - he led the transformation of the Medical Academy of Lodz into the Medical University of Lodz in 2002. During 2007–2012, he was the head of the European Union's COST ACTION National Research Programme, he is a member of many scientific societies including, the American Endocrine Society, European Neuroendocrine Association, Polish Society of Endocrinology and Polish Neurological Society. He is on the board of several editorial committees of international medical journals. Between 2012–2015, he held the position of an advisor to the National Science Center in Krakow, Poland. Decorated with Honorary Badge of the Polish Red Cross, Silver Cross of Merit, Knight's Cross and Officer's Cross of the Order of Polonia Restituta, Medal of Merit for National Defence.

He received multiple scientific awards from the Ministry of Health, Polish Endocrinological Society and the Medical University of Lodz

History of the New England Patriots

The history of the New England Patriots began when Boston business executive William "Billy" Sullivan and Sullivan Brother Printers, owned by Joseph Sullivan, were awarded the eighth and final franchise of the developing American Football League on November 16, 1959. Sullivan was joined by Dean Boylan Dom DiMaggio; each of the 10 founders invested $30,000 to capitalize the team. The following winter, locals submitted thousands of ideas for the Boston football team's official name. On February 20, 1960, Sullivan chose "Boston Patriots", with "Patriots" referring to those colonists of the Thirteen Colonies who rebelled against British control during the American Revolution and in July 1776 declared the United States of America an independent nation. "Patriots" as a nickname had been suggested by 74 fans, among them Larry Kepnes and William E. Wright. Thereafter, artist Phil Bissell developed the "Pat Patriot" logo; the Patriots' time in the AFL saw them without a regular home stadium. Nickerson Field, Harvard Stadium, Fenway Park, Alumni Stadium, all in or near Boston, served as home fields during their time in the American Football League.

Early Patriots stars included defensive tackles Houston Antwine. Hunt and Cappelletti played every year of the existence of the AFL, with Hunt and Cappelletti spending all ten years with the Patriots. Cappelletti was the all-time leading scorer in the AFL; the Patriots were joined by such stars as defensive end Larry Eisenhauer, fullback Jim Nance, middle linebacker and future Hall of Famer Nick Buoniconti. Cappelletti and Nance were AFL Most Valuable Players, Cappelletti in 1964 and Nance in 1966. Buoniconti and Antwine were named to the American Football League All-Time Team; the Boston Patriots defeated the Buffalo Bills in an AFL Eastern Division playoff game in 1963, played in the 1963 AFL championship game, losing to the San Diego Chargers 51–10. Although they would not appear again in an AFL or NFL post-season game for another 13 years, in the AFL, the Patriots challenged the dominant Bills for the Eastern Division title; when the NFL and AFL merged in 1970, the Patriots were placed in the AFC East division, where they still play today.

The following year, the Patriots moved to a new stadium in Foxborough, Massachusetts, a suburb of Boston, which would serve as their home for 30 years. During the 1970s, the Patriots had some success, earning a berth to the playoffs in 1976—as a wild card-berth—and in 1978—as AFC East champions, they would lose both games. In 1985, they returned to the playoffs, made it all the way to Super Bowl XX, which they lost against the Chicago Bears 46–10. Following their Super Bowl loss, they lost in the first round; the team would not make the playoffs again for eight more years. They changed ownership several times in that period, being purchased from the Sullivan family first by Victor Kiam in 1988, who sold the team to James Orthwein in 1992. Orthwein intended to move the team to his native St. Louis, but sold the team two years to current owner, local businessman Robert Kraft in 1994. Though Orthwein's period as owner was short and controversial, he did oversee major changes to the team. Former New York Giants coach Bill Parcells was hired in 1993, the drastic changes were made the same year to the Patriots uniforms, changing their primary colors from their traditional red and white to blue and silver, introducing a new logo.

Parcells would bring the Patriots to two playoff appearances, including Super Bowl XXXI, which they lost to the Green Bay Packers by a score of 35–21. Pete Carroll, Parcells' successor, would take the team to the playoffs twice. Bill Belichick, current head coach, was hired in 2000, a new home field, Gillette Stadium was opened in 2002. Under Belichick, the team has won six Super Bowls, including three in four years, ten years winning three more in five years, they finished the 2007 regular season with a perfect 16–0 record, becoming only the fourth team in league history to go undefeated, the only one since the league expanded its regular season schedule to 16 games. They played in and lost Super Bowl XLVI and Super Bowl LII; the Patriots have made the playoffs in 16 of the 19 seasons that Belichick has been coach, missing them only in 2000, 2002, 2008. Boston had been home to several NFL teams; the first was the Boston Bulldogs. They were followed by the Boston Braves/Redskins, from 1932 to 1936.

They had played first at Braves Field and at Fenway Park. The team did not draw well in their final season when they reached the NFL Championship Game, moved to Washington following the 1936 season; the Boston Yanks played from 1944 to 1948 before moving to New York to become the New York Yanks. On July 30, 1960, the Boston Patriots defeated the Buffalo Bills in the first AFL pre-season game; the Boston Patriots played in the first-ever game in the American Football League, against the Denver Broncos on September 9, 1960, a game which they lost b