Michael "Mick" Sullivan known by the nickname of "Sully", was an English World Cup winning professional rugby league footballer who played in the 1950s and 1960s, coached in the 1970s. He set the record for the most appearances for the Great Britain Lions with 46; this record has been never overtaken. He holds the record for the most rugby league test match tries by a player of any nationality with 44. Mick Sullivan was born in Pudsey, West Riding of Yorkshire, England, he worked a pipefitter, he died aged 82 in Wakefield, West Yorkshire, England. Sullivan signed with Huddersfield in 1952 as an 18-year-old right wing, he made his début for Great Britain during the 1954 World Cup in France against the Australian team. Sullivan went on to appear in the final and help Great Britain to claim the first World Cup, he was selected to play for England while at Huddersfield in 1955 against Other Nationalities, in 1956 against France. Mick Sullivan represented Great Britain while at Huddersfield between 1952 and 1956 against France.
Sullivan won caps for Great Britain while at Huddersfield in 1954 against France, New Zealand, Australia, in 1955 against New Zealand, in 1956 against Australia, in 1957 against France, Australia, New Zealand, while at Wigan against France, in 1958 against France and New Zealand, in 1959 against France and Australia, in 1960 against France, New Zealand and Australia, while at St. Helens in 1961 against France, New Zealand, in 1962 against France and New Zealand, while at York in 1963 against Australia. Sullivan was signed by Wigan for a record fee of £9,500 in 1957. Mick Sullivan represented Great Britain & France in the 37–31 victory over New Zealand at Carlaw Park, Auckland on 3 July 1957, he scored a try against Australia in 1960, when he became the only British player to win the World Cup twice. He was signed by St. Helens in 1961 for a new world record fee of £11,000.. Sullivan played his first game for St. Helens in January 1961. While at St. Helens, Sullivan played for England in 1962 against France.
Sullivan moved to Australia and captain-coached the Junee team in the Group 9 competition in southern New South Wales for 3 years from 1966 until 1968. Mick Sullivan played left wing, i.e. number 5, scored a try in Wigan's 9–13 victory over Workington Town in the 1957–58 Challenge Cup Final during the 1957–58 season at Wembley Stadium, London on Saturday 10 May 1958, in front of a crowd of 66,109, played left wing, scored a try in the 30-13 victory over Hull F. C. in the 1958–59 Challenge Cup Final during the 1958–59 season at Wembley Stadium, London on Saturday 9 May 1959, in front of a crowd of 79,811. and played left wing in St. Helens 12-6 victory over Wigan in the 1960–61 Challenge Cup Final during the 1960–61 season at Wembley Stadium, London on Saturday 13 May 1961, in front of a crowd of 94,672 Mick Sullivan played left wing, i.e. number 5, in Huddersfield's 15–8 victory over York in the 1957–58 Yorkshire County Cup Final during the 1957–58 season at Headingley Rugby Stadium, Leeds on Saturday 19 October 1957, played left wing, scored a try, in St. Helens' 25–9 victory over Swinton in the 1961–62 Lancashire County Cup Final during the 1961–62 season at Central Park, Wigan on Saturday 11 November 1961, played left wing in the 7–4 victory over Swinton in the 1962–63 Lancashire County Cup Final during the 1962–63 season at Central Park, Wigan on Saturday 27 October 1962.
Mick Sullivan was the coach of Batley from June 1970 to October 1970, during this period he worked a pipefitter during the building of Fiddlers Ferry power station. It was announced on 5 April 2016 that he had died in the previous week, aged 82. Mick Sullivan – Wigan Career Page @ Cherryandwhite.co.uk Mick Sullivan – St. Helens Career Page at saints.org.uk Mick Sullivan at rlhalloffame.org.uk Mick Sullivan at britannica.com Mick Sullivan at rugbyleagueoralhistory.co.uk
History of rugby league
The history of rugby league as a separate form of rugby football goes back to 1895 in Huddersfield, West Riding of Yorkshire when the Northern Rugby Football Union broke away from England's established Rugby Football Union to administer its own separate competition. Similar schisms occurred in Australia and New Zealand in 1907; the rugby played in these breakaway competitions evolved into a distinctly separate sport that took its name from the professional leagues that administered it. Rugby league in England went on to set attendance and player payment records and rugby league in Australia became the most watched sport on television; the game developed a significant place in the culture of France, New Zealand and several other Pacific Island nations, such as Papua New Guinea, where it has become the national sport. Although many forms of football had been played across the world, it was only during the second half of the 19th century that these games began to be codified. In 1871, English clubs playing the version of football played at Rugby School which involved much more handling of the ball than in association football, met to form the Rugby Football Union.
Many new rugby clubs were formed, it was in the Northern English counties of Lancashire and Yorkshire that the game took hold. Here rugby was a working class game, whilst the south eastern clubs were middle class. Rugby spread to Australasia the cities of Sydney, Brisbane and Auckland. Here too there was a clear divide between more affluent upper class players; the strength of support for rugby grew over the following years, large paying crowds were attracted to major matches, particular in Yorkshire, where matches in the Yorkshire Cup soon became major events. England teams of the era were dominated by Yorkshire players; however these players were forbidden to earn any of the spoils of this newly-rich game. Predominantly working class teams found it difficult to play to their full potential because in many cases their time to play and to train was limited by the need to earn a wage. A further limit on the playing ability of working class teams was that working class players had to be careful how hard they played.
If injured, they had to pay their own medical bills and take time off work, which for a man earning a weekly wage could lead to financial hardship. In 1892, charges of professionalism were laid against rugby football clubs in Bradford and Leeds, both in Yorkshire, after they compensated players for missing work; this was despite the fact that the English Rugby Football Union was allowing other players to be paid, such as the 1888 British Isles team that toured Australia, the account of Harry Hamill of his payments to represent New South Wales against England in 1904. In 1893 Yorkshire clubs complained that southern clubs were over-represented on the RFU committee and that committee meetings were held in London at times that made it difficult for northern members to attend. By implication they were arguing that this affected the RFU's decisions on the issue of "broken time" payments to the detriment of northern clubs, who made up the majority of English rugby clubs. Payment for broken time was a proposal put forward by Yorkshire clubs that would allow players to receive up to six shillings when they missed work because of match commitments.
The idea was voted down by the RFU, widespread suspensions of northern clubs and players began. The professional Football League had been formed in 1888, comprising 12 association football clubs from Northern England, this may have inspired the northern rugby officials to form their own professional league. On 27 August 1895, as a result of an emergency meeting in Manchester, prominent Lancashire clubs Broughton Rangers, Oldham, Rochdale Hornets, St. Helens, Warrington and Wigan declared that they would support their Yorkshire colleagues in their proposal to form a Northern Union. Two days on 29 August 1895, representatives of twenty-two clubs met in the George Hotel, Huddersfield to form the Northern Rugby Football Union called the Northern Union. Twenty clubs agreed to resign from the Rugby Union, but Dewsbury felt unable to comply with the decision; the Cheshire club, had telegraphed the meeting requesting admission to the new organisation and was duly accepted with a second Cheshire club, admitted at the next meeting.
The twenty-two clubs and their years of foundation were: Batley FC 1880, Bradford FC 1863, Brighouse Rangers FC 1878, Broughton Rangers FC 1877, Halifax FC 1873, Huddersfield FC 1864, Hull F. C. 1865, Hunslet FC 1883, Leeds FC 1870, Leigh FC 1878, Liversedge FC 1877, Manningham F. C. 1876, Oldham FC 1876, Rochdale Hornets FC 1871, Runcorn RFC 1895, Stockport RFC 1895, St Helens FC 1873, Tyldesley FC 1879, Wakefield Trinity FC 1873, Warrington FC 1876, Widnes FC 1875, Wigan FC 1872. The rugby union authorities took drastic action, issuing sanctions against clubs and officials involved in the new organisation; this extended to amateurs who played with or against Northern Union sides. Northern clubs that existed purely for social and recreational rugby began to affiliate to the Northern Union, whilst retaining amateur status. By 1904 the new body had more clubs affiliated to it than the RFU; the separate Lancashire and Yorkshire competitions of the NRFU merged in 1901, forming the Northern Rugby Football League.
In 1901, James Lomas became the first £100 transfer, from Bramley to Salford. The NRFU became the Northern Rugby Football League in the summer of 1922. Similar schisms in football were threatened by the formations of
Rugby league football is a full-contact sport played by two teams of thirteen players on a rectangular field. One of the two codes of rugby, it originated in Northern England in 1895 as a split from the Rugby Football Union over the issue of payments to players, its rules progressively changed with the aim of producing a faster, more entertaining game for spectators. In rugby league, points are scored by carrying the ball and touching it to the ground beyond the opposing team's goal line; the opposing team attempts to stop the attacking side scoring points by tackling the player carrying the ball. In addition to tries, points can be scored by kicking goals. After each try, the scoring team gains a free kick to try at goal with a conversion for further points. Kicks at goal may be awarded for penalties, field goals can be attempted at any time. Rugby league is the national sport of Papua New Guinea, is a popular sport in Northern England, the states of Queensland and New South Wales in Australia, South Auckland in New Zealand, southwest France and Lebanon.
The Super League and the National Rugby League are the premier club competitions. Rugby league is played internationally, predominantly by European and Pacific Island countries, is governed by the Rugby League International Federation; the first Rugby League World Cup was held in France in 1954. Rugby league football takes its name from the bodies that split to create a new form of rugby, distinct from that run by the Rugby Football Unions, in Britain and New Zealand between 1895 and 1908; the first of these, the Northern Rugby Football Union, was established in 1895 as a breakaway faction of England's Rugby Football Union. Both organisations played the game under the same rules at first, although the Northern Union began to modify rules immediately, thus creating a new faster, stronger paced form of rugby football. Similar breakaway factions split from RFU-affiliated unions in Australia and New Zealand in 1907 and 1908, renaming themselves "rugby football leagues" and introducing Northern Union rules.
In 1922, the Northern Union changed its name to the Rugby Football League and thus over time the sport itself became known as "rugby league" football. In 1895, a schism in Rugby football resulted in the formation of the Northern Rugby Football Union. Although many factors played a part in the split, including the success of working class northern teams, the main division was caused by the RFU decision to enforce the amateur principle of the sport, preventing "broken time payments" to players who had taken time off work to play rugby. Northern teams had more working class players who could not afford to play without this compensation, in contrast to affluent southern teams who had other sources of income to sustain the amateur principle. In 1895, a decree by the RFU banning the playing of rugby at grounds where entrance fees were charged led to twenty-two clubs meeting at the George Hotel, Huddersfield on 29 August 1895 and forming the "Northern Rugby Football Union". Within fifteen years of that first meeting in Huddersfield, more than 200 RFU clubs had left to join the rugby revolution.
In 1897, the line-out was in 1898 professionalism introduced. In 1906, the Northern Union changed its rules, reducing teams from 15 to 13 a side and replacing the ruck formed after every tackle with the play the ball. A similar schism to that which occurred in England took place in Australia. There, on 8 August 1907 the New South Wales Rugby Football League was founded at Bateman's Hotel in George Street. Rugby league went on to displace rugby union as the primary football code in New South Wales and Queensland. On 5 May 1954 over 100,000 spectators watched the 1953–54 Challenge Cup Final at Odsal Stadium, England, setting a new record for attendance at a rugby football match of either code. In 1954 the Rugby League World Cup, the first for either code of rugby, was formed at the instigation of the French. In 1966, the International Board introduced a rule that a team in possession was allowed three play-the-balls and on the fourth tackle a scrum was to be formed; this was increased to six tackles in 1972 and in 1983 the scrum was replaced by a handover.
1967 saw. The first sponsors, Joshua Tetley and John Player, entered the game for the 1971–72 Northern Rugby Football League season. Television would have an enormous impact on the sport of rugby league in the 1990s when Rupert Murdoch's News Corporation sought worldwide broadcasting rights and refused to take no for an answer; the media giant's "Super League" movement saw big changes for the traditional administrators of the game. In Europe, it resulted in a move from a winter sport to a summer one as the new Super League competition tried to expand its market. In Australasia, the Super League war resulted in long and costly legal battles and changing loyalties, causing significant damage to the code in an competitive sporting market. In 1997 two competitions were run alongside each other in Australia, after which a peace deal in the form of the National Rugby League was formed; the NRL has since become recognised as the sport's flagship competition and since that time has set record TV ratings and crowd figures.
The objective in rugby league is to score more points through tries and field goals than the opposition within the 80 minutes of play. If after two halves of play, each consisting of forty minutes, the two teams are drawing, a draw may be declar
The Italianate style of architecture was a distinct 19th-century phase in the history of Classical architecture. In the Italianate style, the models and architectural vocabulary of 16th-century Italian Renaissance architecture, which had served as inspiration for both Palladianism and Neoclassicism, were synthesised with picturesque aesthetics; the style of architecture, thus created, though characterised as "Neo-Renaissance", was of its own time. "The backward look transforms its object," Siegfried Giedion wrote of historicist architectural styles. The Italianate style was first developed in Britain in about 1802 by John Nash, with the construction of Cronkhill in Shropshire; this small country house is accepted to be the first Italianate villa in England, from, derived the Italianate architecture of the late Regency and early Victorian eras. The Italianate style was further developed and popularised by the architect Sir Charles Barry in the 1830s. Barry's Italianate style drew for its motifs on the buildings of the Italian Renaissance, though sometimes at odds with Nash's semi-rustic Italianate villas.
The style was not confined to England and was employed in varying forms, long after its decline in popularity in Britain, throughout Northern Europe and the British Empire. From the late 1840s to 1890 it achieved huge popularity in the United States, where it was promoted by the architect Alexander Jackson Davis. Key visual components of this style include: In interior decoration there were direct parallels to "Italianate" architecture with free re-combinations of decorative features drawn from Italian 16th-century architecture and objects, which were applied to purely 19th century forms. Wardrobes and dressers could be dressed in Italianate detailing as well as row houses; the spur to such commercial designs can be found in the "free Renaissance" style, espoused by Charles Eastlake. In 1868 he published Hints on Household Taste in Furniture and other Details, influential in Britain and in the United States, where the book was published in 1872. Although the archaeology of Mr. Eastlake's volume was always careful, most of the principles in it are beyond question, can be stated in a few words.
The Italianate style would have no carving or molding or other ornament glued on—such work must be done in the solid. The furniture that he thus proposed has straight, squarely cut members equal to their intention, its ornament is painted panels, porcelain plaques and tiles, metal trimmings, conventionalized carvings in sunk relief, a part of the construction entering into the ornament in the shape of narrow striated strips of wood radiating in opposite lines, after a fashion not altogether unknown in the time of Henry III. It has the solidity, but not the attraction, of the Medieval. Today "Italianate" furnishings are called "Eastlake" by American collectors and dealers, but contemporary terms ranged imaginatively, included "Neo-Grec". A late intimation of Nash's development of the Italianate style was his 1805 design of Sandridge Park at Stoke Gabriel in Devon. Commissioned by the dowager Lady Ashburton as a country retreat, this small country house shows the transition between the picturesque of William Gilpin and Nash's yet to be evolved Italianism.
While this house can still be described as Regency, its informal asymmetrical plan together with its loggias and balconies of both stone and wrought iron. Examples of the Italianate style in England tend to take the form of Palladian-style building enhanced by a belvedere tower complete with Renaissance-type balustrading at the roof level; this is a more stylistic interpretation of what architects and patrons imagined to be the case in Italy, utilises more the Italian Renaissance motifs than those earlier examples of the Italianate style by Nash. Sir Charles Barry, most notable for his works on the Tudor and Gothic styles at the Houses of Parliament in London, was a great promoter of the style. Unlike Nash he found his inspiration in Italy itself. Barry drew on the designs of the original Renaissance villas of Rome, the Lazio and the Veneto or as he put it: "...the charming character of the irregular villas of Italy." His most defining work in this style was the large Neo-Renaissance mansion Cliveden.
Although it has been claimed that one third of early Victorian country houses in England used classical styles Italianate, by 1855 the style was falling from favour and Cliveden came to be regarded as "a declining essay in a declining fashion."Anthony Salvin designed in the Italianate style in Wales, at Hafod House and Penoyre House, described by Mark Girouard as "Salvin's most ambitious classical house."Thomas Cubitt, a London building contractor, incorporated simple classical lines of the Italianate style as defined by Sir Char
Michael'Mike' Stephenson known as Stevo, is an English rugby league commentator and former player. Mike Stephenson was born in West Riding of Yorkshire, England. Stevo, the nickname that he is known by in rugby league and on TV, played at club level for Dewsbury, Australian side Penrith, played for Yorkshire and Great Britain, with whom he won the 1972 Rugby League World Cup. Stephenson played in the hooker position for most of his playing career. Stephenson was responsible for the setting-up of the Rugby League Heritage Centre at the George Hotel in Huddersfield, he was awarded an MBE, for his services to rugby league and sports broadcasting in the New Year Honours List 2017. Stephenson began his professional playing career at his hometown club Dewsbury in 1966, after being signed from local amateur club Shaw Cross RLFC, he went on to make his Great Britain début in Castleford in 1971 against the touring New Zealand side. His greatest moment in international rugby league was being a member of Great Britain's victorious 1972 World Cup-winning side.
Stephenson won caps for Great Britain while at Dewsbury in 1971 against New Zealand, in 1972 against France, in the 1972 World Cup against France, New Zealand and Australia. Stephenson's time in the Dewsbury first team coincided with an upturn in the club's fortunes on the pitch, he played in Dewsbury's 9–36 defeat by Leeds in the 1972–73 Yorkshire Cup Final and scored 2 tries in Dewsbury's 22-13 victory over Leeds in the 1972-73 Championship Final. He left Dewsbury after their championship winning season in 1973 to join Australian Rugby League outfit Penrith, he played 69 games for the Panthers between 1974 and 1978, scoring 21 tries. Stevo was player-coach of the side for a brief, unsuccessful spell, he settled in Sydney. Stevo began his broadcasting career in Australia with brief spells at radio and television stations in Sydney, he first appeared on British airwaves in 1988, when he was invited to co-commentate on the rugby league Ashes series in Australia for BBC Radio 2 with Eddie Hemmings.
In 1990, Stevo joined the new British satellite television broadcaster BSB as a match summariser for its Rugby League coverage. At BSB, he joined up again with Hemmings, signed up by the broadcaster; the pairing were kept together when BSB and Sky Television merged to form BSkyB in 1991. Stephenson announced at the start of the 2016 season that he would be retiring from commentating at the end of the season after 26 years, his last game on the microphone was the 2016 Super League Grand Final. RFL Championship: 1972–73 World Cup: 1972 Harry Sunderland Trophy: 1973! Great Britain Statistics at englandrl.co.uk Statistics at stats.rleague.com Playing at Smales pace sank champions – article at yorkshirepost.co.uk When Great Britain won the World Cup Tracking down the heroes of 1972Stevo: Looking Back, by Mike Stephenson ISBN 978-1-904091-23-3
Rugby Football League
The Rugby Football League is the governing body for professional rugby league in England. The name Rugby Football League also referred to the main league competition run by the organisation; this has since been supplanted by Super League, the Championship and League 1. Based at Red Hall in Leeds, it administers the England national rugby league team, the Challenge Cup, Super League and the Rugby League Championships; the social and junior game is administered in association with the British Amateur Rugby League Association. The Rugby Football League is a member of the Rugby League European Federation and as a senior Full Member has a combined veto power over the Council with France; the RFL is part of the Community Board, which has representatives from BARLA, Combined Services, English Schools Rugby League and Student Rugby League. Tony Adams will take over as the president in 2019, taking over from Andy Burnham. Established as the Northern Rugby Football Union in August 1895 by representatives of twenty-one Rugby Football Union clubs at a meeting at the George Hotel, Huddersfield, it changed its name in 1922 to the Rugby Football League, mirroring its sister organisations overseas, the Australian Rugby Football League and New Zealand Rugby Football League.
The turnover of the RFL was reported as £27m in 2011. On Tuesday 27 August 1895, as a result of an emergency meeting in Manchester, prominent Lancashire rugby clubs Broughton Rangers, Oldham, Rochdale Hornets, St Helens, Warrington and Wigan declared that they would support their Yorkshire colleagues in their proposal to form a Northern Union. Two days on Thursday 29 August 1895, representatives of 21 clubs met in the George Hotel, Huddersfield to form the "Northern Rugby Football Union". Twenty clubs agreed to resign from the Rugby Football Union, but Dewsbury felt unable to comply with the decision; the Cheshire club, had telegraphed the meeting requesting admission to the new organisation and was duly accepted with a second Cheshire club, admitted at the next meeting. The 22 clubs and their years of foundation were: In 1908 the Northern Union's brand of rugby was taken up in Australia and New Zealand; the Union hosted touring sides from both countries before assembling a Great Britain representative team for a 1910 tour of Australia and New Zealand.
These nations Australia, would go on to excel in the sport and gain significant influence over it over the following century. The British Amateur Rugby League Association was created in 1973 in Huddersfield by a group of enthusiasts concerned about the dramatic disappearance of many amateur leagues and clubs. Fewer than 150 amateur teams remained with a mere 30 youth rugby league teams. The'breakaway' from the RFL was acrimonious and was contested, with a vote 29-1 against recognising BARLA. Thanks to Tom Mitchell, this changed to a unanimous vote of approval for BARLA within 12 months. Maurice Lindsay became the Chief Executive of the RFL in 1992, proposing the Super League, which replaced Championship as the sport's premier league competition from 1996 onwards. Lindsay returned to Wigan in 1999 for his second stint at the club after Sir Rodney Walker chairman of the RFL, sacked him after a campaign to unseat him failed; the RFL accumulated losses of £1.9 million at the end of 2001, shortly before a major restructuring of the governing body and the appointment of Richard Lewis as executive chairman in May 2002.
Within a year of joining the RFL, he oversaw reunification with BARLA after nearly 30 years of division. Lewis left in 2012 to become Chief Executive of the Croquet Club; the RFL net value has been positive every year since 2004, being £1.7M in 2011. In 2011 a major change to the game was agreed, changing from a winter to a summer game, starting in 2012 with a playing season from March to November, aligning with the Super League, which has played this way since 1996; the regional leagues may include winter competitions in addition. In 2012, the Rugby Football League were awarded the Stonewall Sport Award in recognition of their work in embracing inclusivity and tackling homophobia, they became the first UK sporting organisation to make the top 100 employers in the Stonewall Index that measures attitudes towards lesbian and bisexual staff. The RFL operates a five-tier system and is responsible for running the top three professional divisions as well as the National Conference League and various regional leagues below that.
The RFL runs two cup competitions for professional clubs and is involved with the organization of the World Club Challenge and World Club Series. The England national rugby league team represent England in international rugby league football tournaments; the team has now seen a revival, having formed from the Great Britain team, who represented Wales and Ireland. The team is run under the auspices of the Rugby Football League; as of 2008, the team now participates in all World Cups, Four Nations, Test matches. The team dates back to 1904 when they played against a mixture of Welsh and Scottish players in Wigan. Since and right up until the 1950s, they toured Australia and New Zealand and played both home and away matches against neighbours Wales and France, but when it was decided that Great Britain would tour the Southern Hemisphere instead of England and Wales became the only regular opponents. Though, there are some long periods where England played any matches, their first appearance in the Rugby League World Cup was in 1975, since they have become runners-up in 1975 and 1995, the latter tournament being held in England.
In 2008 they competed in the 2008 W