Bantu Stephen Biko was a South African anti-apartheid activist. Ideologically an African nationalist and African socialist, he was at the forefront of a grassroots anti-apartheid campaign known as the Black Consciousness Movement during the late 1960s and 1970s, his ideas were articulated in a series of articles published under the pseudonym Frank Talk. Raised in a poor Xhosa family, Biko grew up in Ginsberg township in the Eastern Cape. In 1966, he began studying medicine at the University of Natal, where he joined the National Union of South African Students. Opposed to the apartheid system of racial segregation and white-minority rule in South Africa, Biko was frustrated that NUSAS and other anti-apartheid groups were dominated by white liberals, rather than by the blacks who were most affected by apartheid, he believed that when well-intentioned, white liberals failed to comprehend the black experience and acted in a paternalistic manner. He developed the view that to avoid white domination, black people had to organise independently, to this end he became a leading figure in the creation of the South African Students' Organisation in 1968.
Membership was open only to "blacks", a term that Biko used in reference not just to Bantu-speaking Africans but to Coloureds and Indians. He was careful to keep his movement independent of white liberals, but opposed anti-white racism and had various white friends and lovers; the white-minority National Party government were supportive, seeing SASO's creation as a victory for apartheid's ethos of racial separatism. Influenced by Frantz Fanon and the African-American Black Power movement and his compatriots developed Black Consciousness as SASO's official ideology; the movement campaigned for an end to apartheid and the transition of South Africa toward universal suffrage and a socialist economy. It organised Black Community Programmes and focused on the psychological empowerment of black people. Biko believed that black people needed to rid themselves of any sense of racial inferiority, an idea he expressed by popularizing the slogan "black is beautiful". In 1972, he was involved in founding the Black People's Convention to promote Black Consciousness ideas among the wider population.
The government came to see Biko as a subversive threat and placed him under a banning order in 1973 restricting his activities. He remained politically active, helping organise BCPs such as a healthcare centre and a crèche in the Ginsberg area. During his ban he received repeated anonymous threats, was detained by state security services on several occasions. Following his arrest in August 1977, Biko was beaten by state security officers, resulting in his death. Over 20,000 people attended his funeral. Biko's fame spread posthumously, he became the subject of numerous songs and works of art, while a 1978 biography by his friend Donald Woods formed the basis for the 1987 film Cry Freedom. During Biko's life, the government alleged that he hated whites, various anti-apartheid activists accused him of sexism, African racial nationalists criticised his united front with Coloureds and Indians. Nonetheless, Biko became one of the earliest icons of the movement against apartheid, is regarded as a political martyr and the "Father of Black Consciousness".
His political legacy remains a matter of contention. Bantu Stephen Biko was born on 18 December 1946, at his grandmother's house in Tarkastad, Eastern Cape; the third child of Mzingaye Mathew Biko and Alice'Mamcete' Biko, he had an older sister, Bukelwa, an older brother, a younger sister, Nobandile. His parents had married in Whittlesea. Mzingaye was transferred to Queenstown, Port Elizabeth, Fort Cox, King William's Town, where he and Alice settled in Ginsberg township; this was a settlement of around 800 families, with every four families sharing a water supply and toilet. Both Bantu African and Coloured people lived in the township, where Xhosa and English were all spoken. After resigning from the police force, Mzingaye worked as a clerk in the King William's Town Native Affairs Office, while studying for a law degree by correspondence from the University of South Africa. Alice was employed first in domestic work for local white households as a cook at Grey Hospital in King William's Town.
According to his sister, it was this observation of his mother's difficult working conditions that resulted in Biko's earliest politicisation. Biko's given name "Bantu" means "people"; as a child he was nicknamed "Goofy" and "Xwaku-Xwaku", the latter a reference to his unkempt appearance. He was raised in his family's Anglican Christian faith. In 1950, when Biko was four, his father fell ill, was hospitalised in St. Matthew's Hospital and died, making the family dependent on his mother's income. Biko spent two years at St. Andrews Primary School and four at Charles Morgan Higher Primary School, both in Ginsberg. Regarded as a intelligent pupil, he was allowed to skip a year. In 1963 he transferred to the Forbes Grant Secondary School in the township. Biko topped the class in his exams. In 1964 the Ginsberg community offered him a bursary to join his brother Khaya as a student at Lovedale, a prestigious boarding school in Alice, Eastern Cape. Within three months of Steve's arrival, Khaya was accused of having connections to Poqo, the armed wing of the Pan Africanist Congress, an African nationalist group which the government had banned.
Both Khaya and Steve were interrogated by the police.
Oakland is the largest city and the county seat of Alameda County, United States. A major West Coast port city, Oakland is the largest city in the East Bay region of the San Francisco Bay Area, the third largest city overall in the San Francisco Bay Area, the eighth most populated city in California, the 45th largest city in the United States. With a population of 425,195 as of 2017, it serves as a trade center for the San Francisco Bay Area. An act to incorporate the city was passed on May 4, 1852, incorporation was approved on March 25, 1854, which made Oakland a city. Oakland is a charter city. Oakland's territory covers what was once a mosaic of California coastal terrace prairie, oak woodland, north coastal scrub, its land served as a rich resource when its hillside oak and redwood timber were logged to build San Francisco. Oakland's fertile flatland soils helped. In the late 1860s, Oakland was selected as the western terminal of the Transcontinental Railroad. Following the 1906 San Francisco earthquake, many San Francisco citizens moved to Oakland, enlarging the city's population, increasing its housing stock and improving its infrastructure.
It continued to grow in the 20th century with its busy port, a thriving automobile manufacturing industry. The earliest known inhabitants were the Huchiun Indians; the Huchiun belonged to a linguistic grouping called the Ohlone. In Oakland, they were concentrated around Lake Merritt and Temescal Creek, a stream that enters the San Francisco Bay at Emeryville. In 1772, the area that became Oakland was colonized, with the rest of California, by Spanish settlers for the King of Spain. In the early 19th century, the Spanish crown granted the East Bay area to Luis María Peralta for his Rancho San Antonio; the grant was confirmed by the successor Mexican republic upon its independence from Spain. Upon his death in 1842, Peralta divided his land among his four sons. Most of Oakland fell within the shares given to Antonio Vicente; the portion of the parcel, now Oakland was called Encinal—Spanish for "oak grove"—due to the large oak forest that covered the area, which led to the city's name. During the 1850s—just as gold was discovered in California—Oakland started growing and developing because land was becoming too expensive in San Francisco.
The Chinese were struggling financially, as a result of the First Opium War, the Second Opium War, the Taiping Rebellion, so they began migrating to Oakland in an effort to provide for their families in China. However, the Chinese struggled to settle because they were discriminated against by the white community and their living quarters were burned down on several occasions; the majority of the Chinese migrants lived in unhealthy conditions in China and they had diseases, so plague spread into San Francisco though the Chinese were inspected for diseases upon their arrival to San Francisco. In 1851, three men—Horace Carpentier, Edson Adams, Andrew Moon—began developing what is now downtown Oakland. In 1852, the Town of Oakland became incorporated by the state legislature. During this time, Oakland had 75-100 inhabitants, two hotels, a wharf, two warehouses, only cattle trails. Two years on March 25, 1854, Oakland re-incorporated as the City of Oakland, with Horace Carpentier elected the first mayor, though a scandal ended his mayorship in less than a year.
The city and its environs grew with the railroads, becoming a major rail terminal in the late 1860s and 1870s. In 1868, the Central Pacific constructed the Oakland Long Wharf at Oakland Point, the site of today's Port of Oakland. A number of horsecar and cable car lines were constructed in Oakland during the latter half of the 19th century; the first electric streetcar set out from Oakland to Berkeley in 1891, other lines were converted and added over the course of the 1890s. The various streetcar companies operating in Oakland were acquired by Francis "Borax" Smith and consolidated into what became known as the Key System, the predecessor of today's publicly owned AC Transit. Oakland was one of the worst affected cities in California, impacted by the plague epidemic. Quarantine measures were set in place at the Oakland ports requiring the authorities at the port to inspect the arriving vessels for the presence of infected rats. Quarantine authorities at these ports inspected over a thousand vessels per year for plague and yellow fever.
By 1908, over 5,000 people were detained in quarantine. Hunters were sent to poison the affected areas in Oakland and shoot the squirrels, but the eradication work was limited in its range because the State Board of Health and the United States Public Health Service were only allotted about $60,000 a year to eradicate the disease. During this period Oakland did not have sufficient health facilities, so some of the infected patients were treated at home; the State Board of Health along with Oakland advised physicians to promptly report any cases of infected patients. Yet, in 1919 it still resulted in a small epidemic of Pneumonic plague which killed a dozen people in Oakland; this started when a man killed a squirrel. After eating the squirrel, he fell ill four days and another household member contracted the plague; this in turn was passed on either indirectly to about a dozen others. The officials in Oakland acted by issuing death certificates to monitor the spread of plague. At the time of incorporation in 1852, Oaklan
California State Prison, Corcoran
California State Prison, Corcoran is a male-only state prison located in the city of Corcoran, in Kings County, California. It is known as Corcoran State Prison, CSP-C, CSP-COR, CSP-Corcoran, Corcoran I; the facility is just north of the newer California Substance Abuse Treatment Facility and State Prison, Corcoran. As of Fiscal Year 2002/2003, COR had a total of 1,703 staff and an annual institutional budget of US$115 million; as of April 2016, the facility's total population was 3,870. Individual cells, fenced perimeters and armed coverage Level IV housing: Cells, fenced or walled perimeters, electronic security, more staff and armed officers both inside and outside the installation Security Housing Units, "the most secure area within a Level IV prison designed to provide maximum coverage"; the Protective Housing Unit, which holds up to 47 prisoners who require "extraordinary protection from other prisoners". The unit houses inmates; the Protective Housing Unit has been described as "strikingly calm" because inmates "don't want to be moved somewhere less guarded".
One violent incident occurred in March 1999 when three inmates attacked inmate Juan Corona, inflicting minor injuries, smashed Charles Manson's guitar. Three other Protective Housing Unit inmates suffered minor injuries. Acute care hospital Prison Industry Authority Built on what was once Tulare Lake, home to the Yokut Native American people, the facility opened in 1988; the prison hospital was dedicated in October 1993. In March 1993, at Corcoran, prisoner Wayne Jerome Robertson had raped Eddie Dillard, a prisoner about half his size, after the latter was reassigned to his cell. Robertson, who had the nickname "Booty Bandit", testified in 1999 that prison guards set up the attack. Dillard testified in the same trial. After Robertson was assigned to general population at Pelican Bay State Prison, California state senator Tom Hayden stated "It is certain that he would be targeted for death."A front-page article by Mark Arax in the August 1996 Los Angeles Times claimed that COR was "the most troubled of the 32 state prisons".
At the time, COR officers had shot and killed more inmates "than any prison in the country" in COR's eight years of existence. Seven inmates had been killed, 50 others wounded. Based on interviews and documents, Arax concluded that many shootings of prisoners were "not justified" and that in some cases "the wrong inmate was killed by mistake". Furthermore, the article alleged that "officers... and their supervisors staged fights between inmates" during "gladiator days". In November 1996, CBS Evening News broadcast "video footage of an inmate fatally shot by guards" at COR in 1994. A March 1997 episode of the CBS News 60 Minutes discussed the 1994 death, "the alleged cover-up and the alarming number of shootings at the prison"; the California Department of Corrections issued the results of its own investigation in November 1997, which found "isolated incidents of staff misconduct" but no "'widespread staff conspiracy' to abuse prisoners". A film titled Maximum Security University, which used prison surveillance tapes showing four 1989–1993 fights "end when a guard fatally shoots a combatant", was released in February 1998.
That month, eight California correctional officers and supervisors were indicted "on federal criminal civil rights charges in connection with inmate fights that occurred at Corcoran State Prison in 1994". After a trial, the eight men were "acquitted of all charges" in June 2000; as of 1999 California had paid out several large prison brutality settlements for incidents at Corcoran, including $2.2 million to inmate Vincent Tulumis paralyzed for life in a May 1993 shooting, $825,000 for the killing of Preston Tate in April 1994. Subsequently, COR has been featured in at least two episodes of MSNBC's Lockup series: "Inside Corcoran" and "Return to Corcoran". In July of 2013, many inmates at COR participated in a state-wide hunger strike protesting the use of solitary confinement. Billy Michael Sell, an inmate in COR, participating in the hunger strike, committed suicide by hanging himself while in a Solitary Housing Unit, he had been protesting from July 8 to July 21. Sell's death caused significant controversy, as inmate advocates reported that fellow prisoners had heard Sell asking for medical attention for several days before his eventual suicide.
His suicide triggered reviews of the circumstances behind his death at the local and federal level. The prison's most infamous inmates include: CurrentRodney Alcala — the "dating game killer." Sentenced to death in 1980, 1986, 2010. Dana Ewell — a convicted triple murderer, he ordered the murders of his family in 1992. Serving three life sentences and is appealing his sentences. Phillip Garrido — who kidnapped Jaycee Lee Dugard in 1991 and kept her captive in his backyard up until 2009. Mikhail Markhasev — convicted murderer of Ennis Cosby, son of entertainer Bill Cosby. In 1998, he received a sentence of life without parole, plus 10 years. John Floyd Thomas, Jr. — serial rapist and killerFormerJuan Corona — murdered twenty-five people in 1971. He was transferred to COR from the Correctional Training Facility in 1992. On March 4, 2019, Corona died from natural causes. Charles Manson — leader of the Manson family. Transferred from San Quentin State Prison to COR in March 1989. In April 2012, Manson was again denied parole, was not to be eligible again until 20
Paso Robles, California
Paso Robles is a city in San Luis Obispo County, United States. Located on the Salinas River north of San Luis Obispo, the city is known for its hot springs, its abundance of wineries, its production of olive oil, almond orchards, for playing host to the California Mid-State Fair; this area of the Central Coast, known as the City of El Paso De Robles, Paso Robles, or "Paso", is known for its thermal springs. Native Americans lived in the area thousands of years before the mission era, they knew this area as the “Springs” or the “Hot Springs.”Paso Robles is located on the Rancho Paso de Robles Mexican land grant, purchased by James and Daniel Blackburn in 1857. Their partner was Drury James of Kentucky, a veteran of the Mexican War and uncle of the outlaw Jesse James; the land was a rest-stop for travelers of the Camino Real trail, was known for its mineral hot springs. In fact, Franciscan priests from neighboring Mission San Miguel constructed the first mineral baths in the area. During this period, Paso Robles began to attract the pioneer settlers who would become the founding members of the community.
They would establish cattle ranches and almond orchards, dairy farms, vineyards. In 1864, the first El Paso de Robles Hotel was constructed and featured a hot mineral springs bath house. Today, only three locations are left that offer the healing mineral bath hot spring experience which brought people like Ignacy Jan Paderewski to Paso Robles. James and Daniel Blackburn donated two blocks to the city for a public park to be used for the pleasure of its citizens and visitors. By original deed, the land was to revert to the donors if used for any other purpose than a public park. Two exceptions were made: allowing the building of the Carnegie Library, the conversion of the library to a museum; the grounds were laid out by a Mr. Redington and a planting day was held when each citizen set out his own donation; the whole park was hedged in by a fence of cactus, in 1890 a bandstand was built with money raised by private theatricals. In 1886, after the coming of the Southern Pacific Railroad, work began on laying out a town site, with the resort as the nucleus.
Two weeks after the first train arrived on October 31, 1886, a three-day celebration was held including a special train from San Francisco bringing prospective buyers, who toured the area and enjoyed the daily barbecues. On November 17, the "Grand Auction" was held; the local agent for the SPR when it arrived in Paso Robles was R. M. "Dick" Shackelford, a Kentucky native who had come to California in 1853 to dig for gold. Shackelford had a varied career, going from gold mining to hauling freight by ox team, to lumbering, which took him to Nevada, where he served one term as a delegate in the state's first legislature for Washoe County. By 1886 Shackelford had returned to California and was living in Paso Robles, where he began buying up extensive property, building warehouses and starting lumber yards along the railroad's route. Shackelford established the Southern Pacific Milling Company, which had a virtual monopoly on local milling until local farmers, in an effort to break Shackelford's strangehold, themselves organized their own milling cooperative, the Farmers' Alliance Flour Mill.
In 1889, the same year that Paso Robles incorporated as a city, construction began on a magnificent new hotel. The hotel required over one-million bricks and cost a princely $160,000; the new El Paso de Robles Hotel opened for business in 1891. The new hotel was three stories tall and built of solid masonry, set off by sandstone arches; this ensured the hotel was fireproof. The hotel featured a seven-acre garden and nine-hole golf course. Inside there was a library, a beauty salon, a barber shop, various billiard and lounging rooms; the new hotel offered an improved hot springs plunge bath as well as 32 individual bath rooms. The 20 by 40-foot plunge bath was considered one of the finest and most complete of its time in the United States. On January 17, 1914, one of the world's most well-known concert pianists and composers came to the hotel: Ignace Paderewski. After three weeks of treatments at the hotel's mineral hot springs for his arthritis, he resumed his concert tour, he returned to live at the hotel and bought two ranches west of Paso Robles.
During the next 30 years, the hotel was visited by other notables: Boxing champion Jack Dempsey, President Theodore Roosevelt, Adela Rogers St. Johns, Phoebe Apperson Hearst, actors Douglas Fairbanks, Boris Karloff, Bob Hope, Clark Gable all stayed at the El Paso de Robles Hotel, and when Major League baseball teams used Paso Robles as a spring training home, the Pittsburgh Pirates and Chicago White Sox stayed at the hotel and soaked in the mineral hot springs to soothe tired muscles. For a time, Paso Robles was known as the “Almond City” because the local almond growers created the largest concentration of almond orchards in the world; the ranchers in the outlying areas were important to the Paso Robles area. On these ranches were cattle and horses, grain crops, garden produce and fruit and nut orchards. Many of these ranch lands and orchards have become vineyards for the many wineries which draw tourists to the area. To show their appreciation to the ranchers, in October 1931 the business people established Pioneer Day, still an annual celebration.
Pioneer Day is celebrated most years on the Saturday prior to October 12
Mao Zedong known as Chairman Mao, was a Chinese communist revolutionary who became the founding father of the People's Republic of China, which he ruled as the Chairman of the Communist Party of China from its establishment in 1949 until his death in 1976. His theories, military strategies, political policies are collectively known as Maoism. Mao was the son of a wealthy farmer in Hunan, he had a Chinese nationalist and anti-imperialist outlook early in his life, was influenced by the events of the Xinhai Revolution of 1911 and May Fourth Movement of 1919. He adopted Marxism–Leninism while working at Peking University, became a founding member of the Communist Party of China, leading the Autumn Harvest Uprising in 1927. During the Chinese Civil War between the Kuomintang and the CPC, Mao helped to found the Chinese Workers' and Peasants' Red Army, led the Jiangxi Soviet's radical land policies, became head of the CPC during the Long March. Although the CPC temporarily allied with the KMT under the United Front during the Second Sino-Japanese War, China's civil war resumed after Japan's surrender and in 1949 Mao's forces defeated the Nationalist government, which withdrew to Taiwan.
On October 1, 1949, Mao proclaimed the foundation of the People's Republic of China, a single-party state controlled by the CPC. In the following years he solidified his control through land reforms and through a psychological victory in the Korean War, as well as through campaigns against landlords, people he termed "counter-revolutionaries", other perceived enemies of the state. In 1957, he launched a campaign known as the Great Leap Forward that aimed to transform China's economy from agrarian to industrial; this campaign led to the deadliest famine in history and the deaths of 20–45 million people between 1958 and 1962. In 1966, Mao initiated the Cultural Revolution, a program to remove "counter-revolutionary" elements in Chinese society which lasted 10 years and was marked by violent class struggle, widespread destruction of cultural artifacts, an unprecedented elevation of Mao's cult of personality; the program is now regarded as a "severe setback" for the PRC. In 1972, Mao welcomed U.
S. President Richard Nixon in Beijing, signalling the start of a policy of opening China to the world. After years of ill health, Mao suffered a series of heart attacks in 1976 and died at the age of 82, he was succeeded as paramount leader by Premier Hua Guofeng, sidelined and replaced by Deng Xiaoping. A controversial figure, Mao is regarded as one of the most important and influential individuals in modern world history, he is known as a political intellect, military strategist and visionary. Supporters credit him with driving imperialism out of China, modernising the nation and building it into a world power, promoting the status of women, improving education and health care, as well as increasing life expectancy as China's population grew from around 550 million to over 900 million under his leadership. Conversely, his regime has been called autocratic and totalitarian, condemned for bringing about mass repression and destroying religious and cultural artifacts and sites, it was additionally responsible for vast numbers of deaths with estimates ranging from 30 to 70 million victims through starvation, prison labour and mass executions.
Mao Zedong was born on December 1893, in Shaoshan village, Hunan Province, China. His father, Mao Yichang, was a impoverished peasant who had become one of the wealthiest farmers in Shaoshan. Growing up in rural Hunan, Mao described his father as a stern disciplinarian, who would beat him and his three siblings, the boys Zemin and Zetan, as well as an adopted girl, Zejian. Mao's mother, Wen Qimei, was a devout Buddhist. Mao too abandoned this faith in his mid-teenage years. At age 8, Mao was sent to Shaoshan Primary School. Learning the value systems of Confucianism, he admitted that he didn't enjoy the classical Chinese texts preaching Confucian morals, instead favouring popular novels like Romance of the Three Kingdoms and Water Margin. At age 13, Mao finished primary education, his father united him in an arranged marriage to the 17-year-old Luo Yixiu, thereby uniting their land-owning families. Mao refused to recognise her as his wife, becoming a fierce critic of arranged marriage and temporarily moving away.
Luo was locally disgraced and died in 1910. While working on his father's farm, Mao read voraciously and developed a "political consciousness" from Zheng Guanying's booklet which lamented the deterioration of Chinese power and argued for the adoption of representative democracy. Interested in history, Mao was inspired by the military prowess and nationalistic fervour of George Washington and Napoleon Bonaparte, his political views were shaped by Gelaohui-led protests which erupted following a famine in Changsha, the capital of Hunan. The famine spread to Shaoshan, he claimed sympathy for their situation. At age 16, Mao moved to a higher primary school in nearby Dongshan, where he was bullied for his peasant background. In 1911, Mao began middle school in Changsha. Revolutionary sentiment was strong in the city, where there was widespread animosity towards Emperor Puyi's absolute monarchy and many were advocating republicanism; the republicans' figurehead was Sun Yat-sen, an American-educated Christian who led the Tongmenghui society.
In Changsha, Mao was influenced by Sun's
An automatic firearm continuously fires rounds as long as the trigger is pressed or held and there is ammunition in the magazine/chamber. In contrast, a semi-automatic firearm fires one round with each individual trigger-pull. Although all "semi-automatic", "burst fire", "fully automatic" firearms are "automatic" in the technical sense that the firearm automatically cycles between rounds with each trigger pull, the terms "automatic weapon" and "automatic firearm" are conventionally reserved by firearm enthusiasts to describe automatic firearms. Use of the terms "fully automatic" or "full auto" can avoid confusion. Firearms are further defined by the type of firearm action used. Self-loading firearms are designed with varying rates of fire due to having different purposes; the speed with which a self-loading firearm can cycle through the functions of: Fire Eject Load Cockis called the cyclic rate. In automatic firearms the cyclic rate is tailored to the purpose that the gun is made to serve. Anti-aircraft machine guns have high rates of fire to maximize the probability of a hit.
In infantry support weapons these rates of fire are much lower and in some cases variable within the design of the firearm. The MG 34 is a WWII-era machine gun which today would be referred to as a general purpose machine gun, it came in several variations with a cyclic rate as high as 1200 rounds per minute, but made an infantry model which fired at 900 rounds per minute. Firing any firearm generates a high temperature in the firearm's barrel and elevated temperature throughout much of its structure. If fired too fast, the components of the firearm will suffer a structural failure; this means that all firearms, regardless of whether they are semi-automatic automatic, or burst mode in their firing methods, will overheat and fail if fired too often. This is a problem with automatic fire. In actual use, a gun might be able to fire at 1200 rounds per minute, but in one minute it may overheat and fail. So guns used in a repeated firing mode must not be fired too often; the MG34 is fired manually in bursts of 5 to 7 rounds.
It can fire at an effective rate of 150 rounds per minute. Semi-automatic firearms will overheat if not allowed to cool. A semi-automatic rifle has an effective firing rate of 40 rounds per minute. A large part of the reason that this is so low, is that the recoil of firing a round pushes the gun's aim off target; the time it takes to "reacquire" the target slows the effective firing rate. The Army Study Guide lists the sustained rate of fire for an M4 Rifle at 12 to 15 rounds per minute. Automatic firearms can be divided into six main categories: Automatic rifle The standard type of service rifles in most modern armies capable of selective fire. Assault rifles are a specific type of select-fire rifle chambered in an intermediate cartridge and fed via a high-capacity detachable magazine. Battle rifles chambered in a full-powered cartridge. Automatic shotgun A type of combat shotgun, capable of firing shotgun shells automatically also semi-automatically. Machine gun A large group of heavier firearms used for suppressive automatic fire of rifle ammunition attached to a mount or supported by a bipod.
Depending on size and role, machine guns are divided into heavy, medium or light machine guns. The ammunition is belt-fed. Submachine gun An short rifle that uses pistol cartridges. Today used militarily, due to body armour making them ineffective, but they are used by police forces and close protection units in many parts of the world. Personal defense weapon A new breed of automatic firearms that combine the lightness and size of the submachine gun with the medium power calibre ammunition of rifle, thus in practice creating a submachine gun with body armor penetration capability. Machine pistol A handgun-style firearm, capable of automatic or burst fire, they are sometimes equipped with a foldable shoulder stock, to enable better accuracy during automatic fire, which makes them similar to submachine guns. Some machine pistols are shaped similar to semi-automatics; as with SMGs, machine pistols fire pistol caliber cartridges. Burst mode is used in military firearms to limit the number of rounds fired due to the inaccuracy of automatic fire.
In the US M16/M4 rifles for example, the burst mode is 3 rounds. The trigger once held, results in 3 rounds being fired; the gun will not fire again until the trigger is released and pulled again. There are suggestions that automatic fire has no genuine benefit and has been restricted or banned in combat due to being a waste of ammunition; the US M4 Carbine is now the main combat rifle of the US armed forces and has been available until in semi-automatic and burst mode of 3 rounds only. Automatic weapons tend to be restricted to military and police organizations in most developed countries that permit the use of semi-automatic firearms. Where automatic weapons are permitted and regulations on their possession and use may be much more severe than for other firearms. In the United States and strict regulations affect the manufacture and sale of automatic firearms under the National Firearms Act. A prospective user must go through an application process administered by the Bureau of Alcohol, Tobacco and Explosives, which requires a federal tax payment of $200 and a thorough criminal background check.
The tax payment buys a revenue stamp, the legal document allowing possession of an automatic firearm. The use of a gu
The 9×23mm Largo centerfire pistol cartridge was developed in 1901 for the Bergmann Mars pistol. The round was considered powerful for the day, producing a muzzle energy of between 330 and 430 ft⋅lbf depending on the loading. A number of small changes to the Mars and the cartridge were made and the pistol that resulted was called the Bergmann–Bayard 1903; this pistol was adopted by the Spanish army in 1905 as the Pistola Bergmann de 9 mm. modelo 1903. Unable to find a German manufacturer to complete the Spanish order for 3000 pistols, Theodor Bergmann turned to a Belgian manufacturer, Anciens Etablissements Pieper to complete the order; the final pistol, modified by AEP, was known as the Bergmann Bayard 1908, or in Spain as the Pistola Bergmann de 9 mm. modelo 1908. Although adopted in 1908 first deliveries did not take place until two years later. Meanwhile, other manufacturers such as Campo-Giro had adopted the 9mm Bergmann–Bayard round and, due to its long history of use in Spanish submachine guns and pistols, today it is most known as the 9mm Largo.
At the same time the Bergmann–Bayard model 1910 semi-automatic pistol was adopted by the Danish military and remained in production until 1935. The cartridge headspaces on the mouth of the case. With 125 gr jacketed projectiles, the muzzle energy is 336 foot pounds lower than a standard-pressure 9×19mm Luger. Compared to the 9×19mm Luger +P, performance is lower but at lower pressure in the 9×23mm Largo. While external dimensions are identical, the 9×23mm Largo is a different cartridge from the modern, high-performance 9×23mm Winchester. Firing the thicker-walled 9×23mm Winchester round in a 9×23mm Largo pistol is dangerous, as old 9mm Largo pistols cannot handle the pressure generated by the 9×23mm Winchester. Performance is similar to the contemporary 9×23mm Steyr, but the cartridges were developed independently and their dimensions are just different enough to render them non-interchangeable. Anciens Establissements Pieper Bergmann Mars Pistola Bergmann–Bayard de 9mm modelo 1903 Pistola Bergmann–Bayard de 9mm modelo 1908 Bergmann–Bayard M1910 Bergmann–Bayard M1910/21Berthodl Geipel’s Erfurter Maschinenfabrik VMP EMP/MPE Erma submachine gun, Spanish made copy called m41/44.
Astra-Unceta y Cia SA Esperanza y Unceta Campo-Giro Modelo 1912, 1913, 1913–16 Esperanza y Unceta Astra 400, 1921–1926 Unceta y Compania Astra 400, 1926–1945 or 1946 Astra Model F 1934–1935 Astra A-80 Astra Custom SPS 1996–? Arrizabalaga Arrizabalaga Sharp-Shooter Arrizabalaga JO. LO. AR. 1924–? CETME A. D. S. A. Model 1953 submachine gun 1953–? CETME C2 submachine gunComissió d'Industries de Guerra Pistol Isard Isard PistolDestroyer carbine and similar 9mm Largo carbines Ayra Duria et al. Jose Luis Maquibar Onena Carbine Ignacio ZubillagaFábrica de Armas, A Coruña Modelo 1941/44 submachine gun 1941 – mid 1950s Copy of the Bergmann MP28 in 9mm Largo "No maker" Astra 400, 1938–1940sFontbernat Labora Fontbernat M-1938 submachine gunLlama Gabilondo Llama Modelo IV Gabilondo Llama Modelo V Gabilondo Llama Modelo VII Gabilondo Llama Modelo VIII Gabilondo Llama Modelo ExtraParinco Model 3R submachine gun 1959–? Republica Española "Naranjero" submachine gun RE made Astra 400, 1936–1939 Pistol F. Ascaso 1937–1939Star Bonifacio Echeverria Bonifacio Echeverria Star Modelo Militar 1920, 1920–1921 Bonifacio Echeverria Star Modelo Militar 1921, 1921 only Bonifacio Echeverria Star Modelo Militar 1922, 1922–1931 Bonifacio Echeverria Star Modelo A, 1924–1931 Bonifacio Echeverria Star Modelo A,1931–1983 Bonifacio Echeverria Star Modelo M, 1931–1983 Bonifacio Echeverria Star Modelo MD, 1931–1983 Bonifacio Echeverria Star Modelo Super-A, 1946–1983 Bonifacio Echeverria Star Modelo Super-M, 1946–1983 Bonifacio Echeverria Star Modelo AS, 1956–1983 Bonifacio Echeverria Star Modelo MS, 1956–1983 Star Model Z-45 Submachine gun Model Z-62 submachine gun 9 mm caliber 9mm Largo Firearms Las pistolas Bergmann y Campo-Giro by Juan L Calvo Las pistolas Bergmann y Campo-Giro by Juan L Calvo