Netherlands Institute for Art History
The Netherlands Institute for Art History or RKD is located in The Hague and is home to the largest art history center in the world. The center specializes in documentation and books on Western art from the late Middle Ages until modern times. All of this is open to the public, much of it has been digitized and is available on their website; the main goal of the bureau is to collect and make art research available, most notably in the field of Dutch Masters. Via the available databases, the visitor can gain insight into archival evidence on the lives of many artists of past centuries; the library owns 450,000 titles, of which ca. 150,000 are auction catalogs. There are ca. 3,000 magazines, of which 600 are running subscriptions. Though most of the text is in Dutch, the standard record format includes a link to library entries and images of known works, which include English as well as Dutch titles; the RKD manages the Dutch version of the Art and Architecture Thesaurus, a thesaurus of terms for management of information on art and architecture.
The original version is an initiative of the Getty Research Institute in California. The collection was started through bequests by Frits Lugt, art historian and owner of a massive collection of drawings and prints, Cornelis Hofstede de Groot, a collector, art historian and museum curator, their bequest formed the basis for both the art collection and the library, now housed in the Koninklijke Bibliotheek. Though not all of the library's holdings have been digitised, much of its metadata is accessible online; the website itself is available in both an English user interface. In the artist database RKDartists, each artist is assigned a record number. To reference an artist page directly, use the code listed at the bottom of the record of the form: https://rkd.nl/en/explore/artists/ followed by the artist's record number. For example, the artist record number for Salvador Dalí is 19752, so his RKD artist page can be referenced. In the images database RKDimages, each artwork is assigned a record number.
To reference an artwork page directly, use the code listed at the bottom of the record of the form: https://rkd.nl/en/explore/images/ followed by the artwork's record number. For example, the artwork record number for The Night Watch is 3063, so its RKD artwork page can be referenced; the Art and Architecture Thesaurus assigns a record for each term, but these can not be referenced online by record number. Rather, they are used in the databases and the databases can be searched for terms. For example, the painting called "The Night Watch" is a militia painting, all records fitting this keyword can be seen by selecting this from the image screen; the thesaurus is a set of general terms, but the RKD contains a database for an alternate form of describing artworks, that today is filled with biblical references. This is the iconclass database. To see all images that depict Miriam's dance, the associated iconclass code 71E1232 can be used as a special search term. Official website Direct link to the databases The Dutch version of the Art and Architecture Thesaurus
Scotland is a country, part of the United Kingdom. Sharing a border with England to the southeast, Scotland is otherwise surrounded by the Atlantic Ocean to the north and west, by the North Sea to the northeast and by the Irish Sea to the south. In addition to the mainland, situated on the northern third of the island of Great Britain, Scotland has over 790 islands, including the Northern Isles and the Hebrides; the Kingdom of Scotland emerged as an independent sovereign state in the Early Middle Ages and continued to exist until 1707. By inheritance in 1603, James VI, King of Scots, became King of England and King of Ireland, thus forming a personal union of the three kingdoms. Scotland subsequently entered into a political union with the Kingdom of England on 1 May 1707 to create the new Kingdom of Great Britain; the union created a new Parliament of Great Britain, which succeeded both the Parliament of Scotland and the Parliament of England. In 1801, the Kingdom of Great Britain and Kingdom of Ireland enacted a political union to create a United Kingdom.
The majority of Ireland subsequently seceded from the UK in 1922. Within Scotland, the monarchy of the United Kingdom has continued to use a variety of styles and other royal symbols of statehood specific to the pre-union Kingdom of Scotland; the legal system within Scotland has remained separate from those of England and Wales and Northern Ireland. The continued existence of legal, educational and other institutions distinct from those in the remainder of the UK have all contributed to the continuation of Scottish culture and national identity since the 1707 union with England; the Scottish Parliament, a unicameral legislature comprising 129 members, was established in 1999 and has authority over those areas of domestic policy which have been devolved by the United Kingdom Parliament. The head of the Scottish Government, the executive of the devolved legislature, is the First Minister of Scotland. Scotland is represented in the UK House of Commons by 59 MPs and in the European Parliament by 6 MEPs.
Scotland is a member of the British–Irish Council, sends five members of the Scottish Parliament to the British–Irish Parliamentary Assembly. Scotland is divided into councils. Glasgow City is the largest subdivision in Scotland in terms of population, with Highland being the largest in terms of area. "Scotland" comes from the Latin name for the Gaels. From the ninth century, the meaning of Scotia shifted to designate Gaelic Scotland and by the eleventh century the name was being used to refer to the core territory of the Kingdom of Alba in what is now east-central Scotland; the use of the words Scots and Scotland to encompass most of what is now Scotland became common in the Late Middle Ages, as the Kingdom of Alba expanded and came to encompass various peoples of diverse origins. Repeated glaciations, which covered the entire land mass of modern Scotland, destroyed any traces of human habitation that may have existed before the Mesolithic period, it is believed the first post-glacial groups of hunter-gatherers arrived in Scotland around 12,800 years ago, as the ice sheet retreated after the last glaciation.
At the time, Scotland was covered in forests, had more bog-land, the main form of transport was by water. These settlers began building the first known permanent houses on Scottish soil around 9,500 years ago, the first villages around 6,000 years ago; the well-preserved village of Skara Brae on the mainland of Orkney dates from this period. Neolithic habitation and ritual sites are common and well preserved in the Northern Isles and Western Isles, where a lack of trees led to most structures being built of local stone. Evidence of sophisticated pre-Christian belief systems is demonstrated by sites such as the Callanish Stones on Lewis and the Maes Howe on Orkney, which were built in the third millennium BCE; the first written reference to Scotland was in 320 BC by Greek sailor Pytheas, who called the northern tip of Britain "Orcas", the source of the name of the Orkney islands. During the first millennium BCE, the society changed to a chiefdom model, as consolidation of settlement led to the concentration of wealth and underground stores of surplus food.
The first Roman incursion into Scotland occurred in 79 AD. After the Roman victory, Roman forts were set along the Gask Ridge close to the Highland line, but by three years after the battle, the Roman armies had withdrawn to the Southern Uplands; the Romans erected Hadrian's Wall in northern England and the Limes Britannicus became the northern border of the Roman Empire. The Roman influence on the southern part of the country was considerable, they introduced Christianity to Scotland. Beginning in the sixth century, the area, now Scotland was divided into three areas: Pictland, a patchwork of small lordships in central Scotland; these societies were based on the family unit and had sharp divisions in wealth, although the vast majority were poor and worked full-time in subsistence agriculture. The Picts kept slaves through the ninth century. Gaelic influence over Pictland and Northumbria was facilitated by the large number of Gaelic-speaking clerics working as missionaries. Operating in the sixth ce
Apocrypha are works written, of unknown authorship or of doubtful origin. Biblical apocrypha is a set of texts included in the Latin Vulgate and Septuagint but not in the Hebrew Bible. While Catholic tradition considers some of these texts to be deuterocanonical, Protestants consider them apocryphal. Thus, Protestant bibles do not include the books within the Old Testament but have included them in a separate section called the Apocrypha. Other non-canonical apocryphal texts are called pseudepigrapha, a term that means "false attribution"; the word's origin is the Medieval Latin adjective apocryphus, "secret, or non-canonical", from the Greek adjective ἀπόκρυφος, "obscure", from the verb ἀποκρύπτειν, "to hide away". The term "Apocrypha" appears in Christian religious contexts concerning disagreements about biblical canonicity. Apocryphal writings are a class of documents rejected by some as being either pseudepigraphical or unworthy to be properly called Scripture, though, as with other writings, they may sometimes be referenced for support, such as the lost Book of Jasher.
While writings that are now accepted by Christians as Scripture were recognized as being such by various believers early on, the establishment of a settled uniform canon was a process of centuries, what the term "canon" meant saw development. The canonical process took place with believers recognizing writings as being inspired by God from known or accepted origins, subsequently being followed by official affirmation of what had become established through the study and debate of the writings; the Catholic Church provided its first dogmatic definition of its entire canon in 1546, which put a stop to doubts and disagreements about the status of the Apocrypha. The leader of the Protestant Reformation, Martin Luther, like the Catholic Church father Jerome, favored the Masoretic canon for the Old Testament, excluding apocryphal books in his non-binding canon as unworthy to be properly called Scripture, but included most of them in a separate section, as per Jerome. Luther did not include the deuterocanonical books in his Old Testament, terming them "Apocrypha, that are books which are not considered equal to the Holy Scriptures, but are useful and good to read."The Eastern Orthodox Church accepts a few more books than appear in the Catholic canon.
The word "apocryphal" was first applied to writings which were kept secret because they were the vehicles of esoteric knowledge considered too profound or too sacred to be disclosed to anyone other than the initiated. For example, the disciples of the Gnostic Prodicus boasted that they possessed the secret books of Zoroaster; the term in general enjoyed high consideration among the Gnostics. Sinologist Anna Seidel refers to texts and items produced by ancient Chinese sages as apocryphal and studied their uses during Six Dynasties China; these artifacts were used as symbols guaranteeing the Emperor's Heavenly Mandate. Examples of these include talismans, writs and registers; the first examples were stones, jade pieces, bronze vessels and weapons, but came to include talismans and magic diagrams. From their roots in Zhou era China these items came to be surpassed in value by texts by the Han dynasty. Most of these texts have been destroyed as Emperors during the Han dynasty, collected these legitimizing objects and proscribed and burnt nearly all of them to prevent them from falling into the hands of political rivals.
It is therefore fitting with the Greek root of the word, as these texts were hidden away to protect the ruling Emperor from challenges to his status as Heaven's choice as sovereign. "Apocrypha" was applied to writings that were hidden not because of their divinity but because of their questionable value to the church. Many in Protestant traditions cite Revelation 22:18–19 as a potential curse for those who attach any canonical authority to extra-biblical writings such as the Apocrypha. However, a strict explanation of this text would indicate it was meant for only the Book of Revelation. Rv.22:18–19f. States: "For I testify unto every man that heareth the words of the prophecy of this book, If any man shall add unto these things, God shall add unto him the plagues that are written in this book: And if any man shall take away from the words of the book of this prophecy, God shall take away his part out of the book of life, out of the holy city, from the things which are written in this book."
In the context of Revelation, a book predicting the future atrocities of man, it means that God will strip them of the goodness of life and that they will be removed from heaven. The early Christian theologian Origen, in his Commentaries on Matthew, distinguishes between writings which were read by the churches and apocryphal writings: γραφὴ μὴ φερομένη μέν ἒν τοῖς κοινοῖς καὶ δεδημοσιευμένοις βιβλίοις εἰκὸς δ' ὅτι ἒν ἀποκρύφοις φερομένη; the meaning of αποκρυφος is here equivalent to "excluded from the public use of the church", prepares the way for an less favourable use of the word. In general use, the word "apocrypha" came to mean "false, bad, or heretical." This meaning appears in Origen's prologue to his commentary on the Song of Songs, of which only the Latin translation survives: De scripturis his, quae appellantur apocriphae, pro eo quod multa in iis corrupta et contra fidem veram inveniuntur
Virtual International Authority File
The Virtual International Authority File is an international authority file. It is a joint project of several national libraries and operated by the Online Computer Library Center. Discussion about having a common international authority started in the late 1990s. After a series of failed attempts to come up with a unique common authority file, the new idea was to link existing national authorities; this would present all the benefits of a common file without requiring a large investment of time and expense in the process. The project was initiated by the US Library of Congress, the German National Library and the OCLC on August 6, 2003; the Bibliothèque nationale de France joined the project on October 5, 2007. The project transitioned to being a service of the OCLC on April 4, 2012; the aim is to link the national authority files to a single virtual authority file. In this file, identical records from the different data sets are linked together. A VIAF record receives a standard data number, contains the primary "see" and "see also" records from the original records, refers to the original authority records.
The data are available for research and data exchange and sharing. Reciprocal updating uses the Open Archives Initiative Protocol for Metadata Harvesting protocol; the file numbers are being added to Wikipedia biographical articles and are incorporated into Wikidata. VIAF's clustering algorithm is run every month; as more data are added from participating libraries, clusters of authority records may coalesce or split, leading to some fluctuation in the VIAF identifier of certain authority records. Authority control Faceted Application of Subject Terminology Integrated Authority File International Standard Authority Data Number International Standard Name Identifier Wikipedia's authority control template for articles Official website VIAF at OCLC
The Royal Mile is a succession of streets forming the main thoroughfare of the Old Town of the city of Edinburgh in Scotland. The term was first used descriptively in W M Gilbert's Edinburgh in the Nineteenth Century, "...with its Castle and Palace and the royal mile between", was further popularised as the title of a guidebook, published in 1920. From the Castle gates to the Palace gates the street is exactly a mile long and runs downhill between two significant locations in the royal history of Scotland, namely Edinburgh Castle and Holyrood Palace, hence its name; the streets which make up the Royal Mile are Castlehill, the Lawnmarket, the High Street, the Canongate and Abbey Strand. The Royal Mile is the busiest tourist street in the Old Town, rivalled only by Princes Street in the New Town. Retreating ice sheets, many millennia ago, deposited their glacial debris behind the hard volcanic plug of the castle rock on which Edinburgh Castle stands, resulting in a distinctive crag and tail formation.
Running eastwards from the crag on which the castle sits, the Royal Mile sits upon the ridge of the tail which slopes down to Holyrood Palace. Steep closes run between the many tall lands off the main thoroughfare; the route runs from an elevation of 42 metres above sea level at the palace to 109 metres at the castle, giving an average gradient of 4.1%. The Castle Esplanade was laid out as a parade ground, in 1753, using spoil from the building of the Royal Exchange, it was formalised in 1816 when it was provided with decorative railings and walls. The Esplanade with its several monuments has been A-listed by Historic Scotland, it is the venue of the annual Edinburgh Military Tattoo at which time specially designed temporary grandstands are erected. Cannonball House has a cannonball lodged in the wall said to have been accidentally fired from the Castle but which marks the elevation of Comiston Springs, three miles to the south of the Castle, which fed a cistern on Castlehill, one of the first piped water supplies in Scotland.
From the Castle Esplanade, the short section of road entitled Castlehill is dominated by the former Tolbooth-Highland-St John's Church, now the headquarters of the Edinburgh International Festival society - The Hub, on the north side by the Outlook Tower and Camera Obscura. The Assembly Hall of the Church of Scotland and New College are further down on the same side; the Scottish Parliament met in the Assembly Hall between 1999 and 2004. The Lawnmarket was part of the High Street before its separate naming, which accounts for the street numbering being a continuation of the High Street numbers. A charter of 1477 designated this part of the High Street as the market-place for what was called "inland merchandise" - items such as yarn, coarse cloth and other similar articles. In years, linen was the main product sold; as a result, it became known as the Land Market, corrupted to Lawn Market. Today, the majority of shops in the street are aimed at tourists. On the north side is the preserved 17th century merchant's townhouse Gladstone's Land owned by the National Trust for Scotland.
The south side has a strong Dutch influence in its 17th-century gables. The lower end of the Lawnmarket is intersected by George IV Bridge on the right and Bank Street on the left, leading to The Mound and the New Town; the view down Bank Street is closed by the baroque headquarters of the Bank of Scotland. On the south-west corner of this intersection, with its entrance on George IV Bridge, is a new hotel, replacing the former Lothian Regional Council offices; this building is of controversial design winning both best building awards and "carbuncle" awards in 2009/10. Between Bank Street and St Giles Street, marking the end of the Lawnmarket, the High Court of Justiciary, Scotland's supreme criminal court, is housed in what was the Sheriff Court. On the south side, about one-third of the way down from the Castle toward the Palace is Parliament Square, named after the old Parliament House which housed both the law courts and the old Parliament of Scotland between the 1630s and 1707 Parliament House now houses the Court of Session, Scotland's supreme civil court.
St Giles' Cathedral, the High Kirk of Edinburgh stands in Parliament Square. By the West Door of St Giles' is the Heart of Midlothian, a heart-shaped pattern built into the "setted" road, marking the site of the Old Tolbooth the centre of administration and justice in the burgh; the prison was described by Sir Walter Scott as the "Heart of Midlothian", soon after demolition the city fathers marked the site with a heart mosaic. Locals have traditionally spat upon the heart's centre as a sign of contempt for the prison. On the north side, opposite St Giles', stand Edinburgh City Chambers, where the City of Edinburgh Council meets. On the south side, just past the High Kirk, is the Mercat Cross from which royal proclamations are read and the summoning of Parliament announced; the whole south side of buildings from St Giles to the Tron Kirk had to be rebuilt or refaced in the 1820s following the Great Edinburgh Fire of 1824. This was done in a Georgian style; the central focus of the Royal Mile is a major intersection with the Bridges.
North Bridge runs north over Waverley station to the New Town's Princes Street. South Bridge spans the Cowgate to the south, a street in a hollow below, continues as Nicolson Street past the Old College building of the U
Aberdeen Grammar School
Aberdeen Grammar School is a state secondary school in Aberdeen, Scotland. It is one of thirteen secondary schools run by the Aberdeen City Council educational department, it is the oldest school in the city and one of the oldest grammar schools in the United Kingdom, with a history spanning more than 750 years. Founded around 1257, the year used in official school records, it began operating as a boys' school. On Skene Street, near the centre of the city, it was situated on Schoolhill, near the current site of Robert Gordon's College, it moved to its current site in 1863, became co-educational in 1973. From 1970 to 1977, it was known as Rubislaw Academy, named after the nearby Rubislaw area of Aberdeen. In an annual survey run by the British broadsheet newspaper The Times, Aberdeen Grammar was rated the 12th best Scottish state secondary school in 2007, second in Aberdeen behind Cults Academy; the most notable alumnus is the Romantic poet and writer. A statue of him was erected in the front courtyard of the school.
Other alumni include Scottish international footballer Russell Anderson, mathematician Hector Munro Macdonald, Nobel Prize winner John Macleod and the last living recipient to have been awarded the Victoria Cross during the Second World War, John Cruickshank. The exact date of the school's founding is unknown. 1257, the date, now used for official school purposes. The earliest documented date of its existence is in the Burgh Records of 1418, when the Lord Provost and Council nominated John Homyll to replace the deceased Andrew of Chivas as "Master of the Schools". On Schoolhill, near the site of the current Robert Gordon's College, the curriculum consisted of Latin and ancient geography. In 1580, new pupils were reprimanded, under the penalty of £10, if they did not show good behaviour or did not listen to their Magistrates or masters. In 1612, the pupils, many of whom were related to the gentry in the country, rioted with pistols and hagbuts, took over part of the school; the masters stopped the riot, 21 pupils were expelled, while some were arrested.
From 1861–1863, the school moved to its current location on Skene Street. A large granite building in Scottish baronial style was constructed and opened on 23 October 1863; this allowed expansion of the curriculum to include English, modern languages and gymnastics. Other buildings and extensions have been added to the 1863 building; these include the Bennum Building and the 1960s modern design: a west-wing science block, a dining hall. A private boys' school, it became a council grammar school and a comprehensive academy in 1970, it became co-educational in 1973. In 1986, the original building was devastated by a fire, destroying most of the rooms including the large library, a collection of Byron's notebooks, the trophy room and other classrooms, although the historic facade was undamaged; the school was rebuilt over many years, with modern facilities, while pupils studied in temporary classrooms in the playground. These Portakabins were used by the Art Departments; the school and FPs club own the 18-acre Rubislaw Playing Fields at a site about a mile away from the main school building.
Shared with the former pupils' club, the location has rugby union pitches with a stand, football pitches, grass hockey pitches and an artificial hockey pitch built in 2005. In recent years the school has been the site of a number of newsworthy events, including a protest against PETA, the painting pink of an entire temporary classroom block, a bomb threat; the school marked its 750th anniversary year in 2007 with a series of fund-raising events, the proceeds of which went towards buying a new school minibus. In 2007, work was completed on a new gymnasium, begun two years previously; the new building has a modern interior compared with the old granite. The building at the Rubislaw Playing Fields was refurbished in 2008 in much the same style as the gym, was extended to include four extra changing rooms and a reception area. In February 2019, the school was shut for a suspected gas leak; the motto is Bon Record. This is not to be confused with that of the City of Aberdeen—Bon Accord—which was first heard of in 1308, over 50 years after the school was founded.
Today the school is run by Aberdeen City Council in accordance with the Scottish Executive's educational guidelines for state schools. In the 2013/14 academic year, the education of each pupil at the Grammar School cost £4,252; this was the lowest spending per pupil out of the local authority secondary schools. In the session 2006–2007, 43% of fifth- and sixth-year pupils received a qualification equivalent of five Highers or more—a 3% increase on the previous year, it is now ranked 12th equal in Scotland for these qualifications. Furthermore, 64% of fourth-years gained a Standard Grade at Credit level—an increase of 4%; the school is ranked 10th in this field. In an annual survey run by the British broadsheet newspaper The Times, Aberdeen Grammar was rated the 19th best Scottish state secondary school in 2005 based on exam results, rising to 16th in 2006 and, most 12th in 2007. About 1100 pupils attend the school each year, between the ages of about 11 to 18; the school's catchment area centres on the west end including Rosemount and Mannofield.
There are five main primary schools that feed into the school, located throughout the centre and west-end of Aberdeen: Ashley Road Primary School, Gilcomstoun Primary School, Mile-End School, Skene Square Primary School and St. Joseph's Primary School (a Roman Cathol
Mary Erskine was a Scottish businesswoman and philanthropist, who donated money to set up the girls' school, now known as The Mary Erskine School and the Trades Maiden Hospital. Mary Erskine lived on a close off the High Street in Edinburgh, to the east of St Giles' Cathedral, close to the Cowgate a fashionable suburb, she was born at Garlet House, Clackmannanshire, in 1629. Little is known of her early life, but in 1661 she married Robert Kennedie, a writer and they had five children, three boys and two girls, all of whom appear to have died in infancy. Robert Kennedie died in 1671 leaving Mary with considerable debts, although she managed to pay these off through careful management. On 23 September 1675, Mary Erskine married James Hair, in North Leith. James Hair was a chemist, owned a chemist's shop on the High Street, he was younger than Mary Erskine, but he too died in 1683. By the contract of marriage, Mary Erskine inherited most of, it seems that this was not a large sum of money, but she used the money to set up a private bank, built up a considerable fortune.
She died on 2 June 1707 and was buried two days in Greyfriars Kirkyard at the end of the section known as the Covenanters' Prison. In 1694, Mary Erskine, by known as Mrs Hair, donated 10,000 merks to the Merchant Company of Edinburgh for the maintenance of daughters of burgesses in the city of Edinburgh; the money was used to establish a girls' school, on the Cowgate. In 1706 Mrs Hair gave a further donation with which to buy a house and garden outside the city wall at Bristo. In 1707 she donated a further 4,000 merks to the Hospital, retaining the right to appoint two members of the Erskine family as governors; the Merchant Maiden Hospital was renamed and relocated several times, but in 1944 it was named The Mary Erskine School in honour of its founding benefactor. The school stood for many years at the west end of Queen Street but was demolished for redevelopment and is now located in the Ravelston area of Edinburgh. In 1704 Mary Erskine founded the Trades Maiden Hospital with the Incorporated Trades of Edinburgh, to provide boarding and education for the daughters and granddaughters of "decayed" craftsmen and tradesmen.
This was at first situated in the Horse Wynd on the south side of. In 1855 it moved to Rillbank at Sciennes. In 1892 it moved again, this time to 121 Grange Loan. In 1971 it moved once more, to 61 Melville Street, on the corner with Manor Place, opposite the chapter house of St. Mary's Episcopal Cathedral. Skinner, Lydia. A family unbroken, 1694–1994: the Mary Erskine School tercentenary history. Mary Erskine School. ISBN 978-1-898410-61-4. History of Mary Erskine School, Erskine Stewart's Melville Schools "Lofty ceilings but down-to-earth ideals" Times Educational Supplement Testament of Mary Erskine, Scotland's People