Naval Station Great Lakes
Naval Station Great Lakes is the home of the United States Navy's only boot camp, located near North Chicago, in Lake County, Illinois. Important tenant commands include the Recruit Training Command, Training Support Center and Navy Recruiting District Chicago. Naval Station Great Lakes is the largest military installation in Illinois and the largest training station in the Navy; the base has 1,153 buildings situated on 1,628 acres and has 69 miles of roadway to provide access to the base's facilities. Within the naval service, it has several different nicknames, including "The Quarterdeck of the Navy", or the more derogatory "Great Mistakes"; the original 39 buildings built between 1905 and 1911 were designed by Jarvis Hunt. The base is like a small city, with its own Fire Department, Naval Security Forces, Public Works Department. One of the landmarks of the area is Building 1 known as the clocktower building. Completed in 1911, the building is made of red brick, has a tower over the third floor of the building.
The large parade ground in front of the administration building is named Ross Field. In 1996, RTC Great Lakes became the Navy's only basic training facility; the Base Realignment and Closure Commission of 1993 resulted in the closure of Naval Training Center San Diego and Naval Training Center Orlando, their associated Recruit Training Commands, the consolidation of US Navy enlisted recruit training to Great Lakes. 40,000 recruits pass through Recruit Training Command annually with an estimated 7,000 recruits on board the installation at any time. RTC Great Lakes has been active for over 100 years. TSC Great Lakes is the Navy's premier technical training command, it has an annual throughput of 16,000 sailors a year. TSC supports the following six learning sites: Center for Surface Combat Systems Surface Warfare Officers School Command Unit Center for EOD and Dive Center for Naval Leadership Center for Personal Development Center for Service Support The following rating training class A-schools are located at Naval Station Great Lakes: Electrician's Mate Electronics Technician Fire Controlman Gunner's Mate Interior Communications Electrician Boatswain's Mate Operations Specialist Hull Maintenance Technician Damage Controlman Engineman Gas Turbine System Technician Gas Turbine System Technician Machinery Repairman Quartermaster Machinist Mate Culinary Specialist A-school was taught at TSC Great Lakes until December 10, 2010, when the school graduated its final class.
The course has been consolidated with the US Army's parallel program and relocated to Fort Lee, Virginia. Hospital Corpsman "A" School has been moved out of Great Lakes; the last class graduated on July 27, 2011. Its last class was Class 11-125; the school has relocated to the Medical Education and Training Campus at Fort Sam Houston, Joint Base San Antonio, Texas. This change has merged Air Force and Navy Medical staff to a centralized location. In addition, all Navy rates that require basic electrical knowledge and troubleshooting training complete Apprentice Technical Training school; this includes the Mineman and Sonar Technician rates, as well as some aviation rates prior to detachment to their respective school locations in San Diego, CA and Pensacola, Florida. Boatswain's Mates complete Surface Common Core Basic Maintenance Training and engineering rates complete Basic Engineering Common Core Great Lakes was approved in 1904 by Theodore Roosevelt. Construction was supervised by Navy Captain Albert R. Ross.
Chicago-area architect Jarvis Hunt designed the original 39 buildings and Lt. George A. McKay was the civil engineer for the construction on the 172 acres wilderness location. $3.5 million was appropriated to finance construction. President William Howard Taft dedicated the Naval Training Station in 1911. On 3 July 1911, Joseph Gregg was the first recruit to arrive, he would graduate in the first class of 300. 55 years he was buried at the Naval Station Cemetery 5 July 1966. John Philip Sousa led the Great Lakes Naval Station Band in the mid- to late 1910s. Great Lakes had a Radio School including two 400 feet towers constructed in 1915. From 1911 to 1916 around 2,000 recruits a year were trained at Great Lakes. At the start of 1917, just prior to the United States entry to World War I, Great Lakes was under the command of Captain William A. Moffett and had 39 permanent brick buildings, over 165 acres, about 1,500 Sailors. At the close of the war, there were 776 buildings, with 1,200 acres and about 45,000 Sailors in training.
125,000 had been trained at Great Lakes during the war. In 1923, Naval Reserve Air Base, Great Lakes was commissioned. Recruit training slowed after the war and halted in 1933. In 1932, Great Lakes had 102 buildings on 507 acres. A harbor was constructed around that time at a cost of $1 million. On 1 July 1933, Great Lakes was placed in a maintenance status, it was reopened 1 July 1935 after lobbying by local businessmen and the Congressional Delegation from Illinois. In 1936, aviation training was moved from Great Lakes to Naval Air Station Glenview. On 9 December 1940, the Class A Service School opened for its first class. On 7 December 1941, Pearl Harbor was attacked by Japan, around 6,000 sailors were training at Great Lakes; this grew to 68,000 in six months. The base grew to 1,600 acres in the next 10 months. By mid-1943, there were over 700 instructors at the Class A service scho
Meadville is a city in and the county seat of Crawford County, United States. The city is within 90 miles of Pittsburgh, it was the first permanent settlement in northwest Pennsylvania. The population was 13,388 at the 2010 census; the city of Meadville is the principal city of PA Micropolitan Statistical Area. As well as one of two cities, the other being Erie, that make up the larger Erie-Meadville, PA Combined Statistical Area. Meadville was settled on May 1788, by a party of settlers led by David Mead, its location was chosen well, for it lies at the confluence of Cussewago Creek and French Creek, was only a day's travel by boat to the safety of Fort Franklin. Their settlement was in a large meadow, first cleared by Native Americans led by Chief Custaloga, well suited for growing maize; the village Custaloga built here was known as Cussewago. Custaloga's name first appeared in western Pennsylvania's history in George Washington's journal of 1754; when Washington arrived in the village of Venango, Custaloga was in charge of the wampum of his nation.
This wampum was a message, sent to the Six Nations if the French refused to leave the land. Custaloga was the chief of the Munsee or Wolf Clan of Delawares and he ruled over the Delawares at the town of Cussewago, at the present site of Meadville; the neighboring Iroquois and Lenape befriended the isolated settlement, but their enemies, including the Wyandots, were not so amiable. The threat of their attacks caused the settlement to be evacuated for a time in 1791. Around 1800, many of the settlers to the Meadville area came after receiving land bounties for service in the Revolutionary War. Meadville became an important transportation center after construction of the French Creek Feeder Canal in 1837 and of the Beaver and Erie Canal it connected to at Conneaut Lake and subsequent railroad development. In the late 18th and early 19th centuries Meadville played a small part in the Underground Railroad helping escaping slaves to freedom. An event in September 1880 led to the end of segregation by race in the state's public schools.
At the South Ward schools, Elias Allen tried unsuccessfully to enroll his two children. He appealed to the Crawford County Court of Common Pleas, Judge Pearson Church declared unconstitutional the 1854 state law mandating separate schools for Negro children; this law was amended, effective July 1881, to prohibit such segregation. By the late 19th century, Meadville's economy was driven by logging and iron production; the Talon Corporation, headquartered in Meadville, played a major role in the development of the zipper. Since the clothing industry was unaffected by the Great Depression, the community saw a population boom at that time. During World War II, the nearby Keystone Ordnance plant brought additional jobs to the area; the high demand for zippers created favorable conditions for the Talon Company, so became Meadville's most crucial industry. The company encountered significant difficulties after it was absorbed by Textron industries in 1968 ending up bankrupt. Today, nothing remains of Talon in Meadville except for a few run down buildings.
However, as a result of the need for close tolerances and tool and die makers, a cottage industry of tool and die shops was established which resulted in Meadville, earning the city the nickname Tool City with more tool shops per capita than any place else in the United States. In 1886, a blacksmith from Evansburg, George B. DeArment, began hand-forging farrier's tools and selling them from town to town out of the back of a wagon; the business became known as the Champion Bolt and Clipper Company. In 1904, now named Channellock, the company moved to a 12,000-square-foot facility in Meadville and added nippers and open-end wrenches to its product line. George B. DeArment’s two sons, Almon W. and J. Howard DeArment, became partners in the company in 1911 and expanded the product line again to include hammers. In 1923, the company moved again to a 33,000-square-foot facility at its current location. Four years the name of the company was changed to the Champion–DeArment Tool Company. Talon remained a major employer, along with the Erie Railroad, American Viscose Corporation, Channellock tools, Dad's Pet Food.
The area saw an increase in population during the Great Depression and the economy continued to grow past World War ll. In the 1980s, the Great Lakes region saw a decline in heavy industry. By the early 1990s, Channellock and Dad's were the only large companies operating in Meadville; this blow to the local economy was softened by subsequent surge in light industry tool and die machine shops. The area has seen growth in the 1990s and first decade of the 21st century; the song "Bittersweet Motel" by Vermont jam band, was inspired when keyboardist Page McConnell left a wedding in Meadville and drove to the Pittsburgh Airport. In addition to the Meadville Downtown Historic District, several buildings are listed on the National Register of Historic Places: Baldwin-Reynolds House, Bentley Hall, Independent Congregational Church, Dr. J. R. Mosier Office, Roueche House, Ruter Hall, Judge Henry Shippen House. Meadville, Pennsylvania, is a charming city in Crawford County and was the first permanent settlement in northwestern PA.
The Baldwin Reynolds house is an attraction in Pennsylvania. It was built in 1843 by United States Supreme Court Justice Henry Baldwin. Just a few months after the house was complete, Henry Baldwin passes away in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania. After his death, the house became a girls’ school for three years until it was so
Basketball is a team sport in which two teams, most of five players each, opposing one another on a rectangular court, compete with the primary objective of shooting a basketball through the defender's hoop while preventing the opposing team from shooting through their own hoop. A field goal is worth two points, unless made from behind the three-point line, when it is worth three. After a foul, timed play stops and the player fouled or designated to shoot a technical foul is given one or more one-point free throws; the team with the most points at the end of the game wins, but if regulation play expires with the score tied, an additional period of play is mandated. Players advance the ball by bouncing it while walking or running or by passing it to a teammate, both of which require considerable skill. On offense, players may use a variety of shots -- a dunk, it is a violation to lift or drag one's pivot foot without dribbling the ball, to carry it, or to hold the ball with both hands resume dribbling.
The five players on each side at a time fall into five playing positions: the tallest player is the center, the tallest and strongest is the power forward, a shorter but more agile big man is the small forward, the shortest players or the best ball handlers are the shooting guard and the point guard, who implements the coach's game plan by managing the execution of offensive and defensive plays. Informally, players may play three-on-three, two-on-two, one-on-one. Invented in 1891 by Canadian-American gym teacher James Naismith in Springfield, United States, basketball has evolved to become one of the world's most popular and viewed sports; the National Basketball Association is the most significant professional basketball league in the world in terms of popularity, salaries and level of competition. Outside North America, the top clubs from national leagues qualify to continental championships such as the Euroleague and FIBA Americas League; the FIBA Basketball World Cup and Men's Olympic Basketball Tournament are the major international events of the sport and attract top national teams from around the world.
Each continent hosts regional competitions for national teams, like FIBA AmeriCup. The FIBA Women's Basketball World Cup and Women's Olympic Basketball Tournament feature top national teams from continental championships; the main North American league is the WNBA, whereas strongest European clubs participate in the EuroLeague Women. In early December 1891, Canadian James Naismith, a physical education professor and instructor at the International Young Men's Christian Association Training School in Springfield, was trying to keep his gym class active on a rainy day, he sought a vigorous indoor game to keep his students occupied and at proper levels of fitness during the long New England winters. After rejecting other ideas as either too rough or poorly suited to walled-in gymnasiums, he wrote the basic rules and nailed a peach basket onto a 10-foot elevated track. In contrast with modern basketball nets, this peach basket retained its bottom, balls had to be retrieved manually after each "basket" or point scored.
Basketball was played with a soccer ball. These round balls from "association football" were made, at the time, with a set of laces to close off the hole needed for inserting the inflatable bladder after the other sewn-together segments of the ball's cover had been flipped outside-in; these laces could dribbling to be unpredictable. A lace-free ball construction method was invented, this change to the game was endorsed by Naismith; the first balls made for basketball were brown, it was only in the late 1950s that Tony Hinkle, searching for a ball that would be more visible to players and spectators alike, introduced the orange ball, now in common use. Dribbling was not part of the original game except for the "bounce pass" to teammates. Passing the ball was the primary means of ball movement. Dribbling was introduced but limited by the asymmetric shape of early balls. Dribbling was common by 1896, with a rule against the double dribble by 1898; the peach baskets were used until 1906 when they were replaced by metal hoops with backboards.
A further change was soon made, so the ball passed through. Whenever a person got the ball in the basket, his team would gain a point. Whichever team got; the baskets were nailed to the mezzanine balcony of the playing court, but this proved impractical when spectators in the balcony began to interfere with shots. The backboard was introduced to prevent this interference. Naismith's handwritten diaries, discovered by his granddaughter in early 2006, indicate that he was nervous about the new game he had invented, which incorporated rules from a children's game called duck on a rock, as many had failed before it. Frank Mahan, one of the players from the original
Allegheny College is a private, coeducational liberal arts college in northwestern Pennsylvania in the town of Meadville 35 miles south of Erie. Founded in 1815, Allegheny is the oldest college in continuous existence under the same name west of the Allegheny Mountains. Allegheny is a member of the Great Lakes Colleges Association and the North Coast Athletic Conference and it is regionally accredited by the Middle States Commission on Higher Education. Allegheny was founded in April 1815 by the Reverend Timothy Alden, a graduate of Harvard's School of Divinity; the college is affiliated with the United Methodist Church beginning in 1833, but does not integrate religion into the classroom or pedagogy. The first class, consisting of four male students, began their studies on July 4, 1816, without any formal academic buildings. Within six years, Alden accumulated sufficient funds to begin building a campus; the first building erected, the library, was designed by Alden himself, is a notable example of early American architecture.
Bentley Hall is named in honor of Dr. William Bentley, who donated his private library to the College, a collection of considerable value and significance. In 1824, Thomas Jefferson wrote to Alden, expressing the hope that his University of Virginia could someday possess the richness of Allegheny's library. Alden served as president of the college until 1831, when financial and enrollment difficulties forced his resignation. Ruter Hall was built in 1853. Allegheny began admitting women in 1870, early for a US college. By the time Ida Tarbell, future journalist, arrived in 1876, nineteen women had attended Allegheny and only two had graduated. Tarbell described Ruter Hall in her writing, "...looking out on the town in the valley, its roofs and towers half hidden by a wealth of trees, beyond it to a circle of round-breasted hills. Before I left Allegheny I had found a precious thing in that severe room--the companionship there is in the silent presence of books." In 1905, Allegheny built Alden Hall as a new and improved preparatory school.
Over the decades, the college has grown in size and significance while still maintaining ties to the community. In 1971 the film Been Down So Long It Looks Like Up to Me based on the Richard Farina novel was filmed on college grounds. While the word "Allegheny" is a brand for the college, it is the name of a county, a river, a mountain range, the school has tried to prevent other entities from using this word. For example, Allegheny objected in 2006 when Penn State tried to rename one of its campuses "Allegheny". Allegheny president Richard Cook said'Allegheny' was "our brand." It sued the Philadelphia's Allegheny Research Foundation in 1997 to change its name. Under president Richard J. Cook, Allegheny was reported to have had a "stronger endowment, optimal enrollment, record retention rates, innovative new programs and many physical campus improvements." These years were marked by tremendous growth in the endowment, marked by a $115-million fund-raising drive, bringing the endowment to $150 million.
In February 2008, James H. Mullen Jr. was named the 21st president of Allegheny. He took office Aug. 1, 2008. The college and the town cooperate in many ways. One study suggested the Allegheny College generates $93 million annually into Meadville and the local economy. Since 2002, Allegheny hosts classical music festivals during the summer. In October 2006, the college attracted negative publicity after local enforcement cited over 100 people for underage drinking at a college party. In July 2007, a 1,500-pound wrecking ball demolishing part of Allegheny's Pelletier Library broke its chain, rumbled down the hill, careened "back and forth across the street," hit nine parked cars, wrecked curbs, crashed into the trunk of an Allegheny student's car, pushing his car into two cars in front of him. Eight soccer balls in his car "likely lessened the impact of the wrecking ball," and spared his life, according to a police officer on the scene; the student body voted to name the library's coffee shop "The Wrecking Ball" after the event.
The college has sponsored panels on unusual topics such as face transplants. Allegheny professors have joined visible initiatives. Dr. Maniates said "We need to think of ways of making it possible for people to think about working less and getting by on less." At present, environmental concerns are important at Allegheny, which in 2008 worked with Siemens to devise a "total energy use reduction plan" for the college. The campus has 40 principal buildings on a 79-acre central campus located just north of Downtown Meadville, a 203-acre outdoor recreational complex north of campus, called the Roberston Athletic Complex, the 283-acre Bousson nature reserve, protected forest, experimental forest. Residence Halls: North Village II is the newest residence hall on campus, which houses 230 residents in either quad or double living in an air conditioned environment. North Village houses 110 residents in air-conditioned suites housing 5 residents a suite; the most environmentally friendly of all the residence halls, it features geothermal heating, eco-friendly tiles, rainwater recharge stations College Court is located at the southern part of the campus and houses 77 students in apartment style housing which shares a common courtyard and features a kitchen and air conditioning.
Located about a 5-minute walk from campus, Allegheny Commons is a new addi
Milwaukee Journal Sentinel
The Milwaukee Journal Sentinel is a daily morning broadsheet printed in Milwaukee, where it is the primary newspaper. It is the largest newspaper in the state of Wisconsin, where it is distributed widely, it is owned by the Gannett Company. The Journal Sentinel was first printed on Sunday, April 2, 1995, following the consolidation of operations between the afternoon The Milwaukee Journal and the morning Milwaukee Sentinel, owned by the same company, Journal Communications, for more than 30 years; the new Journal Sentinel became a seven-day morning paper. In early 2003, the Milwaukee Journal Sentinel began printing operations at its new printing facility in West Milwaukee. In September 2006, the Journal Sentinel announced it had "signed a five-year agreement to print the national edition of USA Today for distribution in the northern and western suburbs of Chicago and the eastern half of Wisconsin"; the legacies of both papers are acknowledged on the editorial pages today, with the names of the Sentinel's Solomon Juneau and the Journal's Lucius Nieman and Harry J. Grant listed below their respective newspaper's flags.
The merged paper's volume and edition numbers follow those of the Journal. The Milwaukee Sentinel was founded in response to disparaging statements made about the east side of town by Byron Kilbourn's westside partisan newspaper, the Milwaukee Advertiser, during the city's "bridge wars", a period when the two sides of town fought for dominance; the founder of Milwaukee, Solomon Juneau, provided the starting funds for editor John O'Rourke, a former office assistant at the Advertiser, to start the paper. It was first published as a four-page weekly on June 27, 1837. A deathly ill O'Rourke struggled to help the paper to find its feet before he died six months of tuberculosis at the age of 24. On Juneau's request, O'Rourke's associate, Harrison Reed, remained to take over the Sentinel's operations, he continued the struggle to keep the paper ahead of its debts printing pleas to his advertisers and subscribers to pay their bills any way they could. Meanwhile, the establishment of the Whig party in the territory thrust the Sentinel into partisan politics.
In 1840 Reed was assaulted by individuals whom the Sentinel charged were hired by Democratic Governor Henry Dodge. That year the paper abandoned its independence and proclaimed itself a Whig paper with its endorsement of William Henry Harrison for president in 1840. In financial straits, Reed lost control of the paper in 1841 when Democrats foreclosed on the Sentinel's mortgaged debt and took over its editorial page. Only after the Democrats' successful election of Dodge for Congress was Reed able to regain control of the paper; the next year he sold the Sentinel to Elisha Starr, an editor who had founded a new Whig paper in response to the Sentinel's Democratic lapse. Reed became a "carpetbag" governor of Florida during Reconstruction. Starr guarded the Sentinel's position as the sole Whig organ in Milwaukee. In debt, he secured the partnership of David M. Keeler, who paid off the paper's creditors. Keeler took on partner John S. Fillmore and succeeded in ousting Starr, who kept publishing his own version of the Sentinel.
Keeler and Fillmore trumped his efforts by turning their Sentinel into a daily on December 9, 1844, while still publishing a weekly edition. The paper began to prosper and establish itself as a major political force in the nascent state of Wisconsin. Having accomplished his goal of establishing the first daily paper in the territory, Keeler retired two months but not before opening a public reading room of the nation's newspapers, the origin of Milwaukee's public library system. Fillmore employed a succession of editors, including Jason Downer a Wisconsin Supreme Court justice, Increase A. Lapham, a Midwestern naturalist who helped establish the National Weather Service. After running through six editors in eight years, Fillmore sought a more stable editorial foundation and went east to confer with Thurlow Weed, editor of the Albany Evening Journal and powerful Whig political boss of New York. Weed recommended protégé, Rufus King. King was a native of New York City, a graduate of West Point, a brevet lieutenant, the son of the president of Columbia College and the grandson of U.
S. Constitution signer Rufus King. In June 1845 King became the Sentinel's editor three months later. King was lionized by the community, it was his suggestion that made the Sentinel the first paper in the Midwest to employ newsboys to boost street sales. Due to King's connections to the East, the quality of the Sentinel improved, he declared the Sentinel an antislavery paper and supported temperance legislation. King invested his own money in the paper. Two years the first telegraph message wired to Wisconsin was received in the Sentinel office; the paper provided thorough coverage of Wisconsin's constitutional convention, held in Madison in 1846. When the adopted constitution fell short of Whig expectations, the Sentinel was instrumental in encouraging its rejection by territorial voters on April 6, 1847; the Sentinel launched a German paper, Der Volksfreund, to bring the city's large population of German immigrants to the Whig cause. Gen. King himself was a delegate to Wisconsin's second constitutional convention.
He was appointed head of the Milwaukee militia and sat on the University of Wisconsin's board of regents, as well as being the first superintendent of Milwaukee public schools. In the wake of the Panic of 1857 King sold the paper to T. D. Jermain and H. H. Brightman, but remained editor, covering the state legislative sessions of 1859–1861 himself. After
Wilfred Joseph "Dukes" Duford was an American college football player and university athletic director. He was the head football coach at Saint Louis University, Saint Ambrose University, the University of Saint Mary. Duford was born on June 1898 in Menomonie, Wisconsin. Duford attended Niagara High School and Marquette University, where he played football and basketball. Duford lettered in basketball from 1921 to 1923, he graduated in 1924. After college, he played professional football in the National Football League for one season with the Green Bay Packers, he saw action in three games in 1924 as a halfback. Duford began his college football coaching career with a two-year stint at the University of Saint Mary in Kansas, he moved on to Saint Ambrose University in Iowa, where he coached from 1931 to 1939. During his tenure there, Saint Ambrose posted a 60–10–7 record and secured four Iowa Intercollegiate Athletic Conference championships. Impressed by his winning record, St. Ambrose University signed Duford to a multi-year contract as its football coach.
Duford served as both the head football coach and athletic director at Saint Louis from 1940 to 1947. He served as the basketball coach for the 1944–45 season and posted an 11–6 record. Duford and his staff resigned from Saint Louis after the 1947 season in which the football team amassed a 4–6 record. In his autobiography, Memories of a Hall of Fame Sportswriter, Bob Broeg called Duford his "candidate for the most noble coach of all."In 1966, Duford was working as the Commissioner of the St. Louis Council on Human Relations, set up to facilitate racial integration of the city. Duford returned to Saint Louis University as its interim athletic director in 1967. Duford was inducted into the Saint Louis University's Billiken Hall of Fame in 1995. Duford died at his Missouri home in 1981 of a heart ailment
University of Notre Dame
The University of Notre Dame du Lac is a private Catholic research university in Notre Dame, Indiana. The main campus covers 1,261 acres in a suburban setting and it contains a number of recognizable landmarks, such as the Golden Dome, the Word of Life mural, the Notre Dame Stadium, the Basilica; the school was founded on November 26, 1842, by Edward Sorin, its first president. Notre Dame is recognized as one of the top universities in the United States, in particular for its undergraduate education. Undergraduate students are organized into six colleges and Letters, Engineering, Business and Global Affairs; the School of Architecture is known for teaching New Classical Architecture and for awarding the globally renowned annual Driehaus Architecture Prize. The university offers over 15 summer programs. Notre Dame's graduate program has more than 50 master and professional degree programs offered by the five schools, with the addition of the Notre Dame Law School and an MD–PhD program offered in combination with the Indiana University School of Medicine.
It maintains a system of libraries, cultural venues and scientific museums, including the Hesburgh Library and the Snite Museum of Art. The majority of the university's 8,000 undergraduates live on campus in one of 31 residence halls, each with its own traditions, legacies and intramural sports teams; the university counts 134,000 alumni, considered among the strongest alumni networks among U. S. colleges. The university's athletic teams are members of the NCAA Division I and are known collectively as the Fighting Irish. Notre Dame is known for its football team, which contributed to its rise to prominence on the national stage in the early 20th century. Other ND sport teams, chiefly in the Atlantic Coast Conference, have accumulated 17 national championships; the Notre Dame Victory March is regarded as one of the most famous and recognizable collegiate fight songs. Started as a small all-male institution in 1842 and chartered in 1844, Notre Dame reached international fame at the beginning of the 20th century, aided by the success of its football team under the guidance of coach Knute Rockne.
Major improvements to the university occurred during the administration of Theodore Hesburgh between 1952 and 1987 as Hesburgh's administration increased the university's resources, academic programs, reputation and first enrolled women undergraduates in 1972. Since, the university has seen steady growth, under the leadership of the next two presidents, Edward Malloy and John I. Jenkins, many infrastructure and research expansions have been completed. Notre Dame's growth has continued in the 21st century, it possesses one of the largest endowments of any U. S. university, at $13.1 billion. In 1842, the Bishop of Vincennes, Célestine Guynemer de la Hailandière, offered land to Edward Sorin of the Congregation of Holy Cross, on the condition that he build a college in two years. Sorin arrived on the site with eight Holy Cross brothers from France and Ireland on November 26, 1842, began the school using Stephen Badin's old log chapel, he soon erected additional buildings, including the Old College, the first church, the first main building.
They acquired two students and set about building additions to the campus. Notre Dame began as a primary and secondary school, but soon received its official college charter from the Indiana General Assembly on January 15, 1844. Under the charter the school is named the University of Notre Dame du Lac; because the university was only for male students, the female-only Saint Mary's College was founded by the Sisters of the Holy Cross near Notre Dame in 1844. The first degrees from the college were awarded in 1849; the university was expanded with new buildings to accommodate more students and faculty. With each new president, new academic programs were offered and new buildings built to accommodate them; the original Main Building built by Sorin just after he arrived was replaced by a larger "Main Building" in 1865, which housed the university's administration and dormitories. Under William Corby's first administration, enrollment at Notre Dame increased to more than 500 students. In 1869 he opened the law school, which offered a two-year course of study, in 1871 he began construction of Sacred Heart Church, today the Basilica of the Sacred Heart, Notre Dame.
Beginning in 1873, a library collection was started by Auguste Lemonnier, housed in the Main Building, by 1879 it had grown to ten thousand volumes. This Main Building, the library collection, was destroyed by a fire in April 1879; the university founder and the president at the time, William Corby planned for the rebuilding of the structure that had housed the entire University. Construction was started on May 17, by the incredible zeal of administrator and workers the building was completed before the fall semester of 1879; the library collection was rebuilt and stayed housed in the new Main Building for years afterwards. Around the time of the fire, a music hall was opened. Known as Washington Hall, it hosted musical acts put on by the school. By 1880, a science program was established at the university, a Science Hall (today LaFortu