Sanchi Stupa written Sanci, is a Buddhist complex, famous for its Great Stupa, on a hilltop at Sanchi Town in Raisen District of the State of Madhya Pradesh, India. It is located in 46 kilometres north-east of capital of Madhya Pradesh; the Great Stupa at Sanchi is one of the oldest stone structures in India, an important monument of Indian Architecture. It was commissioned by the emperor Ashoka in the 2nd century BCE, its nucleus was a simple hemispherical brick structure built over the relics of the Buddha. It was crowned by the chhatri, a parasol-like structure symbolising high rank, intended to honour and shelter the relics; the original construction work of this stupa was overseen by Ashoka, whose wife Devi was the daughter of a merchant of nearby Vidisha. Sanchi was her birthplace as well as the venue of her and Ashoka's wedding. In the 1st century BCE, four elaborately carved toranas and a balustrade encircling the entire structure were added; the Sanchi Stupa built during Mauryan period was made of bricks.
The composite flourished until the 11th century. Sanchi is the center of a region with a number of stupas, all within a few miles of Sanchi, including Satdhara and Andher, as well as Sonari. Further south, about 100 km away, is Saru Maru. Bharhut is 300 km to the northeast; the "Great Stupa" at Sanchi is the oldest structure and was commissioned by the emperor Ashoka the Great of the Maurya Empire in the 3rd century BCE. Its nucleus was a hemispherical brick structure built over the relics of the Buddha, with a raised terrace encompassing its base, a railing and stone umbrella on the summit, the chatra, a parasol-like structure symbolizing high rank; the original Stupa only had about half the diameter of today's stupa, the result of enlargement by the Sungas. It was covered in contrast to the stones that now cover it. According to one version of the Mahavamsa, the Buddhist chronicle of Sri Lanka, Ashoka was connected to the region of Sanchi; when he was heir-apparent and was journeying as Viceroy to Ujjain, he is said to have halted at Vidisha, there married the daughter of a local banker.
She was called Devi and gave Ashoka two sons and Mahendra, a daughter Sanghamitta. After Ashoka's accession, Mahendra headed a Buddhist mission, sent under the auspices of the Emperor, to Sri Lanka, that before setting out to the island he visited his mother at Chetiyagiri near Vidisa, thought to be Sanchi, he was lodged there in a sumptuous vihdra or monastery, which she herself is said to have had erected. A pillar of finely polished sandstone, one of the Pillars of Ashoka, was erected on the side of the main Torana gateway; the bottom part of the pillar still stands. The upper parts of the pillar are at the nearby Sanchi Archaeological Museum; the capital consists in four lions, which supported a Wheel of Law, as suggested by illustrations among the Sanchi reliefs. The pillar has an Ashokan inscription and an inscription in the ornamental Sankha Lipi from the Gupta period; the Ashokan inscription is engraved in early Brahmi characters. It is much damaged, but the commands it contains appear to be the same as those recorded in the Sarnath and Kausambi edicts, which together form the three known instances of Ashoka's "Schism Edict".
It relates to the penalties for schism in the Buddhist sangha: "... path is prescribed both for the monks and for the nuns. As long as sons and great-grandsons as long as the Moon and the Sun, the monk or nun who shall cause divisions in the Sangha, shall be compelled to put on white robes and to reside apart. For what is my desire? That the Sangha may be united and may long endure." The pillar, when intact, was about 42 feet in height and consisted of a round and tapering monolithic shaft, with bell-shaped capital surmounted by an abacus and a crowning ornament of four lions, set back to back, the whole finely finished and polished to a remarkable luster from top to bottom. The abacus is adorned with four flame palmette designs separated one from the other by pairs of geese, symbolical of the flock of the Buddha's disciples; the lions from the summit, though now quite disfigured, still testify to the skills of the sculptors. The sandstone out of which the pillar is carved came from the quarries of Chunar several hundred miles away, implying that the builders were able to transport a block of stone over forty feet in length and weighing as many tons over such a distance.
They used water transport, using rafts during the rainy season up the Ganges and Betwa rivers. Another structure, dated, at least to the 3rd century BCE, is the so-called Temple 40, one of the first instances of free-standing temples in India. Temple 40 has remains of three different periods, the earliest period dating to the Maurya age, which makes it contemporary to the creation of the Great Stupa. An inscription suggests it might have been established by Bindusara, the father of Ashoka; the original 3rd century BCE temple was built on a high rectangular stone platform, 26.52x14x3.35 metres, with two flights of stairs to the east and the west. It was an apsidal hall made of timber, it was burnt down sometime in the 2nd century BCE. The platform was enlarged to 41.76x27.74 metres and re-used to erect a pillared hall with fifty columns of wh
The Gita Govinda is a work composed by the 12th-century Indian poet, Jayadeva. It describes the relationship between Krishna and the gopis of Vrindavana, in particular one gopi named Radha; the Gita Govinda is organized into twelve chapters. Each chapter is further sub-divided into twenty-four divisions called Prabandhas; the prabandhas contain couplets grouped into called Ashtapadis. It is mentioned; the text elaborates the eight moods of Heroine, the Ashta Nayika, an inspiration for many compositions and choreographic works in Indian classical dances. The work delineates the love of Krishna for Radha, the milkmaid, his faithlessness and subsequent return to her, is taken as symbolical of the human soul's straying from its true allegiance but returning at length to the God which created it. Sāmodadāmodaram Akleshakeshavam Mugdhamadhusūdanam Snigdhamadhusūdanam Sākāṅkṣa puṇdarīkākṣham Dhrṣta vaikuṇṭa NāgaranārāyanaH VilakṣyalakṣmīpatiH Mugdhadamukunda ChaturachaturbhujaH Sānandadāmodaram SuprītapītāmbaraH The poem has been translated into most modern Indian languages and many European languages There is a German rendering which Goethe read by F. H. van Dalberg Dalbergs version was based on the English translation done by William Jones published in the Transactions of the Asiatic Society, Calcutta in 1792 A verse translation by the German poet Friedrick Rukert was begun in 1829 and revised according to the edited Sanskrit and Latin translations of C.
Lassen in Bonn 1837. Notable English translations are: Edwin Arnold's The Indian Song of Songs. Since the Gita Govinda has been translated to many languages throughout the world, is considered to be among the finest examples of Sanskrit poetry. Barbara Stoler Miller translated the book in 1977 as Love Song of the Dark Lord: Jayadeva's Gita Govinda; the book contains a foreword by John Stratton Hawley and includes extensive commentary on the verse and topic of the poem. Various Gita Govinda Miniature paintings in museums: National Museum, New Delhi Honolulu Museum of Art Prince of Wales Museum, Bombay Metropolitan Museum of art Indian Museum, Calcutta Govt. Museum and Art Gallery Chandigarh Works of Jayadeva List of Sanskrit poets Oriya version of the Gita Govinda The Gita Govinda: a Multimedia Presentation
Kandyan dance encompasses various dance forms native to the area called Kandy of the central hills region in Sri Lanka. But today it has been widespread to other parts of the country. According to the legend, the origins of the dance lies in dance ritual known as the Kohomba kankariya, known as Kohomba yak kankariya or kankariya. Traditional dance masters believe that the king of a place referred to as "Malaya Rata", his two brothers, performed the first Kohomba kankariya; some believe. According to legend, the three shamans came to the island as a result of a trick of the god Śakra in order to cure the king, suffering from a mysterious illness; the king was said to be suffering from a recurring dream in which a leopard was directing its tongue towards the king, believed to be as a black magic of Kuweni, the first wife of the king Vijaya. After the performance of the Kohomba kankariya the illness vanished, many natives adopted the dance, it was performed by dancers who were identified as a separate caste under the Kandyan feudal system.
They were aligned to the Temple of the Tooth and had a significant role to play in the dalada perahera held each year by the temple. The dance waned in popularity as the support for the dancers from the Kandyan kings ended during the British period, it has now been revived and adapted for the stage, is Sri Lanka's primary cultural export. Ves dance, the most popular, originated from an ancient purification ritual, the Kohomba yakuma or Kohomba kankariya; the dance was propitiatory, never secular, performed only by males. The elaborate ves costume the headgear, is considered sacred and is believed to belong to the deity Kohomba. Only toward the end of the 19th century were ves dancers first invited to perform outside the precincts of the Kankariya Temple at the annual Kandy Perahera festival. Today the elaborately costumed ves dancer epitomizes Kandyan dance, which highlights Sri Lanka's culture. Dancers in Naiyandi costume perform during the initial preparations of the Kohomba Kankariya festival, during the lighting of the lamps and the preparation of foods for the demons.
The dancer wears a white cloth and white turban, beadwork decorations on his chest, a waistband, rows of beads around his neck, silver chains, brass shoulder plates and jingles. This is a graceful dance performed in Maha Visnu and Kataragama Devales temples on ceremonial occasions; the uddekki dance is a prestigious performance. Its name comes from the uddekki, a small lacquered hand drum in the shape of an hourglass, about 7.5 inches high, believed to have been given to people by the gods. The two drum skins are believed to have been given by the god Iswara, the sound by Visnu, it is a difficult instruments to play. The dancer sings; the pantheruwa is an instrument dedicated to the goddess Pattini. It has small cymbals attached at intervals around its circumference; the dance is said to have originated in the days of Prince Siddhartha. The gods were believed to use this instrument to celebrate victories in war, Sinhala kings employed pantheru dancers to celebrate victories in the battlefield; the costume is similar to that of the uddekki dancer, but the pantheru dancer wears no beaded jacket and substitutes a silk handkerchief at the waist for the elaborate frills of the uddekki dancer.
A vannam was a kind of recitation. Most vannam describe the behaviour of animals such as elephants, rabbits, cocks, serpents etc. Dancers have used the vannam as a background song for their performance. There are 18 vannam in the Kandyan dance form. Traditionally a dancer would have to learn to perform all of these vannam before they would be gifted the ves costume; the most well known among these are The ukusa vannama and the gajaga vannama. The word vannam comes from the Sinhala word varnana. Ancient Sinhala texts refer to a considerable number of vannam. History reveals that the Kandyan king Sri Weeraparakrama Narendrasinghe gave considerable encouragement to dance and music. In this kavikara maduwa there were poetry contests, it is said that the kavi for the eighteen principal vannam were composed by an old sage named Ganithalankara, with the help of a Buddhist priest from the Kandy temple. The vannam were inspired by nature, legend, folk religion, folk art, sacred lore, each is composed and interpreted in a certain mood or expression of sentiment.
The eighteen classical vannam are gajaga, mayura, uranga, ukkussa, hanuma, sinharaja, kirala, Surapathi, Ganapathi and assadhrusa. To these were added samanala and hansa vannama; the vannama dance tradition
Rabindranath Tagore known by his sobriquets Gurudev and Biswakabi, was a Bengali polymath, poet and artist from the Indian subcontinent. He reshaped Bengali literature and music, as well as Indian art with Contextual Modernism in the late 19th and early 20th centuries. Author of the "profoundly sensitive and beautiful verse" of Gitanjali, he became in 1913 the first non-European to win the Nobel Prize in Literature. Tagore's poetic songs were viewed as mercurial, he is sometimes referred to as "the Bard of Bengal". A Brhamo from Calcutta with ancestral gentry roots in Jessore, Tagore wrote poetry as an eight-year-old. At the age of sixteen, he released his first substantial poems under the pseudonym Bhānusiṃha, which were seized upon by literary authorities as long-lost classics. By 1877 he graduated to his first short stories and dramas; as a humanist, universalist and ardent anti-nationalist, he denounced the British Raj and advocated independence from Britain. As an exponent of the Bengal Renaissance, he advanced a vast canon that comprised paintings and doodles, hundreds of texts, some two thousand songs.
Tagore modernised Bengali art by resisting linguistic strictures. His novels, songs, dance-dramas, essays spoke to topics political and personal. Gitanjali and Ghare-Baire are his best-known works, his verse, short stories, novels were acclaimed—or panned—for their lyricism, colloquialism and unnatural contemplation, his compositions were chosen by two nations as national anthems: India's Jana Gana Mana and Bangladesh's Amar Shonar Bangla. The Sri Lankan national anthem was inspired by his work; the youngest of thirteen surviving children, Tagore was born on 7 May 1861 in the Jorasanko mansion in Calcutta to Debendranath Tagore and Sarada Devi. Tagore was raised by servants; the Tagore family was at the forefront of the Bengal renaissance. They hosted the publication of literary magazines. Tagore's father invited several professional Dhrupad musicians to stay in the house and teach Indian classical music to the children. Tagore's oldest brother Dwijendranath was a poet. Another brother, was the first Indian appointed to the elite and all-European Indian Civil Service.
Yet another brother, was a musician and playwright. His sister Swarnakumari became a novelist. Jyotirindranath's wife Kadambari Devi older than Tagore, was a dear friend and powerful influence, her abrupt suicide in 1884, soon after he married, left him profoundly distraught for years. Tagore avoided classroom schooling and preferred to roam the manor or nearby Bolpur and Panihati, which the family visited, his brother Hemendranath tutored and physically conditioned him—by having him swim the Ganges or trek through hills, by gymnastics, by practising judo and wrestling. He learned drawing, anatomy and history, mathematics and English—his least favourite subject. Tagore loathed formal education—his scholarly travails at the local Presidency College spanned a single day. Years he held that proper teaching does not explain things. There Tagore read biographies, studied history, modern science, Sanskrit, examined the classical poetry of Kālidāsa. During his 1-month stay at Amritsar in 1873 he was influenced by melodious gurbani and nanak bani being sung at Golden Temple for which both father and son were regular visitors.
He mentions about this in his My Reminiscences The golden temple of Amritsar comes back to me like a dream. Many a morning have I accompanied my father to this Gurudarbar of the Sikhs in the middle of the lake. There the sacred chanting resounds continually. My father, seated amidst the throng of worshippers, would sometimes add his voice to the hymn of praise, finding a stranger joining in their devotions they would wax enthusiastically cordial, we would return loaded with the sanctified offerings of sugar crystals and other sweets, he wrote 6 poems relating to Sikhism and a number of articles in Bengali child magazine about Sikhism. Tagore returned to Jorosanko and completed a set of major works by 1877, one of them a long poem in the Maithili style of Vidyapati; as a joke, he claimed that these were the lost works of newly discovered 17th-century Vaiṣṇava poet Bhānusiṃha. Regional experts accepted them as the lost works of the fictitious poet, he debuted in the short-story genre in Bengali with "Bhikharini".
Published in the same year, Sandhya Sangit includes the poem "Nirjharer Swapnabhanga". Because Debendranath wanted his son to become a barrister, Tagore enrolled at a public school in Brighton, East Sussex, England in 1878, he stayed for several months at a house that the Tagore family owned near Brighton and Hove, in Medina Villas.
Trinity College, Kandy
Trinity College, Kandy, is an independent private school for boys in Sri Lanka. It was founded in 1872 by Anglican missionaries, offers primary and secondary education, it is considered to be a leading private school in Sri Lanka. In 1857 the local Anglican community in Kandy urged the Church Mission Society to establish a school for boys in the area. On 16 October 1857 the Rev. John Ireland Jones arrived from England, establishing the Kandy Collegiate School; the school operated for six years. On 18 January 1872, it was re-opened as the Trinity College and Collegiate School, with the Rev. Richard Collins as Principal and by the end of that year there were 120 enrolled students; the school library was opened in 1875. Early in 1877 the Collegiate School name was dropped and it became Trinity College. Rev. Collins left in 1878 and Mr. Thomas Dunn became acting principal of the school. In 1879 the college was affiliated to the University of Calcutta. In 1880 the Rev. John G. Garrett was appointed as principal of the school and by the following year enrolments had increased to 238 students, with 30 boarders.
In 1885 Garrett had to resign due to ill health and was replaced by the Rev. Dr. E. Noel Hodges the principal of the Noble High School, Machilipatnam. In 1889 Dr. Hodges was appointed as the Anglican Bishop of Travancore and Cochin, his post at Trinity was taken by Rev. Edward John Perry, a master at Merchant Taylors' School. On 2 April 2, 1890, Perry was accidentally shot dead near Alutnuwara, whilst on a visit to the Vedda people in the area; the Rev. J. W. Fall, the vice-principal, became the acting principal until the arrival of the Rev. Henry Percy Napier-Clavering, in June 1890. At that time Trinity had 298 students. In August 1900 Napier-Clavering resigned to attend family matters, he was replaced by Rev. Robert William Ryde, the vice-principal at the school from 1895–1899 before becoming the principal at St. John's College, Jaffna. Rev. Ryde held this post for a brief two years, leaving in 1902. In 1902 the Rev. J. Carter became the temporary principal followed by a succession of temporary principals, including the Rev. Napier-Clavering and the Rev. A. MacLulich.
On 5 November 1904 the Rev. Alexander Garden Fraser was appointed as the principal of the school. During Fraser's tenure he transformed a provincial school into a nationally recognised institution, his educational reforms included the introduction of Sinhalese and Tamil into the curriculum and increased its involvement in the local community. He was responsible for a number of building projects, including the Asgiriya Stadium and the Trinity College Chapel, he served continuously as the principal for eighteen years until 1922, his service only interrupted by two years where he served as an army chaplain with the British Expeditionary Force in France during World War I. The school was headed from 1925 to 1935 by Canon John McLeod Campbell. McLeod Campbell was replaced by Rev. Robert Stopford. Stopford was the last English-born principal of the school, remaining in the position for five years, he became Bishop of London. During his tenure the college hall was gifted by former student Mr. A. H. T. De Soysa.
In 1940 the Church Missionary Society handed control of the school to an independent board of governors. The board's first appointment was Mr. C. E. Simithraaratchy, the first old boy and Ceylonese born principal, who ran the school from 1941 until 1951, including the Second World War years, his successor was Mr. Norman Sydney Walter, from 1952 to 1957. Walter returned to England and became the headmaster of Loughborough Grammar School; the responsibility for the school was passed onto Mr. Cedric James Oorloff between 1957 and 1968. In 1968 Mr. E. Lionel Fernando became the second former student to be appointed as the school's principal, his tenure ran for nine years, until 1977. At which time Rev. Dr. W. G. Wickremasinghe was appointed as principal of the school, he was followed by Lt. Col. Leonard M. De Alwis in 1988, responsible for the Pallekele Rugby Stadium, he administered the school until 1998 and resigned to take on the role as the inaugural principal of Springfield College, Kandy. De Alwis was succeeded by Dr. Warren Ranjithan Breckenridge.
Breckenridge was a former student at Trinity and a Professor of Zoology at Peradeniya University, a post he held until 1998, when he was appointed the principal of Trinity. Following Breckenridge's retirement the College in 2003 appointed Roderick Gilbert as the school's principal. Gilbert, an Indian-born Englishman, the principal at the Hebron School in Ootacamund, India. Brig. Udaya Aryaratne was the principal from 2008-2015 and was succeeded by former vice principal Colin B. Ratnayake, as the acting principal until the appointment of Andrew Fowler-Watt in 2016; the school song, "The Best School of All", was written by Sir Henry Newbolt, the school hymn by Rev. Walter Stanley Senior. Rev. Senior was the vice-principal at the College for ten years, he deputised as acting principal for a short period in the absence of Rev. Fraser; the Ryde Gold Medal is awarded each year to the "best all-round boy" at Trinity. The Ryde Gold Medal is the highest honour, it is awarded on the result of a secret ballot conducted among the senior boys and the staff whose votes, together with that of the Principal, each count as one.
While this system makes deadlock possible, it is only on four occasions that the Medal has not been awarded as a result of the three votes going to three different peo
Nagarjunakonda is a historical town, now an island located near Nagarjuna Sagar in Guntur district, Andhra Pradesh, India. It is 160 km west of another important historic site Amaravati Stupa; the ruins of several Mahayana Buddhist and Hindu shrines are located at Nagarjunakonda. It is one of India's richest Buddhist sites, now lies entirely under the Nagarjunasagar Dam, it is named after Nagarjuna, a southern Indian master of Mahayana Buddhism who lived in the 2nd century, believed to have been responsible for the Buddhist activity in the area. The site was once the location of many Buddhist universities and monasteries, attracting students from as far as China, Gandhara and Sri Lanka; because of the construction of the Nagarjuna Sagar Dam, the archaeological relics at Nagarjunakonda were submerged, had to be excavated and transferred to higher land on the hill, which has become an island. The modern name of the site originates from its presumptive association with the Buddhist scholar Nagarjuna.
However, the archaeological finds at the site do not prove. The 3rd–4th-century inscriptions discovered there make it clear that it was known as "Vijayapuri" in the ancient period: the name "Nagarjunakonda" dates from the medieval period; the Ikshavaku inscriptions invariably associate their capital Vijayapuri with the Sriparvata hill, mentioning it as Siriparvate Vijayapure. Coins issued by the Satavahana kings have been discovered at Nagarjunakonda. An inscription of Gautamiputra Vijaya Satakarni, dated to his 6th regnal year, has been discovered at the site, proves that Buddhism had spread in the region by this time; the site rose to prominence after the decline of the Satavahanas, in the first quarter of the 3rd century, when the Ikshvaku king Vashishthiputra Chamamula established his capital Vijayapuri here. The coins and inscriptions discovered at Nagarjunakonda name four kings of the Ikshavaku dynasty: Vashishthi-putra Chamtamula, Mathari-putra Vira-purusha-datta, Vashishthi-putra Ehuvala Chamtamula, Vashishthi-putra Rudra-purusha-datta.
An inscription dated to the 30th regnal year of the Abhira king Vashishthi-putra Vasusena has been discovered at the ruined Ashtab-huja-svamin temple. This has led to speculation that the Abhiras, who ruled the region around Nashik and occupied the Ikshavaku kingdom. However, this cannot be said with certainty; the Ikshavaku kings constructed several Brahmanical temples dedicated to the deities such as Sarva-deva, Pushpabhadra and Shiva. Their queens, as well as Buddhist upasikas such as Bodhishri and Chandrashri, constructed several Buddhist monuments at the site, it is believed. During the early centuries, the site housed more than 30 Buddhist viharas; the last extant Ikshavaku inscription is dated to the 11th year of Rudra-purusha: the subsequent fate of the dynasty is not known, but it is possible that the Pallavas conquered their territory by the 4th century. The site declined after the fall of the Ikshavaku power; some brick shrines were constructed in the Krishna River valley between 7th and 12th centuries, when the region was controlled by the Chalukyas of Vengi.
The site formed the part of the Kakatiya kingdom and the Delhi Sultanate. During the 15th and the 16th centuries, Nagarjunakonda once again became an important site; the contemporary texts and inscriptions allude to a hill fortress at Nagarjunakonda, built by the Reddi rulers as a frontier fortress protecting their main fort of Kondaveedu. It appears to have come under the control of the Gajapatis: a 1491 CE inscription dated to the reign of the Gajapati king Purushottama indicates that the Nagarjunakonda fortress was controlled by his subordinate Sriratharaja Shingarayya Mahapatra. In 1515, the Vijayanagara king Krishnadevaraya stormed the fortress during his invasion of the Gajapati kingdom; the region was ruled by the Qutb Shahi dynasty and the Mughals. It was subsequently granted as an agrahara to the pontiff of the Pushpagiri Math. In 1926, a local schoolteacher, Suraparaju Venkataramaih, saw an ancient pillar at the site, reported his discovery to the Madras Presidency government. Subsequently, Shri Sarasvati, the Telugu language Assistant to the Archaeological Superintendent for Epigraphy of Madras, visited the site, it was recognized as a potential archaeological site.
The first discoveries were made in 1926 by French archaeologist Gabriel Jouveau-Dubreuil. Systematic digging was organized by English archaeologists under A. H. Longhurst during 1927–1931; the team excavated the ruins of several Buddhist stupas and chaityas, as well as other monuments and sculptures. In 1938, T N Ramachandran led another excavation at the site, resulting in the discovery of some more monuments. In 1954, when the construction of the proposed Nagarjuna Sagar Dam threatened the site with submergence, a large-scale excavation led by R Subrahmanyam was started to salvage the archaeological material; the excavation, conducted during 1954-1960, resulted in the discovery of a number of relics, dating from the Early Stone Age to the 16th century. Around 14 large replicas of the excavated ruins and a museum were established on the Nagarjunakonda hill; some of the sculptures excavated at Nagarjunakonda are now at other museums in Delhi, Kolkata and New York. An archaeological catastrophe struck in 1960, when an irrigation dam was constructed across the nearby
Henri Émile Benoît Matisse was a French artist, known for both his use of colour and his fluid and original draughtsmanship. He was a draughtsman and sculptor, but is known as a painter. Matisse is regarded, along with Pablo Picasso, as one of the artists who best helped to define the revolutionary developments in the visual arts throughout the opening decades of the twentieth century, responsible for significant developments in painting and sculpture; the intense colorism of the works he painted between 1900 and 1905 brought him notoriety as one of the Fauves. Many of his finest works were created in the decade or so after 1906, when he developed a rigorous style that emphasized flattened forms and decorative pattern. In 1917 he relocated to a suburb of Nice on the French Riviera, the more relaxed style of his work during the 1920s gained him critical acclaim as an upholder of the classical tradition in French painting. After 1930, he adopted a bolder simplification of form; when ill health in his final years prevented him from painting, he created an important body of work in the medium of cut paper collage.
His mastery of the expressive language of colour and drawing, displayed in a body of work spanning over a half-century, won him recognition as a leading figure in modern art. Matisse was born in Le Cateau-Cambrésis, in the Nord department in Northern France, the oldest son of a prosperous grain merchant, he grew up in Bohain-en-Vermandois, France. In 1887 he went to Paris to study law, working as a court administrator in Le Cateau-Cambrésis after gaining his qualification, he first started to paint in 1889, after his mother brought him art supplies during a period of convalescence following an attack of appendicitis. He discovered "a kind of paradise" as he described it, decided to become an artist disappointing his father. In 1891 he returned to Paris to study art at the Académie Julian and became a student of William-Adolphe Bouguereau and Gustave Moreau, he painted still lifes and landscapes in a traditional style, at which he achieved reasonable proficiency. Matisse was influenced by the works of earlier masters such as Jean-Baptiste-Siméon Chardin, Nicolas Poussin, Antoine Watteau, as well as by modern artists, such as Édouard Manet, by Japanese art.
Chardin was one of the painters Matisse most admired. In 1896, Matisse, an unknown art student at the time, visited the Australian painter John Russell on the island Belle Île off the coast of Brittany. Russell introduced him to Impressionism and to the work of Vincent van Gogh—who had been a friend of Russell—and gave him a Van Gogh drawing. Matisse's style changed completely, he said "Russell was my teacher, Russell explained colour theory to me." The same year, Matisse exhibited five paintings in the salon of the Société Nationale des Beaux-Arts, two of which were purchased by the state. With the model Caroline Joblau, he had a daughter, born in 1894. In 1898 he married Amélie Noellie Parayre. Marguerite and Amélie served as models for Matisse. In 1898, on the advice of Camille Pissarro, he went to London to study the paintings of J. M. W. Turner and went on a trip to Corsica. Upon his return to Paris in February 1899, he worked beside Albert Marquet and met André Derain, Jean Puy, Jules Flandrin.
Matisse immersed himself in the work of others and went into debt from buying work from painters he admired. The work he hung and displayed in his home included a plaster bust by Rodin, a painting by Gauguin, a drawing by van Gogh, Cézanne's Three Bathers. In Cézanne's sense of pictorial structure and colour, Matisse found his main inspiration. Many of Matisse's paintings from 1898 to 1901 make use of a Divisionist technique he adopted after reading Paul Signac's essay, "D'Eugène Delacroix au Néo-impressionisme", his paintings of 1902–03, a period of material hardship for the artist, are comparatively somber and reveal a preoccupation with form. Having made his first attempt at sculpture, a copy after Antoine-Louis Barye, in 1899, he devoted much of his energy to working in clay, completing The Slave in 1903. Fauvism as a style began around 1900 and continued beyond 1910; the movement as such lasted only a few years, 1904–1908, had three exhibitions. The leaders of the movement were André Derain.
Matisse's first solo exhibition was without much success. His fondness for bright and expressive colour became more pronounced after he spent the summer of 1904 painting in St. Tropez with the neo-Impressionists Signac and Henri-Edmond Cross. In that year he painted the most important of his works in the neo-Impressionist style, Calme et Volupté. In 1905 he travelled southwards again to work with André Derain at Collioure, his paintings of this period are characterised by flat shapes and controlled lines, using pointillism in a less rigorous way than before. Matisse and a group of artists now known as "Fauves" exhibited together in a room at the Salon d'Automne in 1905; the paintings expressed emotion with wild dissonant colours, without regard for the subject's natural colours. Matisse showed Open Woman with the Hat at the Salon. Critic Louis Vauxcelles commented on a lone sculpture surround by an "orgie of pure tones" as "Donatello chez les fauves", referring to a Renaissance-type sculpture that shared the room with them.
His comment was printed on 17 October 1905 in Gil Blas, a daily newspaper, passed