Hertford College, Oxford
Hertford College is a constituent college of the University of Oxford in England. It is located on Catte Street in the centre of Oxford, directly opposite the main gate to the Bodleian Library; the College is known for the Bridge of Sighs. There are around 600 students at the College at any one time, comprising undergraduates and visiting students from overseas; as of 2018, the college had a financial endowment of £65m. The first Hertford College began in the 1280s as Hart Hall and became a college in 1740 but was dissolved in 1816. In 1820, the site was taken over by Magdalen Hall, which had emerged around 1490 on a site adjacent to Magdalen College. In 1874, Magdalen Hall was incorporated as a college. In 1974, Hertford was part of the first group of all-male Oxford colleges to admit women; some famous historic alumni include William Tyndale, John Donne, Thomas Hobbes, Jonathan Swift and Evelyn Waugh. More former students have included the first female Home Secretary, Jacqui Smith, the civil servants Jeremy Heywood and Olly Robbins, the newsreaders and reporters Fiona Bruce, Carrie Gracie, Krishnan Guru-Murthy and Natasha Kaplinsky.
The first Hertford College began life as Hart Hall in the 1280s, a small tenement built where the College's Old Hall is today, a few paces along New College Lane on the southern side. In mediaeval Oxford, halls were lodging houses for students and resident tutors; the original tenement, mentioned in the deed of 1283, bought by Elias de Hertford from Walter de Grendon, lay between a tenement of the University on the west, a tenement of the Prioress of Studley on the east. In the deed by which Elias de Hertford sells it to John de Dokelynton in 1301, this last tenement is called Micheldhall; the deed was made over to his son Elias, in 1301. The name of the hall was a humorous reduction of the name of its founder's home town, allowed for the use of the symbol of a hart to be used for identification. At that time, New College Lane was known as Hammer Hall Lane, its northern side was the old town wall; the corner of Hammer Hall Lane and Catte Street was taken by Black Hall, the place of John Wycliffe's imprisonment by the Vice-Chancellor around 1378.
On the other side of Hart Hall along the lane was Shield Hall. On Catte Street itself was the entrance to Arthur Hall, which lay down a narrow passage behind Hart Hall, Cat Hall, which stood further south where the Principal's Lodgings now stand; the younger Elias sold on Hart Hall after a month to a wealthy local fishmonger John of Ducklington, seven years bought Arthur Hall and annexed it to Hart Hall. In 1312, John sold the two halls to Walter de Stapledon, Bishop of Exeter, who desired to found a college. After just over a year, Stapledon moved his scholars to a larger site that he had purchased on Turl Street, which became Stapledon Hall Exeter College. However, Exeter College retained certain rights over Hart Hall, with which it plagued the hall's development for centuries. In 1379, Hart Hall and Black Hall were rented by William of Wykeham as a temporary home for his scholars as his New College, to the east along what became New College Lane, was being built; the first two Wardens of New College appear as Principals of Hart Hall.
Until the 17th century, there is evidence of scholars matriculating at Hart Hall while waiting for a vacancy at New College. By this time, it appears that Shield Hall had been taken over by Hart Hall and demolished to make way for New College's cloister. Although Black Hall continued a separate existence, its principal was the same as Hart Hall's. In 1490, Hart Hall is described as having a library, unusual for a hall. In 1530, Hart Hall annexed Black Hall also. For some time, Cat Hall was leased by All Souls College, by Exeter College, until it was subsumed into the growing Hart Hall early in the 16th century, giving the hall most of the land around what is today its Old Quadrangle. In the latter half of the 16th century, Hart Hall became known as a refuge for Catholic recusants under Philip Randell as principal; because of its connection with Exeter College and that college's increasing puritanism, a number of Exeter's tutors and scholars migrated to Hart Hall. The hall attracted an increasing number of Catholics from further afield, including the Jesuit tutor Richard Holtby in 1574, instrumental in the conversion of his student, Jesuit martyr and saint, Alexander Briant to Catholicism.
Coming from a Catholic family, the English poet John Donne came up to Hart Hall in 1584. Hart Hall expanded and new buildings were put up. In the early 17th century, the current Senior Common Room was built as lodgings for the principal. From this period the main entrance of the hall moved from being a narrow passage off New College Lane to a gate on Catte Street. By the late 17th century, Cat Hall is described as being used as'the ball-court of Hart Hall'. In the latter part of the 17th century, the principal, Dr William Thornton, provided a proper gate for the Catte Street entrance of the Hall, decorated with a device of a drinking hart with the motto Sicut cervus anhelat ad fontes aquarum. Although the current gatehouse is not Thornton's original, it retains the design and motto, houses the original decorated gates, it has been suggested that this frieze with i
Fellow of the Royal Society
Fellowship of the Royal Society is an award granted to individuals that the Royal Society of London judges to have made a'substantial contribution to the improvement of natural knowledge, including mathematics, engineering science and medical science'. Fellowship of the Society, the oldest scientific academy in continuous existence, is a significant honour, awarded to many eminent scientists from history including Isaac Newton, Charles Darwin, Michael Faraday, Ernest Rutherford, Srinivasa Ramanujan, Albert Einstein, Winston Churchill, Subrahmanyan Chandrasekhar, Dorothy Hodgkin, Alan Turing and Francis Crick. More fellowship has been awarded to Stephen Hawking, Tim Hunt, Elizabeth Blackburn, Tim Berners-Lee, Venkatraman Ramakrishnan, Atta-ur Rahman, Andre Geim, James Dyson, Ajay Kumar Sood, Subhash Khot, Elon Musk and around 8,000 others in total, including over 280 Nobel Laureates since 1900; as of October 2018, there are 1689 living Fellows and Honorary Members, of which over 60 are Nobel Laureates.
Fellowship of the Royal Society has been described by The Guardian newspaper as “the equivalent of a lifetime achievement Oscar” with several institutions celebrating their announcement each year. Up to 60 new Fellows and foreign members are elected annually in late April or early May, from a pool of around 700 proposed candidates each year. New Fellows can only be nominated by existing Fellows for one of the fellowships described below: Every year, up to 52 new Fellows are elected from the United Kingdom and the Commonwealth of Nations which make up around 90% of the society; each candidate is considered on their merits and can be proposed from any sector of the scientific community. Fellows are elected for life on the basis of excellence in science and are entitled to use the post-nominal letters FRS. See Category:Fellows of the Royal Society and Category:Female Fellows of the Royal Society; every year, Fellows elect up to ten new Foreign Members. Like Fellows, Foreign Members are elected for life through peer review on the basis of excellence in science.
As of 2016 there are around 165 Foreign Members, who are entitled to use the post-nominal ForMemRS. See Category:Foreign Members of the Royal Society. Honorary Fellowship is an honorary academic title awarded to candidates who have given distinguished service to the cause of science, but do not have the kind of scientific achievements required of Fellows or Foreign Members. Honorary Fellows include Bill Bryson, Melvyn Bragg, Robin Saxby, David Sainsbury, Baron Sainsbury of Turville and Onora O'Neill. Honorary Fellows are entitled to use the post nominal letters FRS. Others including John Maddox, Patrick Moore and Lisa Jardine were elected as honorary fellows, see Category:Honorary Fellows of the Royal Society. Statute 12 is a legacy mechanism for electing members before official honorary membership existed in 1997. Fellows elected under statute 12 include 4th Earl of Selborne. Prime Ministers of the United Kingdom such as Margaret Thatcher, Neville Chamberlain,Ramsay Macdonald and H. H. Asquith were elected under statute 12, see Category:Fellows of the Royal Society.
The Council of the Royal Society can recommend members of the British Royal Family for election as Royal Fellows of the Royal Society. As of 2016 there are five royal fellows: Charles, Prince of Wales elected 1978 Anne, Princess Royal elected 1987 Prince Edward, Duke of Kent elected 1990 Prince William, Duke of Cambridge elected 2009 Prince Andrew, Duke of York elected 2013Her Majesty the Queen, Elizabeth II is not a Royal Fellow, but provides her patronage to the Society as all reigning British monarchs have done since Charles II of England. Prince Philip, Duke of Edinburgh was elected under statute 12, not as a Royal Fellow; the election of new fellows is announced annually in May, after their nomination and a period of peer-reviewed selection. Each candidate for Fellowship or Foreign Membership is nominated by two Fellows of the Royal Society, who sign a certificate of proposal. Nominations required at least five fellows to support each nomination by the proposer, criticised for establishing an old-boy network and elitist gentlemen's club.
The certificate of election includes a statement of the principal grounds on which the proposal is being made. There is no limit on the number of nominations made each year. In 2015, there were 654 candidates for election as Fellows and 106 candidates for Foreign Membership; the Council of the Royal Society oversees the selection process and appoints 10 subject area committees, known as Sectional Committees, to recommend the strongest candidates for election to Fellowship. The final list of up to 52 Fellowship candidates and up to 10 Foreign Membership candidates is confirmed by the Council in April and a secret ballot of Fellows is held at a meeting in May. A candidate is elected if she secures two-thirds of votes of those Fellows present and voting. A maximum of 18 Fellowships can be allocated to candidates from Physical Sciences and Biological Sciences. A further maximum of 6 can be ‘Honorary’, ‘General’ or ‘Royal’ Fellows. Nominations for Fellowship are peer reviewed by sectional committees, each with 15 members and a chair.
Members of the 10 sectional committees change every 3 years to mitigate in-group bias, each group covers different
Liverpool is a city in North West England, with an estimated population of 491,500 within the Liverpool City Council local authority in 2017. Its metropolitan area is the fifth-largest in the UK, with a population of 2.24 million in 2011. The local authority is Liverpool City Council, the most populous local government district in the metropolitan county of Merseyside and the largest in the Liverpool City Region. Liverpool is on the eastern side of the Mersey Estuary, lay within the ancient hundred of West Derby in the south west of the county of Lancashire, it became a borough in 1207 and a city in 1880. In 1889, it became a county borough independent of Lancashire, its growth as a major port was paralleled by the expansion of the city throughout the Industrial Revolution. Along with handling general cargo, raw materials such as coal and cotton, the city merchants were involved in the Atlantic slave trade. In the 19th century, it was a major port of departure for Irish and English emigrants to North America.
Liverpool was home to both the Cunard and White Star Line, was the port of registry of the ocean liner RMS Titanic, the RMS Lusitania, RMS Queen Mary and RMS Olympic. The popularity of the Beatles and other music groups from the Merseybeat era contributes to Liverpool's status as a tourist destination. Liverpool is the home of two Premier League football clubs and Everton, matches between the two being known as the Merseyside derby; the Grand National horse race takes place annually at Aintree Racecourse on the outskirts of the city. The city celebrated its 800th anniversary in 2007. In 2008, it was nominated as the annual European Capital of Culture together with Norway. Several areas of the city centre were granted World Heritage Site status by UNESCO in 2004; the Liverpool Maritime Mercantile City includes the Pier Head, Albert Dock, William Brown Street. Liverpool's status as a port city has attracted a diverse population, drawn from a wide range of peoples and religions from Ireland and Wales.
The city is home to the oldest Black African community in the country and the oldest Chinese community in Europe. Natives and residents of the city of Liverpool are referred to as Liverpudlians, colloquially as "Scousers", a reference to "scouse", a form of stew; the word "Scouse" has become synonymous with the Liverpool accent and dialect. The name comes from the Old English lifer, meaning thick or muddy water, pōl, meaning a pool or creek, is first recorded around 1190 as Liuerpul. According to the Cambridge Dictionary of English Place-Names, "The original reference was to a pool or tidal creek now filled up into which two streams drained"; the adjective Liverpudlian is first recorded in 1833. Other origins of the name have been suggested, including "elverpool", a reference to the large number of eels in the Mersey; the name appeared in 1190 as "Liuerpul", the place appearing as Leyrpole, in a legal record of 1418, may refer to Liverpool. Another such suggestion is derivation from Welsh llyvr pwl meaning "expanse or confluence at the pool".
King John's letters patent of 1207 announced the foundation of the borough of Liverpool. By the middle of the 16th century, the population was still around 500; the original street plan of Liverpool is said to have been designed by King John near the same time it was granted a royal charter, making it a borough. The original seven streets were laid out in an H shape: Bank Street, Castle Street, Chapel Street, Dale Street, Juggler Street, Moor Street and Whiteacre Street. In the 17th century there was slow progress in population growth. Battles for control of the town were waged during the English Civil War, including an eighteen-day siege in 1644. In 1699 Liverpool was made a parish by Act of Parliament, that same year its first slave ship, Liverpool Merchant, set sail for Africa. Since Roman times, the nearby city of Chester on the River Dee had been the region's principal port on the Irish Sea. However, as the Dee began to silt up, maritime trade from Chester became difficult and shifted towards Liverpool on the neighbouring River Mersey.
As trade from the West Indies, including sugar, surpassed that of Ireland and Europe, as the River Dee continued to silt up, Liverpool began to grow with increasing rapidity. The first commercial wet dock was built in Liverpool in 1715. Substantial profits from the slave trade and tobacco helped the town to prosper and grow, although several prominent local men, including William Rathbone, William Roscoe and Edward Rushton, were at the forefront of the abolitionist movement. By the start of the 19th century, a large volume of trade was passing through Liverpool, the construction of major buildings reflected this wealth. In 1830, Liverpool and Manchester became the first cities to have an intercity rail link, through the Liverpool and Manchester Railway; the population continued to rise especially during the 1840s when Irish migrants began arriving by the hundreds of thousands as a result of the Great Famine. In her poem "Liverpool", which celebrates the city's worldwide commerce, Letitia Elizabeth Landon refers to the Macgregor Laird expedition to the Niger River, at that time in progress.
Great Britain was a major market for cotton imported from the Deep South of the United States, which fed the textile industry in the country. Given the crucial place of both cotton and slavery in the city's economy, during the American Civil War Liverpool was, in the words of historian Sven Beckert, "the most pro-Confederate place in the world outside the Confederacy itself." For periods during the 19th century, the wealth of Liverpool
Physiology is the scientific study of the functions and mechanisms which work within a living system. As a sub-discipline of biology, the focus of physiology is on how organisms, organ systems, organs and biomolecules carry out the chemical and physical functions that exist in a living system. Central to an understanding of physiological functioning is the investigation of the fundamental biophysical and biochemical phenomena, the coordinated homeostatic control mechanisms, the continuous communication between cells; the physiologic state is the condition occurring from normal body function, while the pathological state is centered on the abnormalities that occur in animal diseases, including humans. According to the type of investigated organisms, the field can be divided into, animal physiology, plant physiology, cellular physiology and microbial physiology; the Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine is awarded to those who make significant achievements in this discipline by the Royal Swedish Academy of Sciences.
Human physiology seeks to understand the mechanisms that work to keep the human body alive and functioning, through scientific enquiry into the nature of mechanical and biochemical functions of humans, their organs, the cells of which they are composed. The principal level of focus of physiology is at the level of systems within systems; the endocrine and nervous systems play major roles in the reception and transmission of signals that integrate function in animals. Homeostasis is a major aspect with regard to such interactions within plants as well as animals; the biological basis of the study of physiology, integration refers to the overlap of many functions of the systems of the human body, as well as its accompanied form. It is achieved through communication that occurs in a variety of both electrical and chemical. Changes in physiology can impact the mental functions of individuals. Examples of this would be toxic levels of substances. Change in behavior as a result of these substances is used to assess the health of individuals.
Much of the foundation of knowledge in human physiology was provided by animal experimentation. Due to the frequent connection between form and function and anatomy are intrinsically linked and are studied in tandem as part of a medical curriculum. Plant physiology is a subdiscipline of botany concerned with the functioning of plants. Related fields include plant morphology, plant ecology, cell biology, genetics and molecular biology. Fundamental processes of plant physiology include photosynthesis, plant nutrition, nastic movements, photomorphogenesis, circadian rhythms, seed germination and stomata function and transpiration. Absorption of water by roots, production of food in the leaves, growth of shoots towards light are examples of plant physiology. Although there are differences between animal and microbial cells, the basic physiological functions of cells can be divided into the processes of cell division, cell signaling, cell growth, cell metabolism. Microorganisms can be found everywhere on Earth.
Types of microorganisms include archaea, eukaryotes, protists and micro-plants. Microbes are important in human culture and health in many ways, serving to ferment foods, treat sewage, produce fuel and other bioactive compounds, they are essential tools in biology as model organisms and have been put to use in biological warfare and bioterrorism. They are a vital component of fertile soils. In the human body microorganisms make up the human microbiota including the essential gut flora, they are the pathogens responsible for many infectious diseases and as such are the target of hygiene measures. Most microorganisms can reproduce and bacteria are able to exchange genes through conjugation and transduction between divergent species; the study of human physiology as a medical field originates in classical Greece, at the time of Hippocrates. Outside of Western tradition, early forms of physiology or anatomy can be reconstructed as having been present at around the same time in China and elsewhere.
Hippocrates incorporated his belief system called the theory of humours, which consisted of four basic substance: earth, water and fire. Each substance is known for having a corresponding humour: black bile, phlegm and yellow bile, respectively. Hippocrates noted some emotional connections to the four humours, which Claudius Galenus would expand on; the critical thinking of Aristotle and his emphasis on the relationship between structure and function marked the beginning of physiology in Ancient Greece. Like Hippocrates, Aristotle took to the humoral theory of disease, which consisted of four primary qualities in life: hot, cold and dry. Claudius Galenus, known as Galen of Pergamum, was the first to use experiments to probe the functions of the body. Unlike Hippocrates, Galen argued that humoral imbalances can be located in specific organs, including the entire body, his modification of this theory better equipped doctors to make more precise diagnoses. Galen played off of Hippocrates idea that emotions were tied to the humours, added the notion of temperaments: sanguine corresponds with blood.
Galen saw the human body consisting of three connected systems: the brain and nerves, which are responsible for thoughts and sensations.
England is a country, part of the United Kingdom. It shares land borders with Wales to Scotland to the north-northwest; the Irish Sea lies west of England and the Celtic Sea lies to the southwest. England is separated from continental Europe by the North Sea to the east and the English Channel to the south; the country covers five-eighths of the island of Great Britain, which lies in the North Atlantic, includes over 100 smaller islands, such as the Isles of Scilly and the Isle of Wight. The area now called England was first inhabited by modern humans during the Upper Palaeolithic period, but takes its name from the Angles, a Germanic tribe deriving its name from the Anglia peninsula, who settled during the 5th and 6th centuries. England became a unified state in the 10th century, since the Age of Discovery, which began during the 15th century, has had a significant cultural and legal impact on the wider world; the English language, the Anglican Church, English law – the basis for the common law legal systems of many other countries around the world – developed in England, the country's parliamentary system of government has been adopted by other nations.
The Industrial Revolution began in 18th-century England, transforming its society into the world's first industrialised nation. England's terrain is chiefly low hills and plains in central and southern England. However, there is upland and mountainous terrain in the west; the capital is London, which has the largest metropolitan area in both the United Kingdom and the European Union. England's population of over 55 million comprises 84% of the population of the United Kingdom concentrated around London, the South East, conurbations in the Midlands, the North West, the North East, Yorkshire, which each developed as major industrial regions during the 19th century; the Kingdom of England – which after 1535 included Wales – ceased being a separate sovereign state on 1 May 1707, when the Acts of Union put into effect the terms agreed in the Treaty of Union the previous year, resulting in a political union with the Kingdom of Scotland to create the Kingdom of Great Britain. In 1801, Great Britain was united with the Kingdom of Ireland to become the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland.
In 1922 the Irish Free State seceded from the United Kingdom, leading to the latter being renamed the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland. The name "England" is derived from the Old English name Englaland, which means "land of the Angles"; the Angles were one of the Germanic tribes that settled in Great Britain during the Early Middle Ages. The Angles came from the Anglia peninsula in the Bay of Kiel area of the Baltic Sea; the earliest recorded use of the term, as "Engla londe", is in the late-ninth-century translation into Old English of Bede's Ecclesiastical History of the English People. The term was used in a different sense to the modern one, meaning "the land inhabited by the English", it included English people in what is now south-east Scotland but was part of the English kingdom of Northumbria; the Anglo-Saxon Chronicle recorded that the Domesday Book of 1086 covered the whole of England, meaning the English kingdom, but a few years the Chronicle stated that King Malcolm III went "out of Scotlande into Lothian in Englaland", thus using it in the more ancient sense.
According to the Oxford English Dictionary, its modern spelling was first used in 1538. The earliest attested reference to the Angles occurs in the 1st-century work by Tacitus, Germania, in which the Latin word Anglii is used; the etymology of the tribal name itself is disputed by scholars. How and why a term derived from the name of a tribe, less significant than others, such as the Saxons, came to be used for the entire country and its people is not known, but it seems this is related to the custom of calling the Germanic people in Britain Angli Saxones or English Saxons to distinguish them from continental Saxons of Old Saxony between the Weser and Eider rivers in Northern Germany. In Scottish Gaelic, another language which developed on the island of Great Britain, the Saxon tribe gave their name to the word for England. An alternative name for England is Albion; the name Albion referred to the entire island of Great Britain. The nominally earliest record of the name appears in the Aristotelian Corpus the 4th-century BC De Mundo: "Beyond the Pillars of Hercules is the ocean that flows round the earth.
In it are two large islands called Britannia. But modern scholarly consensus ascribes De Mundo not to Aristotle but to Pseudo-Aristotle, i.e. it was written in the Graeco-Roman period or afterwards. The word Albion or insula Albionum has two possible origins, it either derives from a cognate of the Latin albus meaning white, a reference to the white cliffs of Dover or from the phrase the "island of the Albiones" in the now lost Massaliote Periplus, attested through Avienus' Ora Maritima to which the former served as a source. Albion is now applied to England in a more poetic capacity. Another romantic name for England is Loegria, related to the Welsh word for England and made popular by its use in Arthurian legend; the earliest known evidence of human presence in the area now known as England was that of Homo antecessor, dating to approximate
Integrated Authority File
The Integrated Authority File or GND is an international authority file for the organisation of personal names, subject headings and corporate bodies from catalogues. It is used for documentation in libraries and also by archives and museums; the GND is managed by the German National Library in cooperation with various regional library networks in German-speaking Europe and other partners. The GND falls under the Creative Commons Zero licence; the GND specification provides a hierarchy of high-level entities and sub-classes, useful in library classification, an approach to unambiguous identification of single elements. It comprises an ontology intended for knowledge representation in the semantic web, available in the RDF format; the Integrated Authority File became operational in April 2012 and integrates the content of the following authority files, which have since been discontinued: Name Authority File Corporate Bodies Authority File Subject Headings Authority File Uniform Title File of the Deutsches Musikarchiv At the time of its introduction on 5 April 2012, the GND held 9,493,860 files, including 2,650,000 personalised names.
There are seven main types of GND entities: LIBRIS Virtual International Authority File Information pages about the GND from the German National Library Search via OGND Bereitstellung des ersten GND-Grundbestandes DNB, 19 April 2012 From Authority Control to Linked Authority Data Presentation given by Reinhold Heuvelmann to the ALA MARC Formats Interest Group, June 2012
Robert Hall, Baron Roberthall
Robert Lowe Hall, Baron Roberthall was an Australian-born economist who served as chief economic advisor to the British government from 1947 to 1961. Robert Hall was born in Tenterfield, New South Wales, Australia in 1901, his father, Edgar Hall, was an English mining engineer. While his mother, Rose Helen, was a first-generation Australian, whose father, A. K. Cullen, was Scottish, he was brought up in Queensland. He obtained a degree in engineering at the University of Queensland, before becoming a Rhodes scholar at the University of Oxford in 1923. Having obtained a first class degree in Modern Greats in 1926, he was appointed to an Economics lectureship at Trinity College, Oxford, he was a Fellow from 1927–50 and an Honorary Fellow from 1958. In 1927 he was Junior Dean, he was a Fellow of Nuffield College, Oxford 1938-47 and a Visiting Fellow, 1961-64. During the Second World War he worked in the Ministry of Supply in Washington DC and on the Board of Trade. In 1947, he succeeded James Meade as the Director of the Economic Section of the Cabinet Office of the British government.
Hall was appointed a Companion of the Order of the Bath in the 1950 New Year Honours, he was appointed a Knight Commander of the Order of St Michael and St George in the 1954 New Year Honours. Following the announcement in June 1969 that he was to be made a life peer, Hall changed his name by Deed Poll to Roberthall on 25 September 1969 and was created Baron Roberthall, of Silverspur in the State of Queensland and Commonwealth of Australia, of Trenance, in the County of Cornwall on 28 October 1969. In the 1970s and 1980s he served in the House of Lords, latterly as a member of the Social Democratic Party, he was president of the Royal Economic Society from 1958 to 1960. He was invited to give the Rede lecture in 1962. Hall retired shortly after Selwyn Lloyd’s first budget in 1961, he thought Conservative governments managed the economy better. He favoured Keynesian deficit finance, but had grown worried about inflation, he had opposed ROBOT, but with the disappearance of the dollar shortage came to favour floating after all, although he never argued for it strongly.
He wanted an incomes policy, came to feel that unemployment was too low and that British workers and managers were not efficient enough. He was Principal of Hertford College, Oxford from 1964 to 1967. In 1932 he married Laura Margaret, daughter of G. E. Linfoot, an Oxford graduate and a Fellow of Somerville College, Oxford. In the same year Hall married Perilla Thyme Nowell-Smith, a divorcee and daughter of Sir Richard Southwell, FRS, who survived him. Planning, The Rede Lecture 1962, Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 32 pp.'If intuition were given the "scientific" name of "non-statistical inference", no-one would look down his nose at it.' List of life peerages Edmund. The Chancellors: A History of the Chancellors of the Exchequer, 1945-90. London: HarperCollins. ISBN 978-0-006-38418-2. Hall, Robert Lowe. M.. M.. W. "An Appreciation of Robert Hall, 1901-1988", The Economic Record, 64: 360–361, doi:10.1111/j.1475-4932.1988.tb02076.x Jones, Kit, An Economist Among Mandarins: A Biography of Robert Hall, Cambridge University Press, ISBN 0-521-47155-9 ROBERTHALL, Who Was Who, A & C Black, 1920–2008.