David Lyle Boren is an American university administrator and politician from the state of Oklahoma. A member of the Democratic Party, he served as the 21st governor of Oklahoma from 1975 to 1979 and three terms in the United States Senate from 1979 to 1994, as of 2019, is the last Democrat to have served as a U. S. Senator from Oklahoma, he was the 13th and second-longest serving president of the University of Oklahoma from 1994 to 2018. He was the longest serving chairman of the Senate Select Committee on Intelligence. On September 20, 2017, Boren announced his retirement as president of the University of Oklahoma, effective June 30, 2018. Boren is under investigation for alleged sexual harassment of male aides at the university, though the university and the OU Board of Regents have declined to confirm whether or not this is the case, referring to it only broadly as an ongoing "personnel investigation". Boren was born in Washington, D. C. the son of Christine and Lyle Hagler Boren. He graduated in 1963 from Yale University, where he majored in American history, graduated in the top one percent of his class and was elected to Phi Beta Kappa.
He was a member of the Yale Conservative Party, elected president of the Yale Political Union and is a member of Skull and Bones. He was selected as a Rhodes Scholar and earned a master's degree in Philosophy and Economics from University of Oxford, serving as a member of the Rhodes Scholarship selection committee. In 1966 Boren defeated fellow Democrat William C. Wantland in a primary election and Clifford Conn Jr. in the general election to win a seat in the Oklahoma House of Representatives, where he served four terms, 1967 to 1975. In 1968, he received a J. D. degree from the University of Oklahoma College of Law. While serving in the House, Boren was a member of the committee that investigated the University of Oklahoma after the school allowed black militant Paul Boutelle, a socialist and anti-Vietnam War activist, to give a speech there. During his House tenure Boren was a professor at Oklahoma Baptist University. Boren served in the Oklahoma Army National Guard from 1963 to 1974, he attained the rank of captain and served as commander of the 2120th Supply & Service Company in Wewoka.
In 1974, Boren ran for governor. In keeping with the anti-establishment movements of that Watergate scandal-era campaign season, Boren's effort included the "Boren Broom Brigade" to demonstrate his pledge to "sweep out the Old Guard" and bring fundamental reforms to state government. Boren and Clem McSpadden defeated incumbent David Hall in the primary election and moved into a runoff for the Democratic nomination. Boren beat McSpadden in the runoff and subsequently defeated Republican Jim Inhofe in the general election. Coincidentally, Inhofe would go on to be his successor in the United States Senate in the 1994 special election after his resignation. During his tenure Boren worked on: eliminating the inheritance tax for property left by one spouse to another. Boren attracted national attention during the Energy Crisis when he advocated nationwide deregulation of natural gas prices. Boren opted not to run for reelection in 1978, instead running for the United States Senate seat held by the retiring Dewey Bartlett.
He won a multi-candidate primary with 46 percent of the vote to second-place finisher Ed Edmondson's 28 percent. Boren defeated Edmondson in the runoff, Republican Robert Kamm, former President of Oklahoma State University, in the general election. During his 1978 gubernatorial campaign, Boren's opponent Anthony Points accused Boren of being gay. Following his victory, Boren swore an oath on a family Bible, declaring "I know what homosexuals and bisexuals are. I further swear that I am not a bisexual, and I further swear that I have never been a homosexual or bisexual." In the U. S. Senate, Boren was known as a centrist or conservative Democrat, was a protégé of Texas Sen. Lloyd Bentsen and was aligned with southern Democrats Sam Nunn of Georgia and Howell Heflin of Alabama, he was a strong advocate of tax cuts across the board as the cornerstone of economic policy. He opposed the Windfall profit tax on the domestic oil industry, repealed in 1988. At one point, the tax was generating no revenue, yet still required oil companies to comply with reporting requirements and the IRS to spend $15 million to collect the tax.
Of the tax, Boren said: "As long as the tax is not being collected, the accounting requirements are needless. They result in heavy burdens for the private sector and unnecessary cost to the taxpayer."Sen. Barry Goldwater, who served with him, publicly stated that Boren should be elected president. Boren's chief of staff was a respected Capitol Hill insider, Charles Ward, a former longtime administrative assistant to Speaker Albert. Boren served on the Senate Committee on Finance and the Committee on Agriculture and Forestry, he served as chairman of the Senate Select Committee on Intelligence from 1987 to 1993. His six years is the longest tenure of any Senate Intelligence Committee chairman. Boren sponsored the National Security Education Act of 1991, which established the National Security Education Program. Boren was one of only two Democratic senators to vote in favor of the controversial nomination of Robert Bork to the Supreme Court, in 1987. Boren decided in 1991 to vote against the Persian Gulf War.
Boren was one of the President Bill Clinton's top choices to replace Les Aspin as a U. S. Secretary of Defense in 1994. However, Clinton sel
Botany called plant science, plant biology or phytology, is the science of plant life and a branch of biology. A botanist, plant scientist or phytologist is a scientist; the term "botany" comes from the Ancient Greek word βοτάνη meaning "pasture", "grass", or "fodder". Traditionally, botany has included the study of fungi and algae by mycologists and phycologists with the study of these three groups of organisms remaining within the sphere of interest of the International Botanical Congress. Nowadays, botanists study 410,000 species of land plants of which some 391,000 species are vascular plants, 20,000 are bryophytes. Botany originated in prehistory as herbalism with the efforts of early humans to identify – and cultivate – edible and poisonous plants, making it one of the oldest branches of science. Medieval physic gardens attached to monasteries, contained plants of medical importance, they were forerunners of the first botanical gardens attached to universities, founded from the 1540s onwards.
One of the earliest was the Padua botanical garden. These gardens facilitated the academic study of plants. Efforts to catalogue and describe their collections were the beginnings of plant taxonomy, led in 1753 to the binomial system of Carl Linnaeus that remains in use to this day. In the 19th and 20th centuries, new techniques were developed for the study of plants, including methods of optical microscopy and live cell imaging, electron microscopy, analysis of chromosome number, plant chemistry and the structure and function of enzymes and other proteins. In the last two decades of the 20th century, botanists exploited the techniques of molecular genetic analysis, including genomics and proteomics and DNA sequences to classify plants more accurately. Modern botany is a broad, multidisciplinary subject with inputs from most other areas of science and technology. Research topics include the study of plant structure and differentiation, reproduction and primary metabolism, chemical products, diseases, evolutionary relationships and plant taxonomy.
Dominant themes in 21st century plant science are molecular genetics and epigenetics, which are the mechanisms and control of gene expression during differentiation of plant cells and tissues. Botanical research has diverse applications in providing staple foods, materials such as timber, rubber and drugs, in modern horticulture and forestry, plant propagation and genetic modification, in the synthesis of chemicals and raw materials for construction and energy production, in environmental management, the maintenance of biodiversity. Botany originated as the study and use of plants for their medicinal properties. Many records of the Holocene period date early botanical knowledge as far back as 10,000 years ago; this early unrecorded knowledge of plants was discovered in ancient sites of human occupation within Tennessee, which make up much of the Cherokee land today. The early recorded history of botany includes many ancient writings and plant classifications. Examples of early botanical works have been found in ancient texts from India dating back to before 1100 BC, in archaic Avestan writings, in works from China before it was unified in 221 BC.
Modern botany traces its roots back to Ancient Greece to Theophrastus, a student of Aristotle who invented and described many of its principles and is regarded in the scientific community as the "Father of Botany". His major works, Enquiry into Plants and On the Causes of Plants, constitute the most important contributions to botanical science until the Middle Ages seventeen centuries later. Another work from Ancient Greece that made an early impact on botany is De Materia Medica, a five-volume encyclopedia about herbal medicine written in the middle of the first century by Greek physician and pharmacologist Pedanius Dioscorides. De Materia Medica was read for more than 1,500 years. Important contributions from the medieval Muslim world include Ibn Wahshiyya's Nabatean Agriculture, Abū Ḥanīfa Dīnawarī's the Book of Plants, Ibn Bassal's The Classification of Soils. In the early 13th century, Abu al-Abbas al-Nabati, Ibn al-Baitar wrote on botany in a systematic and scientific manner. In the mid-16th century, "botanical gardens" were founded in a number of Italian universities – the Padua botanical garden in 1545 is considered to be the first, still in its original location.
These gardens continued the practical value of earlier "physic gardens" associated with monasteries, in which plants were cultivated for medical use. They supported the growth of botany as an academic subject. Lectures were given about the plants grown in the gardens and their medical uses demonstrated. Botanical gardens came much to northern Europe. Throughout this period, botany remained subordinate to medicine. German physician Leonhart Fuchs was one of "the three German fathers of botany", along with theologian Otto Brunfels and physician Hieronymus Bock. Fuchs and Brunfels broke away from the tradition of copying earlier works to make original observations of their own. Bock created his own system of plant classification. Physician Valerius Cordus authored a botanically and pharmacologically important herbal Historia Plantarum in 1544 and a pharmacopoeia of lasting importance, the Dispensatorium
James L. Gallogly
James L. Gallogly is an American university administrator and business executive, the 14th and current President of the University of Oklahoma, he has held executive positions with ConocoPhillips, ChevronPhillips and Phillips Petroleum, is a former Chief Executive Officer of LyondellBasell. Gallogly joined the DuPont board of directors in February 2015, he became the president of the University of Oklahoma, on July 1, 2018. James L. Gallogly was born in St. John's, Canada, one of ten children of Tom and Margery Gallogly, he attended high school at Wasson High School in Colorado Springs. He received a Bachelor of Arts degree from the University of Colorado Colorado Springs in 1974 and a Juris Doctor from the University of Oklahoma College of Law in 1977, he completed the Advanced Executive Program at the J. L. Kellogg Graduate School of Management at Northwestern University in 1998. Gallogly joined the Phillips Petroleum Company in 1980, he worked in a variety of legal and operational positions including international assignments in Norway.
He was appointed vice president of plastics, vice president of olefins and polyolefins and senior vice president of chemicals and plastics. Gallogly has held executive positions with ChevronPhillips and Phillips Petroleum. Phillips Petroleum Corp. and Chevron Corp. combined to form Chevron Phillips Chemical as a joint venture in June 2000. Gallogly became the inaugural president and chief executive officer of Chevron Phillips Chemical, one of the world's top producers of olefins and polyolefins, remaining there until 2006. In 2002, Conoco Inc. and Phillips Petroleum merged to form ConocoPhillips, based in Texas. In 2006, Gallogly joined ConocoPhillips as executive vice president of refining and transportation and as executive vice president of exploration and production. Gallogly became the chief executive officer of LyondellBasell in Houston, Texas in 2009, succeeding Volker Trautz as part of a reorganization following U. S. bankruptcy court proceedings. Gallogly guided the company out of Chapter 11 bankruptcy and repositioned it as one of the world's largest refining companies and makers of polymers and petrochemicals.
Gallogly formally retired as CEO of LyondellBasell in January 2015. As of February 5, 2015, he was appointed as a director of DuPontGallogly served on the Board of Directors for Continental Resources, he served on the University Cancer Foundation Board of Visitors at the University of Texas M. D. Anderson Cancer Center, Houston. On March 26, 2018, the Board of Regents of the University of Oklahoma formally announced that Gallogly would be serving in the capacity of OU's presidency following the retirement of David L. Boren; the selection process in which he was chosen as Boren's successor came under fire for its secrecy. Petrochemical Heritage Award ICIS Kavaler Award Honorary Doctorate of Science, University of Colorado Colorado Springs Communication Leadership Award from the Houston chapter of the International Association of Business Communicators On behalf of the Gallogly Family Foundation and Janet Gallogly pledged to donate $1M to the University of Colorado, supporting creation of the Gallogly Events Center.
The center is named in honor of father Tommy M. Gallogly, a non-traditional adult student who earned bachelor's and master's degrees in education at UCCS. Formally dedicated in 2010, the building has been awarded Leadership in Energy and Environmental Design Gold certification. Media related to James Gallogly at Wikimedia Commons Voices of Oklahoma interview. First person interview conducted on July 12, 2018, with James L. Gallogly
Stratton D. Brooks
Stratton Duluth Brooks was the third president of the University of Oklahoma and eleventh president of the University of Missouri. Stratton Brooks was born in 1869 in Missouri. At the age of two, he and his parents moved to Michigan where his father, Charles Brooks, was a Sheriff in Isabella Co. Michigan Stratton Brooks graduated from Mt. Pleasant High School, Mt. Pleasant, Michigan class of 1887 Brooks was educated at the University of Michigan and held a master's degree from Harvard University. Prior to being appointed president of the University of Oklahoma, he served as the first superintendent of LaSalle-Peru Township High School, located in LaSalle, Illinois. Additionally, Dr. Brooks served as superintendent of Boston public schools, he spent three months in 1906 as the superintendent of the Cleveland, Ohio public school system. When Brooks was first being courted for the position of OU president in 1911, he at first did not want the position, it was seen as a fledgling university and many on the East Coast were "still in shock" at the summary discharge of former president David Ross Boyd.
He wasn't approached again until 1912 while at a national superintendent's meetings in St. Louis, Missouri, he was approached by William A. Brandenberg, a member of the new Oklahoma State Board of Education. Again, Brooks refused the job but Brandenberg continued to pursue telling him that the Board desired to keep politics out of the selection process. Brooks still refused but gave advice on how to keep politics out of the process by saying that only the university president could appoint faculty and that the Board should have nothing to do with the administration of the university; the Board agreed to these guidelines and was able to convince Brooks to accept the position. Brooks said that, "Whatever was accomplished during my eleven years as president of the University, was possible only because the Board of Education that appointed me, its successors, never violated the basic principles set forth in that first conference." Brooks was inaugurated as president of the university in the spring of 1912.
He set to rebuilding the university. He found, he went about strengthening the faculty but he did not fire one individual brought in because of political connections if he was a good teacher. At the university, Brooks established a permanent faculty salary, sabbatical leave, permanent tenure, he acquired land around the university where the stadium and armory now stand. Brooks had a great reputation with the Board of the Oklahoma legislature. During his years as president, many building were constructed around campus. Brooks' was OU's first wartime president, have served during the duration of World War I, he made many efforts to see that the university was at the forefront of preparedness for all war needs. He imposed strict food regulations on the university and he established thirteen courses in seven different departments for the direct purpose of "training soldiers, training men who expect to become soldiers, training people who take the place of soldiers in civil life." Some of these courses included: wire telegraphy, wireless telegraphy and shorthand, oxyacetylene welding, orthopedic surgery, military field engineering, first aid courses.
Students under 21 were required to take special courses in the Student Army Training Corps. Barracks, an infirmary, bathhouse and canteen were constructed. By the latter part of 1918, the university was a military base. All in all, 30 faculty members, 500 alumni, 1,875 students were in military service during the war. Brooks' situation changed after John C. Walton was elected Governor of Oklahoma in 1922. Gone was the close working relationship. Walton felt; some of Walton's political advisors felt. Edwin DeBarr, the OU vice president, had supported Walton's rival in the primary. After both Brooks and the Board of Regents had written letters to the members of OU's faculty, cautioning them against taking part in the upcoming election campaign, DeBarr continued to take an active political role, making fiery speeches supporting Walton's rival for the governorship, Robert H. Wilson, the state superintendent of education. Walton, the Democratic nominee defeated Wilson, the Republican, in the general election of November, 1922, was inaugurated in January, 1923.
In May 1923, he abruptly dismissed four of the five existing regents from the board and replaced them with reliable supporters of himself and his agenda. The board proceeded to terminate DeBarr's employment. Walton retaliated against Brooks, whose son-in-law was president of the Oklahoma School of Mines in Miami, Oklahoma. Although Brooks hoped the young man could remain undisturbed in that position, Walton abruptly replaced him with a supportive legislator from Ottawa County. Brooks voted against Walton's nomination of another supporter to become superintendent of vocational agriculture. Walton became furious with Brooks, again replaced the occupants of the state board; that day, the Daily Oklahoman printed the story with the headline, "Brooks' Neck Expected to Feel the Ax Next." Walton explained his action to the press, "...the educational system must be removed as far as possible from political maneuvering...he university organization has been used against me by Yankee republicans and I believe that it should be in democrat
A. Grant Evans
Arthur Grant Evans was the third president of University of Tulsa and the second president of the University of Oklahoma. Born to English parents in India, educated in London, he emigrated to North America in 1883 and lived in Canada. Evans was born in Madras, India, in 1858 to English parents, Reverend E. J. and Caroline Taylor Evans. Educated in London, he received his bachelor of arts degree in London from Borough Road College. After receiving his degree, he became Presbyterian minister, he spent four years teaching at Earls Barton in England. He came to North America in 1883, where he lived in Canada for less than a year. A previous citation indicates that Evans intended to work as a missionary among the Cherokee Indians; the Mills article states that in 1887, he was ordained as a Presbyterian minister, began pastoring at a church in Oswego, Kansas and at churches in Pendleton and Leadville, Colorado. Neither source mentions a connection to the Cherokee Male Seminary or Robert L. Owen, nor do they indicate a rationale for Evans showing up in Muskogee in time to either be appointed to Kendall College or to marry his wife.
Prior to becoming the president at Oklahoma University in 1908, he served as the president of Henry Kendall College in Muskogee, for ten years. During his time Kendall College, he was awarded a Doctor of Divinity degree; when Oklahoma became a state in 1907, the first governor, Charles N. Haskell, made several changes to the staff of the territorial college, his most notable change was the firing of David Ross Boyd. Evans was Haskell's appointment for president of the university as Evans was a Democrat and prohibitionist. Many people lost confidence in the new state university after the Oklahoma government fired the beloved President Boyd; because of this, nearly 1,500 students went to out-of-state universities over the next few years. Following Dr. Boyd's dismissal in 1908, the campus enrollment declined nearly 20% and it declined another 11% between 1910 and 1911. Evans' tenure as university president was marked by some notable achievements, including the construction of the third administration building.
That administration building built during his tenure, a classic example of the Collegiate Gothic architectural style of campus, was renamed in Evans' honor. The Encyclopedia of Oklahoma History and Culture called his reorganization of the university into colleges and schools as his most important accomplishment; the College of Fine Arts, the College of Engineering, the College of Arts and Sciences were all started between 1908 and 1911. He promoted the expansion of the Oklahoma University School of Medicine and presided over its merger with the Epworth College of Medicine; the School of Law, led by Julien Monnet, was established during his tenure. In 1909, Evans was awarded an honorary Doctor of Divinity degree, he retired as OU president in 1911. Julien Monnet, Dean of the School of Law, was named Interim President. In 1912, Stratton D. Brooks became the 3rd President of OU. After retiring, Evans once again became a pastor, this time in El Montecito Presbyterian Church in Santa Barbara, California.
Evans remained there until he died on November 30, 1928, of a "stroke of apoplexy." Encyclopedia of Oklahoma History and Culture - Evans, Arthur Grant
University of Chicago
The University of Chicago is a private research university in Chicago, Illinois. Founded in 1890 by John D. Rockefeller, the school is located on a 217-acre campus in Chicago's Hyde Park neighborhood, near Lake Michigan; the University of Chicago holds top-ten positions in various international rankings. The university is composed of an undergraduate college as well as various graduate programs and interdisciplinary committees organized into five academic research divisions. Beyond the arts and sciences, Chicago is well known for its professional schools, which include the Pritzker School of Medicine, the Booth School of Business, the Law School, the School of Social Service Administration, the Harris School of Public Policy Studies, the Divinity School and the Graham School of Continuing Liberal and Professional Studies; the university has additional campuses and centers in London, Beijing and Hong Kong, as well as in downtown Chicago. University of Chicago scholars have played a major role in the development of many academic disciplines, including sociology, economics, literary criticism and the behavioralism school of political science.
Chicago's physics department and the Met Lab helped develop the world's first man-made, self-sustaining nuclear reaction beneath the viewing stands of university's Stagg Field, a key part of the classified Manhattan Project effort of World War II. The university research efforts include administration of Fermi National Accelerator Laboratory and Argonne National Laboratory, as well as the Marine Biological Laboratory; the university is home to the University of Chicago Press, the largest university press in the United States. With an estimated completion date of 2021, the Barack Obama Presidential Center will be housed at the university and include both the Obama presidential library and offices of the Obama Foundation; the University of Chicago has produced faculty members and researchers. As of 2018, 98 Nobel laureates have been affiliated with the university as professors, faculty, or staff, making it a university with one of the highest concentrations of Nobel laureates in the world. 34 faculty members and 18 alumni have been awarded the MacArthur "Genius Grant".
In addition, Chicago's alumni and faculty include 54 Rhodes Scholars, 26 Marshall Scholars, 9 Fields Medalists, 4 Turing Award Winners, 24 Pulitzer Prize winners, 20 National Humanities Medalists, 16 billionaire graduates and a plethora of members of the United States Congress and heads of state of countries all over the world. The University of Chicago was incorporated as a coeducational institution in 1890 by the American Baptist Education Society, using $400,000 donated to the ABES to match a $600,000 donation from Baptist oil magnate and philanthropist John D. Rockefeller, including land donated by Marshall Field. While the Rockefeller donation provided money for academic operations and long-term endowment, it was stipulated that such money could not be used for buildings; the Hyde Park campus was financed by donations from wealthy Chicagoans like Silas B. Cobb who provided the funds for the campus' first building, Cobb Lecture Hall, matched Marshall Field's pledge of $100,000. Other early benefactors included businessmen Charles L. Hutchinson, Martin A. Ryerson Adolphus Clay Bartlett and Leon Mandel, who funded the construction of the gymnasium and assembly hall, George C. Walker of the Walker Museum, a relative of Cobb who encouraged his inaugural donation for facilities.
The Hyde Park campus continued the legacy of the original university of the same name, which had closed in 1880s after its campus was foreclosed on. What became known as the Old University of Chicago had been founded by a small group of Baptist educators in 1856 through a land endowment from Senator Stephen A. Douglas. After a fire, it closed in 1886. Alumni from the Old University of Chicago are recognized as alumni of the present University of Chicago; the university's depiction on its coat of arms of a phoenix rising from the ashes is a reference to the fire and demolition of the Old University of Chicago campus. As an homage to this pre-1890 legacy, a single stone from the rubble of the original Douglas Hall on 34th Place was brought to the current Hyde Park location and set into the wall of the Classics Building; these connections have led the Dean of the College and University of Chicago and Professor of History John Boyer to conclude that the University of Chicago has, "a plausible genealogy as a pre–Civil War institution".
William Rainey Harper became the university's president on July 1, 1891 and the Hyde Park campus opened for classes on October 1, 1892. Harper worked on building up the faculty and in two years he had a faculty of 120, including eight former university or college presidents. Harper was an accomplished scholar and a member of the Baptist clergy who believed that a great university should maintain the study of faith as a central focus. To fulfill this commitment, he brought the Old University of Chicago's Seminary to Hyde Park; this became the Divinity School in the first professional school at the University of Chicago. Harper recruited acclaimed Yale baseball and football player Amos Alonzo Stagg from the Young Men's Christian Association training Shool at Springfield to coach the school's football program. Stagg was given a position on the first such athletic position in the United States. While coaching at the University, Stagg invented the numbered football jersey, the huddle, the lighted playing field.
Stagg is the namesake of the university's Stagg
University of Oklahoma
The University of Oklahoma is a public research university in Norman, Oklahoma. Founded in 1890, it had existed in Oklahoma Territory near Indian Territory for 17 years before the two became the state of Oklahoma. In Fall 2018 the university had 31,702 students enrolled, most at its main campus in Norman. Employing nearly 3,000 faculty members, the school offers 152 baccalaureate programs, 160 master's programs, 75 doctorate programs, 20 majors at the first professional level. David Boren, a former U. S. Senator and Oklahoma Governor, served as the university's president from 1994 to 2018. James L. Gallogly succeeded Boren on July 1, 2018; the school ranks in the top ten among public universities in enrollment of National Merit Scholars and graduation of Rhodes Scholars. US News & World Report ranks OU No. 58 in the "Top Public Schools – National Universities" category. PC Magazine and the Princeton Review rated it one of the "20 Most Wired Colleges" in both 2006 and 2008, while the Carnegie Foundation classifies it as a research university with "very high research activity."
Its Norman campus has the Fred Jones Jr.. Museum of Art, specializing in French Impressionism and Native American artwork, the Sam Noble Oklahoma Museum of Natural History, specializing in the natural history of Oklahoma; the school, well known for its athletic programs, claims multiple national championships in multiple sports, including seven football national championships and two NCAA Division I baseball championships. The women's softball team has won the national championship four times: in 2000, 2013, consecutively in 2016 and 2017; the gymnastics teams have won a combined 11 national championships since 2002, with the men's team winning eight in the last 15 years, including three consecutive titles from 2015 to 2017. With the support of Governor George Washington Steele, on December 18, 1890 the Oklahoma Territorial legislature established three universities: the state university in Norman, the agricultural and mechanical college in Stillwater and a normal school in Edmond. Oklahoma's admission into the union in 1907 led to the renaming of the Norman Territorial University as the University of Oklahoma.
Norman residents donated 407 acres of land for the university 0.5 miles south of the Norman railroad depot. The university's first president ordered the planting of trees before the construction of the first campus building because he "could not visualize a treeless university seat." Landscaping remains important to the university. The university's first president, David Ross Boyd, arrived in Norman in August 1892, the first students enrolled that year; the university established a School of Pharmacy in 1893 because of high demand for pharmacists in the territory. Three years the university awarded its first degree to a pharmaceutical chemist; the "Rock Building" in downtown Norman held the initial classes until the university's first building opened on September 6, 1893. On January 6, 1903, the university's only building burned down and destroyed many records of the early university. Construction began on a new building, as several other towns hoped to convince the university to move. President Boyd and the faculty were not dismayed by the loss.
Mathematics professor Frederick Elder said, "What do you need to keep classes going? Two yards of blackboard and a box of chalk." As a response to the fire, English professor Vernon Louis Parrington created a plan for the development of the campus. Most of the plan was never implemented, but Parrington's suggestion for the campus core formed the basis for the North Oval; the North and South Ovals are now distinctive features of the campus. The campus has a distinctive architecture, with buildings designed in a unique "Cherokee Gothic" style; the style has many features of the Gothic era but has mixed the designs of local Native American tribes from Oklahoma. This term was coined by the renowned American architect Frank Lloyd Wright when he visited the campus; the university has built over a dozen buildings in the Cherokee Gothic style. In 1907, Oklahoma entered statehood. Up until this point, Oklahoma's Republican tendencies changed with the election of Oklahoma's first governor, the Democratic Charles N. Haskell.
Since the inception of the university, different groups on campus were divided by religion. Early in the university's existence, many professors were Presbyterian. Under pressure, Boyd hired several Baptists and Southern Methodists; the Presbyterians and Baptists got along but the Southern Methodists conflicted with the administration. Two notable Methodists, Rev. Nathaniel Lee Linebaugh and Professor Ernest Taylor Bynum, were critics of Boyd and activists in Haskell's election campaign; when Haskell took office, he fired many of the Republicans at the university, including President Boyd. The campus expanded over the next several decades. By 1932, the university encompassed 167 acres. Development of South Oval allowed for the southern expansion of the campus; the university built a new library on the oval's north end in 1936. President Bizzell was able to get the Oklahoma legislature to approve $500,000 for the new library up from their original offer of $200,000; this allowed for an greater collection of research materials for students and faculty.
Like many universities, OU had a drop in enrollment during World War II. Enrollment in 1945 dropped to 3,769, from its pre–World War II high of 6,935 in 1939. Many infrastructure changes have occurred at the university; the southern portion of south campus in the vicinity of Constitution Avenue, still known to long-time Norman residents as