Système universitaire de documentation
The système universitaire de documentation or SUDOC is a system used by the libraries of French universities and higher education establishments to identify and manage the documents in their possession. The catalog, which contains more than 10 million references, allows students and researcher to search for bibliographical and location information in over 3,400 documentation centers, it is maintained by the Bibliographic Agency for Higher Education. Official website
University of Oxford
The University of Oxford is a collegiate research university in Oxford, England. There is evidence of teaching as early as 1096, making it the oldest university in the English-speaking world and the world's second-oldest university in continuous operation, it grew from 1167 when Henry II banned English students from attending the University of Paris. After disputes between students and Oxford townsfolk in 1209, some academics fled north-east to Cambridge where they established what became the University of Cambridge; the two'ancient universities' are jointly called'Oxbridge'. The history and influence of the University of Oxford has made it one of the most prestigious universities in the world; the university is made up of 38 constituent colleges, a range of academic departments, which are organised into four divisions. All the colleges are self-governing institutions within the university, each controlling its own membership and with its own internal structure and activities, it does not have a main campus, its buildings and facilities are scattered throughout the city centre.
Undergraduate teaching at Oxford is organised around weekly tutorials at the colleges and halls, supported by classes, lectures and laboratory work provided by university faculties and departments. It operates the world's oldest university museum, as well as the largest university press in the world and the largest academic library system nationwide. In the fiscal year ending 31 July 2018, the university had a total income of £2.237 billion, of which £579.1 million was from research grants and contracts. The university is ranked first globally by the Times Higher Education World University Rankings as of 2019 and is ranked as among the world's top ten universities, it is ranked second in all major national league tables, behind Cambridge. Oxford has educated many notable alumni, including 27 prime ministers of the United Kingdom and many heads of state and government around the world; as of 2019, 69 Nobel Prize winners, 3 Fields Medalists, 6 Turing Award winners have studied, worked, or held visiting fellowships at the University of Oxford, while its alumni have won 160 Olympic medals.
Oxford is the home of numerous scholarships, including the Rhodes Scholarship, one of the oldest international graduate scholarship programmes. The University of Oxford has no known foundation date. Teaching at Oxford existed in some form as early as 1096, but it is unclear when a university came into being, it grew from 1167 when English students returned from the University of Paris. The historian Gerald of Wales lectured to such scholars in 1188 and the first known foreign scholar, Emo of Friesland, arrived in 1190; the head of the university had the title of chancellor from at least 1201, the masters were recognised as a universitas or corporation in 1231. The university was granted a royal charter in 1248 during the reign of King Henry III. After disputes between students and Oxford townsfolk in 1209, some academics fled from the violence to Cambridge forming the University of Cambridge; the students associated together on the basis of geographical origins, into two'nations', representing the North and the South.
In centuries, geographical origins continued to influence many students' affiliations when membership of a college or hall became customary in Oxford. In addition, members of many religious orders, including Dominicans, Franciscans and Augustinians, settled in Oxford in the mid-13th century, gained influence and maintained houses or halls for students. At about the same time, private benefactors established colleges as self-contained scholarly communities. Among the earliest such founders were William of Durham, who in 1249 endowed University College, John Balliol, father of a future King of Scots. Another founder, Walter de Merton, a Lord Chancellor of England and afterwards Bishop of Rochester, devised a series of regulations for college life. Thereafter, an increasing number of students lived in colleges rather than in halls and religious houses. In 1333–34, an attempt by some dissatisfied Oxford scholars to found a new university at Stamford, was blocked by the universities of Oxford and Cambridge petitioning King Edward III.
Thereafter, until the 1820s, no new universities were allowed to be founded in England in London. The new learning of the Renaissance influenced Oxford from the late 15th century onwards. Among university scholars of the period were William Grocyn, who contributed to the revival of Greek language studies, John Colet, the noted biblical scholar. With the English Reformation and the breaking of communion with the Roman Catholic Church, recusant scholars from Oxford fled to continental Europe, settling at the University of Douai; the method of teaching at Oxford was transformed from the medieval scholastic method to Renaissance education, although institutions associated with the university suffered losses of land and revenues. As a centre of learning and scholarship, Oxford's reputation declined in the Age of Enlightenment. In 1636 William Laud, the chancellor and Archbishop of Canterbury, codified the university's statutes. These, to a large extent, remained its gove
BBC Third Programme
The BBC Third Programme was a national radio service produced and broadcast by the BBC between 1946 and 1967. It first went on the air on 29 September 1946 and became one of the leading cultural and intellectual forces in Britain, playing a crucial role in disseminating the arts, it was the BBC's third national radio network, the other two being the Home Service and the Light Programme, principally devoted to light entertainment and music. The Third Programme was rebranded to BBC Radio 3 on the 30th of September 1967; when it started in 1946, the Third Programme broadcast for six hours each evening, from 18.00 to 24.00, although its output was cut to just 24 hours a week from October 1957, with the early part of weekday evenings being given over to educational programming. This situation continued until the launch, on 22 March 1965, of the BBC Music Programme, which began regular daily broadcasts of classical music on the Network Three/Third Programme frequencies between 7.00 and 18.30 on weekdays, 8.00 and 12.30 on Saturdays, 8.00 and 17.00 on Sundays.
The Third Programme continued as a distinct evening service, this continued to be the case for a short while after the inception of Radio 3 in 1967, before all the elements of the BBC's "third network" were absorbed into Radio 3 with rebranding effect from Saturday 4 April 1970. The Third's existence was controversial from the beginning because of perceived "elitism" – it was sometimes criticised for broadcasting programmes of "two dons talking" – and for the cost of its output relative to a small listener reach, its existence was against Reithian principles, as Reith himself had, during his time at the BBC, been against segmenting audiences by splitting programming genres across different networks. From the start though, it had prominent supporters: the Education Secretary in the Attlee government, Ellen Wilkinson, spoke rather optimistically of creating a "third programme nation"; when it faced those 1957 cuts, the Third Programme Defence Society was formed and its leaders included T. S. Eliot, Albert Camus, Sir Laurence Olivier.
The network was broadly cultural, a Leavisite experiment dedicated to the discerning or "high-brow" listener from an educated, minority audience. Its founders' aims were seen as promoting "something fundamental to our civilisation" and as contributing to "the refinement of society", its musical output provided a wide range of serious classical music and live concerts, as well as contemporary composers and jazz, popular classical music such as Beethoven and Tchaikovsky remained on the Home Service until 1964. Voice formed a much higher proportion of its output than the Radio 3, with specially commissioned plays, poetry readings and documentaries. Nationally known intellectuals such as Bertrand Russell and Isaiah Berlin on philosophy or Fred Hoyle on cosmology were regular contributors; the network became a principal patron of the arts. It commissioned many music works for broadcast by the BBC Music Department, playing a crucial role in the development of the career of composers such as Benjamin Britten.
Notable were its drama productions, including the radio plays of Samuel Beckett, Henry Reed, Harold Pinter, Joe Orton and Dylan Thomas, whose Under Milk Wood was written specially for the Programme. Philip O'Connor discovered Quentin Crisp in his radio interviews in 1963. Martin Esslin, BBC Director of Drama, was associated with the network's productions of European drama, Douglas Cleverdon with its productions of poetry and radio plays; the Programme's contribution to contemporary poetry and criticism was outstanding, under producers and presenters such as John Wain, Ludovic Kennedy, George MacBeth and Patrick Dickinson. The Third Programme was for many years the single largest source of copyright payments to poets; the decision to close down the Third Programme was opposed by many within the BBC, some of them senior figures. Within the music division, a'BBC rebellion' gathered force, with its most vocal members including Hans Keller and Robert Simpson. However, the attempt to prevent the culture-conscious Third being replaced by what Keller called "a daytime music station" proved unsuccessful.
1946–48 George Barnes 1948–52 Harman Grisewood 1953–58 John Morris 1959–67 Howard Newby BBC Radio 3 - The BBC's classical music and arts radio station as a replacement for the Third Programme Radio drama Patrick Butler Patricia Hughes Alvar Lidell Christopher Pemberton Philip O'Connor BBC Third Programme Scripts catalogue The collection of Douglas Cleverdon, a leading talks and drama producer for the Third, at the University of Delaware Library. 60th anniversary
Sheffield is a city and metropolitan borough in South Yorkshire, England. Part of the West Riding of Yorkshire, its name derives from the River Sheaf, which runs through the city. With some of its southern suburbs annexed from Derbyshire, the city has grown from its industrial roots to encompass a wider economic base; the population of the City of Sheffield is 577,800 and it is one of the eight largest regional English cities that make up the Core Cities Group. Sheffield is the third-largest English district by population; the metropolitan population of Sheffield is 1,569,000. The city is in the eastern foothills of the Pennines, the valleys of the River Don and its four tributaries, the Loxley, the Porter Brook, the Rivelin and the Sheaf. Sixty-one per cent of Sheffield's entire area is green space, a third of the city lies within the Peak District national park. There are more than 250 parks and gardens in the city, estimated to contain around 4.5 million trees. Sheffield played a crucial role in the Industrial Revolution, with many significant inventions and technologies developed in the city.
In the 19th century, the city saw a huge expansion of its traditional cutlery trade, when stainless steel and crucible steel were developed locally, fuelling an tenfold increase in the population. Sheffield received its municipal charter in 1843, becoming the City of Sheffield in 1893. International competition in iron and steel caused a decline in these industries in the 1970s and 1980s, coinciding with the collapse of coal mining in the area; the 21st century has seen extensive redevelopment in Sheffield, along with other British cities. Sheffield's gross value added has increased by 60% since 1997, standing at £9.2 billion in 2007. The economy has experienced steady growth averaging around 5% annually, greater than that of the broader region of Yorkshire and the Humber; the city has a long sporting heritage, is home to the world's oldest football club, Sheffield F. C. Games between the two professional clubs, Sheffield United and Sheffield Wednesday, are known as the Steel City derby; the city is home to the World Snooker Championship and the Sheffield Steelers, the UK's first professional ice hockey team.
The area now occupied by the City of Sheffield is believed to have been inhabited since at least the late Upper Paleolithic, about 12,800 years ago. The earliest evidence of human occupation in the Sheffield area was found at Creswell Crags to the east of the city. In the Iron Age the area became the southernmost territory of the Pennine tribe called the Brigantes, it is this tribe who are thought to have constructed several hill forts around Sheffield. Following the departure of the Romans, the Sheffield area may have been the southern part of the Brittonic kingdom of Elmet, with the rivers Sheaf and Don forming part of the boundary between this kingdom and the kingdom of Mercia. Anglian settlers pushed west from the kingdom of Deira. A Britonnic presence within the Sheffield area is evidenced by two settlements called Wales and Waleswood close to Sheffield; the settlements that grew and merged to form Sheffield, date from the second half of the first millennium, are of Anglo-Saxon and Danish origin.
In Anglo-Saxon times, the Sheffield area straddled the border between the kingdoms of Mercia and Northumbria. The Anglo-Saxon Chronicle reports that Eanred of Northumbria submitted to Egbert of Wessex at the hamlet of Dore in 829, a key event in the unification of the kingdom of England under the House of Wessex. After the Norman conquest of England, Sheffield Castle was built to protect the local settlements, a small town developed, the nucleus of the modern city. By 1296, a market had been established at what is now known as Castle Square, Sheffield subsequently grew into a small market town. In the 14th century, Sheffield was noted for the production of knives, as mentioned in Geoffrey Chaucer's The Canterbury Tales, by the early 1600s it had become the main centre of cutlery manufacture in England outside London, overseen by the Company of Cutlers in Hallamshire. From 1570 to 1584, Queen of Scots, was imprisoned in Sheffield Castle and Sheffield Manor. During the 1740s, a form of the crucible steel process was discovered that allowed the manufacture of a better quality of steel than had been possible.
In about the same period, a technique was developed for fusing a thin sheet of silver onto a copper ingot to produce silver plating, which became known as Sheffield plate. These innovations spurred Sheffield's growth as an industrial town, but the loss of some important export markets led to a recession in the late 18th and early 19th century; the resulting poor conditions culminated in a cholera epidemic that killed 402 people in 1832. The population of the town grew throughout the 19th century; the Sheffield and Rotherham railway was constructed in 1838. The town was incorporated as a borough in 1842, was granted a city charter in 1893; the influx of people led to demand for better water supplies, a number of new reservoirs were constructed on the outskirts of the town. The collapse of the dam wall of one of these reservoirs in 1864 resulted in the Great Sheffield Flood, which killed 270 people and devastated large parts of the town; the growing population led to the construction of many back-to-back dwellings that, along with severe pollution from the factories, inspired George Orwell in 1937 to write: "Sheffield, I suppose, could justly claim to be called the ugliest town in the Old World".
The Great Depression hit the city in the 1930s, but as international tensions increased and the Second
Ashby with Oby
Ashby with Oby is a civil parish in the English county of Norfolk, located some 5 kilometres north of Acle and 15 kilometres north-west of Great Yarmouth. The parish comprises scattered farms, is named for the tiny settlements of Ashby and Oby; the civil parish has an area of 5.72 square kilometres. In the 2001 census it had a population of 69 in 28 households. At the 2011 Census the population of the parish remained less than 100 and was included in the civil parish of Thurne. For the purposes of local government, the parish falls within the district of Great Yarmouth. Wisemans's Mill is a 4-storey brick-built windpump built in 1753 by Robert Martin. Media related to Ashby with Oby at Wikimedia Commons A vision of Ashby With Oby Ashby in the Domesday Book
New College, Oxford
New College is one of the constituent colleges of the University of Oxford in the United Kingdom. Founded in 1379 by William of Wykeham, the full name of the college is St Mary's College of Winchester in Oxford; the name "New College", soon came to be used following its completion in 1386 to distinguish it from the older existing college of St. Mary, now known as Oriel College. In 2017, the college ranked first in the Norrington Table, a table assessing the relative performance of Oxford's undergraduates in final examinations, it has been ranked highly. It has the 3rd highest average Norrington Table ranking over the previous decade; the college is between Holywell Street and New College Lane, next to All Souls College, Harris Manchester College, Hertford College, The Queen's College and St Edmund Hall. The college's sister college is Cambridge; the college is one of the main choral foundations of the University of Oxford. The college choir is regarded as one of the leading choirs of the world, has recorded over one hundred albums.
Like many of Oxford's colleges, New College admitted its first mixed-sex cohort in 1979, after six centuries as an institution for men only. New College is one of the wealthiest colleges in Oxford University; as of July 2017, it had a financial endowment of £ net assets of £ 308 million. Despite its name, New College is one of the oldest of the Oxford colleges. In 1379 William of Wykeham had purchased land in Oxford and was able to apply to King Richard II for a charter to allow the foundation of a college de novo. In his own charter of foundation, Wykeham declared the college to consist of a warden and seventy scholars; the site on which the college would be built was acquired from several sources, including the City of Oxford, Merton College and Queen's College. This land had been the City Ditch, a haunt of thieves, had been used for burials during the Black Death. New College was founded in conjunction with Winchester College, envisaged as a feeder to the Oxford college, the two institutions have striking architectural similarities: both were the work of master mason William Wynford.
On 5 March 1380, the first stone of New College was laid. By 14 April 1386, the college entered formal possession of the buildings. Wykeham set to drawing up the statutes of the college, with a first draft presented in 1390; the statutes were not completed until the year. The coat of arms of the college is one adopted by William Wykeham, it features two black chevrons, one said to have been added when he became a bishop and the other representing his skill with architecture. Winchester College uses the same arms; the grand collection of buildings is a testament to William's experience in administering both ecclesiastical and civil institutions as the Bishop of Winchester and High Chancellor of England. Both Winchester College and New College were established for the education of priests, there being a shortage of properly educated clergy after the Black Death. William of Wykeham ordained that there were to be ten chaplains, three clerks and 16 choristers on the foundation of the college; the original choristers were accommodated within the walls of the college under one schoolmaster.
Since the school has expanded and in 1903 moved to New College School in Savile Road. As well as being the first Oxford college for undergraduates and the first to have senior members of the college give tutorials, New College was the first college in Oxford to be deliberately designed around a main quadrangle. Students at New College were until 1834 exempt from taking the university's examinations for the BA and the MA degrees, were ineligible for honours, though they still had to take the college's own tests; this contributed to the college's old reputation for "Golden scholars, silver bachelors, leaden masters and wooden doctors." In August 1651, New College was fortified by the Parliamentarian forces and the cloister was used for musketry training. In 1685, Monmouth's rebellion involved Robert Sewster, a fellow of the college, who commanded a company of university volunteers; these volunteers were of New College and exercised in the Bowling Green. The college's motto, created by William of Wykeham, is "Manners Makyth Man".
The motto was in many respects revolutionary. First, it was written in English, rather than Latin, which makes it unusual in Oxford, is revolutionary considering the college's age. Secondly, the motto makes a social statement. Wykeham's motto is reminiscent of the insight found in Aristotle's Ethics: that a man or a woman is what he or she does, what we do is what we are. Admiring William of Wykeham's achievements in creating his twinned institutions, King Henry VI modelled the establishment of his own new colleges, King's College and Eton College, upon Wykeham's foundations of New College and Winchester College. Indeed, the link that King's College and Eton College share is a direct copy of William of Wykeham's link between New College and Winchester College. New College has formal ties with Winchester College, Eton College, King's College, dating back to 1444, a four-way relationship known as the Amicabilis Concordi
County Galway is a county in Ireland. It is located in the West of part of the province of Connacht. There are several Irish-speaking areas in the west of the county; the traditional county includes, is named for, the city of Galway, but the city and county now have separate local authorities: Galway City Council administers the urban area, while the rest of the county is administered by Galway County Council. The population of the county was 258,058 at the 2016 census; the first inhabitants in the Galway area arrived over 7000 years ago. Shell middens indicate the existence of people as early as 5000 BC; the county comprised several kingdoms and territories which predate the formation of the county. These kingdoms included Uí Maine, Maigh Seóla, Conmhaícne Mara, Soghain and Máenmaige. County Galway became an official entity around 1569 AD; the region known as Connemara retains a distinct identity within the county, though its boundaries are unclear, so it may account for as much as one third, or as little as 20%, of the county.
The county includes a number such as the Oileáin Árann and Inis Bó Fine. With the arrival of Christianity many monasteries were built in the county. Monasteries kept written records of events of its people; these were followed by a number of law-tracts, genealogies and miscellaneous accounts. Extant manuscripts containing references to Galway include: Nearly 20% of the population of County Galway live in the Gaeltacht. County Galway is home to the largest Gaeltacht Irish-speaking region in Ireland. There are over 48,000 people living within this region, which extends from Galway city westwards through Connemara; the region consists of the following Irish-speaking areas. All schools within the Gaeltacht use the Irish language for classroom instruction. There is a third-level constituent college of NUIG called Acadamh na hOllscolaíochta Gaeilge in Carraroe and Carna. Clifden is the largest town in the region. Galway City is home to Ireland's only Irish-language theatre, Taibhdhearc na Gaillimhe. There is a strong Irish-language media presence in this area too, which boasts the radio station Raidió na Gaeltachta and Foinse newspaper in Carraroe and national TV station TG4 in Baile na hAbhann.
The Aran Islands are part of the Galway Gaeltacht. According to Census 2016, there were 84,249 people in County Galway. According to Census 2011, the Galway city and county Gaeltacht has a population of 48,907, of which 30,978 say they can speak Irish, 23,788 can be classed as native Irish speakers while 7,190 speak Irish daily only within the classroom. There are 3,006 attending three Gaelcholáiste outside the Galway Gaeltacht. According to the Irish Census 2016 there are 9,445 people in the county who identify themselves as being daily Irish speakers outside the education system. Prior to the enactment of the Local Government Act 2001, the county was a unified whole for administrative purposes, despite the presence of two local authorities. Since that time, the administrative re-organisation has reduced the geographical extent of the county by the extent of the area under the jurisdiction of Galway City Council. Today, the geographic extent of the county is limited to the area under the jurisdiction of Galway County Council.
Each local authority ranks as first level local administrative units of the NUTS 3 West Region for Eurostat purposes. There are 34 LAU 1 entities in the Republic of Ireland; the remit of Galway County Council includes some suburbs of the city not within the remit of Galway City Council. Both local authorities are responsible for certain local services such as sanitation and development, the collection of motor taxation, local roads and social housing; the county is part of the Midlands–North-West constituency for the purposes of European elections. For elections to Dáil Éireann, the county is part of three constituencies: Galway East, Galway West and Roscommon–Galway. Together they return 11 deputies to the Dáil. County Galway is home to Na Beanna Beola mountain range, Na Sléibhte Mhám Toirc, the low mountains of Sliabh Echtghe; the highest point in the county is one of Benbaun, at 729m. County Galway is home to a number of Ireland's largest lakes including Lough Corrib, Lough Derg and Lough Mask.
The county is home to a large number of smaller lakes, many of which are in the Connemara region. These include Lough Anaserd, Ardderry Lough, Aughrusbeg Lough, Ballycuirke Lough, Ballynahinch Lake, Lough Bofin, Lough Cutra, Derryclare Lough, Lough Fee, Glendollagh Lough, Lough Glenicmurrin, Lough Inagh, Kylemore Lough, Lettercraffroe Lough, Maumeen Lough, Lough Nafooey, Lough Rea, Ross Lake and Lough Shindilla; the location of County Galway, situated on the west coast of Ireland, allows it to be directly influenced by the Gulf Stream. Temperature extremes are rare and short lived, though inland areas east of the Corrib, can boast some of the highest recorded temperatures of the summer in the island of Ireland. Overall, Galway is influenced by Atlantic airstreams which bring ample rainfall in between the fleeting sunshine. Rainf