Traditional ginger beer is a sweetened and carbonated non-alcoholic beverage. It is produced by the natural fermentation of prepared ginger spice and sugar, its origins date from the colonial spice trade with the Orient and the sugar producing islands of the Caribbean. It was popular in its colonies from the 18th century. Other spices were variously added and any alcohol content was limited to 2% by excise tax laws in 1855. Few brewers have maintained an alcoholic product. Current ginger beers are manufactured rather than brewed with flavor and color additives. Ginger ales are not brewed. Ginger beer is still produced at home using a symbiotic colony of yeast and a Lactobacillus known as a "ginger beer plant". Ginger beer has experienced a marked increase in popularity in recent years accompanying the popularity of cocktails based on it, such as the Moscow Mule and the Dark'n' Stormy; as early as 500 BC, ginger was used as a medicine and for flavouring food in Ancient China and India. In the western hemisphere, ginger was used to spice up drinks.
During the Victorian era, it was used to brew an alcoholic beverage termed "ginger beer". Brewed ginger beer originated in Yorkshire in England in the mid-18th century and became popular throughout Britain, the United States, South Africa and Canada, reaching a peak of popularity in the early 20th century. Brewed ginger beer was brought to the United States of the Ionian Islands by the British Army in the 19th century, is still made as a local specialty known as tsitsibíra by villagers in rural Corfu. Brewed ginger beer is sold worldwide. Crabbie's is a popular brand in the UK, it is labelled "alcoholic ginger beer" to distinguish it from the more established commercial ginger beers, which are not brewed, but carbonated with pressurized carbon dioxide. Hollows & Fentimans claims its ginger beer to be gluten-free. Crabbie's ginger beer is free from gluten in the UK, but not the US; the ginger beer plant known as "bees wine", "Palestinian bees", "Californian bees", "balm of Gilead", is not what is considered a plant but a composite organism comprising the yeast Saccharomyces florentinus and the bacterium Lactobacillus hilgardii, which form a symbiotic culture of bacteria and yeast.
It forms a gelatinous substance that allows it to be transferred from one fermenting substrate to the next, much like kefir grains and tibicos. The GBP was first described by Harry Marshall Ward in 1892, from samples he received in 1887. Original ginger beer is brewed by leaving water, ginger, optional ingredients such as lemon juice and cream of tartar, GBP to ferment for several days, converting some of the sugar into alcohol. GBP may be obtained from several commercial sources; until about 2008 laboratory-grade GBP was available, only from the yeast bank Deutsche Sammlung von Mikroorganismen und Zellkulturen in Germany, but the item is no longer listed. The National Collection of Yeast Cultures had an old sample of "Bees wine" as of 2008, but current staff have not used it, NCYC are unable to supply it for safety reasons, as the exact composition of the sample is unknown. In the UK, the origins of the original ginger beer plant is unknown; when a batch of ginger beer was made using some ginger beer plant, the jelly-like residue was bottled and became the new GBP.
Some of this GBP was kept for making the next batch of ginger beer, some was given to friends and family, so the'plant' was passed on through generations. Following Ward's research and experiments, he created his own ginger beer from a new'plant' that he had made, he proposed, but did not prove, that the'plant' was created by contaminants found on the raw materials, with the yeast coming from the raw brown sugar and the bacteria coming from the ginger root. A form of Ginger beer plant can be made by fermenting a mixture of water, brewer's or baker's yeast and sugar. More ginger may be added; when finished, this concentrated mix is strained, diluted with water and lemon juice, bottled. Non-alcoholic ginger beer is a type of carbonated soft drink flavoured with ginger. An example is Stoney, a product of The Coca-Cola Company sold in southern and eastern Africa; the ginger beer soft drink may be mixed with beer to make one type of shandy, or with dark rum to make a drink from Bermuda, called a Dark'N' Stormy.
It is the main ingredient in the Moscow Mule cocktail. Ginger ale Crabbie's Root beer Barritt's Ginger Beer Sockerdricka Caribbean cuisine Ginger wine Canton Socată List of soft drink flavors Donoghue v. Stevenson, legal case involving ginger beer Of the Street Sale of Ginger-Beer, Lemonade,&C. from London Labour and the London Poor, Volume 1, Henry Mayhew, 1851. Http://www.scienceinschool.org/sites/default/files/issuePdf/issue8.pdf
Queensland is the second-largest and third-most populous state in the Commonwealth of Australia. Situated in the north-east of the country, it is bordered by the Northern Territory, South Australia and New South Wales to the west, south-west and south respectively. To the east, Queensland is bordered by the Coral Pacific Ocean. To its north is the Torres Strait, with Papua New Guinea located less than 200 km across it from the mainland; the state is the world's sixth-largest sub-national entity, with an area of 1,852,642 square kilometres. As of 15 May 2018, Queensland has a population of 5,000,000, concentrated along the coast and in the state's South East; the capital and largest city in the state is Australia's third-largest city. Referred to as the "Sunshine State", Queensland is home to 10 of Australia's 30 largest cities and is the nation's third-largest economy. Tourism in the state, fuelled by its warm tropical climate, is a major industry. Queensland was first inhabited by Torres Strait Islanders.
The first European to land in Queensland was Dutch navigator Willem Janszoon in 1606, who explored the west coast of the Cape York Peninsula near present-day Weipa. In 1770, Lieutenant James Cook claimed the east coast of Australia for the Kingdom of Great Britain; the colony of New South Wales was founded in 1788 by Governor Arthur Phillip at Sydney. Queensland was explored in subsequent decades until the establishment of a penal colony at Brisbane in 1824 by John Oxley. Penal transportation ceased in 1839 and free settlement was allowed from 1842; the state was named in honour of Queen Victoria, who on 6 June 1859 signed Letters Patent separating the colony from New South Wales. Queensland Day is celebrated annually statewide on 6 June. Queensland was one of the six colonies which became the founding states of Australia with federation on 1 January 1901; the history of Queensland spans thousands of years, encompassing both a lengthy indigenous presence, as well as the eventful times of post-European settlement.
The north-eastern Australian region was explored by Dutch and French navigators before being encountered by Lieutenant James Cook in 1770. The state has witnessed frontier warfare between European settlers and Indigenous inhabitants, as well as the exploitation of cheap Kanaka labour sourced from the South Pacific through a form of forced recruitment known at the time as "blackbirding"; the Australian Labor Party has its origin as a formal organisation in Queensland and the town of Barcaldine is the symbolic birthplace of the party. June 2009 marked the 150th anniversary of its creation as a separate colony from New South Wales. A rare record of early settler life in north Queensland can be seen in a set of ten photographic glass plates taken in the 1860s by Richard Daintree, in the collection of the National Museum of Australia; the Aboriginal occupation of Queensland is thought to predate 50,000 BC via boat or land bridge across Torres Strait, became divided into over 90 different language groups.
During the last ice age Queensland's landscape became more arid and desolate, making food and other supplies scarce. This led to the world's first seed-grinding technology. Warming again made the land hospitable, which brought high rainfall along the eastern coast, stimulating the growth of the state's tropical rainforests. In February 1606, Dutch navigator Willem Janszoon landed near the site of what is now Weipa, on the western shore of Cape York; this was the first recorded landing of a European in Australia, it marked the first reported contact between European and Aboriginal Australian people. The region was explored by French and Spanish explorers prior to the arrival of Lieutenant James Cook in 1770. Cook claimed the east coast under instruction from King George III of the United Kingdom on 22 August 1770 at Possession Island, naming Eastern Australia, including Queensland,'New South Wales'; the Aboriginal population declined after a smallpox epidemic during the late 18th century. In 1823, John Oxley, a British explorer, sailed north from what is now Sydney to scout possible penal colony sites in Gladstone and Moreton Bay.
At Moreton Bay, he found the Brisbane River. He established a settlement at what is now Redcliffe; the settlement known as Edenglassie, was transferred to the current location of the Brisbane city centre. Edmund Lockyer discovered outcrops of coal along the banks of the upper Brisbane River in 1825. In 1839 transportation of convicts was ceased, culminating in the closure of the Brisbane penal settlement. In 1842 free settlement was permitted. In 1847, the Port of Maryborough was opened as a wool port; the first free immigrant ship to arrive in Moreton Bay was the Artemisia, in 1848. In 1857, Queensland's first lighthouse was built at Cape Moreton. A war, sometimes called a "war of extermination", erupted between Aborigines and settlers in colonial Queensland; the Frontier War was notable for being the most bloody in Australia due to Queensland's larger pre-contact indigenous population when compared to the other Australian colonies. About 1,500 European settlers and their alli
Aerated water is speaking, water to which air is added. The term is, however applied to carbonated water. Sulfur compounds dissolved in water are not dangerous, but can give the water a bad taste or foul smell; these compounds can be removed in several ways, the most effective being by exposure to chlorine gas. However, aeration can be effective if the amount of sulfur in the water is low. During aeration, water is agitated; this physically removes many of the sulfur compounds, which are vented. Exposure to oxygen in the air oxidizes some of the compounds, creating atomic sulfur which can be filtered from the water. Aeration is an effective means of removing radon from water. Small tanks and ponds for keeping aquatic animals such as fish or lobsters rely on aeration to maintain sufficient level of oxygenation in the water; this can be achieved by pumping air into the water. Both these methods create an agitated, large amount of surface area between the water and the air, thus allowing transfer of gases.
Wave action on the shores of large bodies of water can provide aeration of the water in the vicinity, thus providing enhanced oxygenation which can benefit various aquatic lifeforms. Drinking water Water purification Pond aeration Pond This article incorporates text from a publication now in the public domain: Ward, Artemas; the Grocer's Encyclopedia. "Hydrogen Sulfide Removal Methods". Excel Water Technologies Inc. Archived from the original on November 10, 2006. Retrieved 2007-03-09
A bottling company is a commercial enterprise whose output is the bottling of beverages for distribution. Many bottling companies are franchisees of corporations such as Coca-Cola and PepsiCo who distribute the beverage in a specific geographic region; some bottling companies may bottle other local beverages such as regional beers or wines. A bottler is a company which fills up cans and bottles with the drink; the bottler distributes the final product to the wholesale sellers in a geographic area. Large companies like The Coca-Cola Company sell their product to bottlers like the Coca-Cola Bottling Co. Consolidated, who bottle and distribute it. List of bottling companies Bottling line Companies portal "American Bottler". Volume 42. American Bottler. February 1921. Retrieved September 27, 2012
State Library of Queensland
The State Library of Queensland is the main reference and research library provided to the people of the State of Queensland, Australia, by the state government. Its legislative basis is provided by the Queensland Libraries Act 1988, it contains a significant portion of Queensland's documentary heritage, major reference and research collections, is an advocate of and partner with public libraries across Queensland. The library is at Kurilpa Point, within the Queensland Cultural Centre on the Brisbane River at South Bank; the Brisbane Public Library was established by the government of the Colony of Queensland in 1896, was renamed the Public Library of Queensland in 1898. The library was opened to the public in 1902. In 1934, the Oxley Memorial Library, named for the explorer John Oxley, opened as a centre for research and study relating to Queensland; the Libraries Act of 1943 established the Library Board of Queensland to manage the Public Library of Queensland. In March 1947, James L. Stapleton was appointed Queensland's first State Librarian.
Stapleton advocated for a new building for the library and that library services should be free to the public. He remains the longest-serving CEO, has been followed by five others: Sydney Lawrence Ryan from 1970 to 1988, Des Stephens from 1988 to 2001, Lea Giles-Peters from 2001 to 2011, Janette Wright, from 2012-2015 and from 2016, Vicki McDonald. In 1971, the "Public Library" became the "State Library." The following year, the Public Library Service was established to liaise with Queensland local authorities regarding their public libraries. A few years the Country Lending Service was established to provide book exchange and other services to public libraries in Queensland's smaller local government areas. Under the new name of Rural Libraries Queensland, the service is still going strong today, administered by the State Library's Public and Indigenous Library Services program. In 2003, the State Library began a new mission of establishing Indigenous Knowledge Centres in the Cape York and Torres Strait areas.
There is now a network of 22 IKCs in remote and regional communities: across Cape York, the islands of the Torres Strait, Central Queensland and at Cherbourg in South East Queensland. The State Library's current strategic vision is to enrich the lives of Queenslanders through creatively engaging people with information and community. In early 2011, the library donated 50,000 pictures to Wikimedia Commons; the library holds general collections, including books and magazines, audiovisual items, family history, music, ephemera and electronic resources. There are research collections and services – including the John Oxley Library and the Australian Library of Art, which includes the James Hardie Library of Australian Fine Arts; the library is home to two UNESCO Memory of the World significant collections, Labour Party Manifesto and the Margaret Lawrie collection of Torres Strait Islands material. The library holds a collection of Queensland election-related material, including websites, posters and how-to-vote cards.
Access to collections, including access to 50,000 Copyright-free Queensland images through Wikimedia Commons Provides books and other resource material to public libraries throughout Queensland. Specialist services to public libraries in a number of areas, including services to young people and multicultural communities. Public programs and exhibitions, including exhibition loans to schools and other community organisations. Outreach programs in reference, information literacy, Internet training and digitisation throughout Queensland for public library staff and the general community. Library services to Aboriginal people and Torres Strait Islanders including the establishment of Indigenous Knowledge Centres in Cape York and Torres Strait regions and increasing the employment and training opportunities for Indigenous peoples in the library industry. A digital culture centre called The Edge, for young people. A free coworking space, the Business Studio, supports startups and small business; the library has hosted a number of prominent exhibitions, including Plantation Voices Home: A Suburban Obsession Islands: hidden histories from Queensland Islands Hot Modernism Free guided tours of the building are available.
In 2010, a total of 3730 school students participated in a tour. Rural Libraries Queensland is a collaboration between the State Library of Queensland and 30 of the local government councils to provide library libraries to rural communities; the Brisbane Public Library moved into the Old State Library Building in William Street, Brisbane in 1899. This building had been occupied by the Queensland Museum; the Library shared accommodation in the building with an art gallery. In the late 1950s, an extension, with a distinctive tiled mural on the exterior, was built onto the building to provide more space; the mural was the winning design in a national competition held in 1958. In 1988, the State Library of Queensland moved to a new home within the Queensland Cultural Centre at South Bank, near the Queensland Museum and the original Queensland Art Gallery. In 2004, work began on the Millennium Library Project - a major redevelopment of the existing State Library building. After three years of extensive redevelopment, the South Bank building
Looking Backward: 2000–1887 is a utopian science fiction novel by Edward Bellamy, a journalist and writer from Chicopee Falls, Massachusetts. It was the third largest bestseller of its time, after Uncle Tom's Cabin and Ben-Hur: A Tale of the Christ, it influenced a large number of intellectuals, appears by title in many socialist writings of the day. "It is one of the few books published that created immediately on its appearance a political mass movement". In the United States alone, over 162 "Bellamy Clubs" sprang up to discuss and propagate the book's ideas. Owing to its commitment to the nationalization of private property and the desire to avoid use of the term "socialism", this political movement came to be known as Nationalism — not to be confused with the political concept of nationalism; the novel inspired several utopian communities. The decades of the 1870s and the 1880s were marked by economic and social turmoil, including the Long Depression of 1873–1879, a series of recessions during the 1880s, the rise of organized labor and strikes, the 1886 Haymarket affair and its controversial aftermath.
Moreover, American capitalism's tendency towards concentration into larger and less competitive forms—monopolies and trusts—began to make itself evident, while emigration from Europe expanded the labor pool and caused wages to stagnate. The time was ripe for new ideas about economic development which might ameliorate the current social disorder. Edward Bellamy, a unknown New England-born novelist with a history of concern with social issues, began to conceive of writing an impactful work of visionary fiction shaping the outlines of a utopian future, in which production and society were ordered for the smooth production and distribution of commodities to a regimented labor force. In this he was not alone — between 1860 and 1887, no fewer than 11 such works of fiction were produced in the United States by various authors dealing fundamentally with the questions of economic and social organization. Bellamy's book planned throughout the 1880s, was completed in 1887 and taken to Boston publisher Benjamin Ticknor, who published a first edition of the novel in January 1888.
Initial sales of the book were modest and uninspiring, but the book did find a readership in the Boston area, including enthusiastic reviews by future Bellamyites Cyrus Field Willard of the Boston Globe and Sylvester Baxter of the Boston Herald. Shortly after publication, Ticknor's publishing enterprise and Company, was purchased by the larger Boston publisher, Mifflin & Co. and new publishing plates were created for the book. Certain "slight emendations" were made to the text by Bellamy for this second edition, released by Houghton Mifflin in September 1889. In its second release, Bellamy's futuristic novel met with enormous popular success, with more than 400,000 copies sold in the United States alone by the time Bellamy's follow-up novel, was published in 1897. Sales topped 532,000 in the US by the middle of 1939; the book gained an extensive readership in Great Britain, as well, with more than 235,000 copies sold there between its first release in 1890 and 1935. The first version of the novel published in China edited for the tastes of Chinese readers, was titled Huitou kan jilüe.
This text was retitled Bainian Yi Jiao, or "A Sleep of 100 Years" and in 1891–1892 this version was serialized in Wanguo gongbao. This first translation, the first piece of science fiction from a Western country published in Qing dynasty China, was done in an abridged format by Timothy Richard; the novel was again serialized in China in Zhongguo guanyin baihua bao. The book remains in print in multiple editions, with one publisher alone having reissued the title in a printing of 100,000 copies in 1945. Bellamy's novel tells the story of a hero figure named Julian West, a young American, who towards the end of the 19th century, falls into a deep, hypnosis-induced sleep and wakes up 113 years later, he finds himself in the same location, but in a changed world: It is the year 2000, while he was sleeping, the United States has been transformed into a socialist utopia. The remainder of the book outlines Bellamy's thoughts about improving the future; the major themes include problems associated with capitalism, a proposed socialist solution of a nationalization of all industry, the use of an "industrial army" to organize production and distribution, as well as how to ensure free cultural production under such conditions.
The young man finds a guide, Doctor Leete, who shows him around and explains all the advances of this new age, including drastically reduced working hours for people performing menial jobs and instantaneous, Internet-like delivery of goods. Everyone retires with full benefits at age 45, may eat in any of the public kitchens; the productive capacity of the United States is nationally owned, the goods of society are distributed to its citizens. A considerable portion of the book is dialogue between Leete and West wherein West expresses his confusion about how the future society works and Leete explains the answers using various methods, such as metaphors or direct comparisons with 19th-century society. Although Bellamy's novel did not discuss technology or the economy in detail, commentators compare Looking Backward with actual economic and technological developments. For example, Julian West is taken to a store which (with its descriptions of cutting o
The Courier-Mail is a daily tabloid newspaper published in Brisbane, Australia. Owned by News Corp Australia, it is published daily from Monday to Saturday in tabloid format, its editorial offices are located at Bowen Hills, in Brisbane's inner northern suburbs, it is printed at Murarrie, in Brisbane's eastern suburbs. It is available for purchase throughout Queensland, most regions of Northern New South Wales and parts of the Northern Territory; the history of The Courier-Mail is through four mastheads. The Moreton Bay Courier became The Courier the Brisbane Courier and since 1933 The Courier-Mail; the Moreton Bay Courier was established as a weekly paper in June 1846. Issue frequency increased to bi-weekly in January 1858, tri-weekly in December 1859 daily under the editorship of Theophilus Parsons Pugh from 14 May 1861; the recognised founder and first editor was Arthur Sidney Lyon, assisted by its printer, James Swan, the mayor of Brisbane and member of Queensland Legislative Council. Lyon referred to as the "father of the Press" in the colony of Queensland, had served as a writer and journalist in Melbourne, moved on to found and edit journals such as Moreton Bay Free Press, North Australian and Darling Downs Gazette.
Lyon was encouraged to emigrate by Rev. Dr. John Dunmore Lang and arrived in Brisbane from Sydney in early 1846 to establish a newspaper, he persuaded a printer of Lang's Sydney newspaper The Colonialist to join him. Lyon and Swan established themselves on the corner of Queen Street and Albert Street, Brisbane, in a garret of a building known as the North Star Hotel; the first issue of the Moreton Bay Courier, consisting of 4 pages, appeared weekly on Saturday 20 June 1846, with Lyon as editor and Swan as publisher. After some 18 months and Swan disagreed on many aspects of editorial policy, including transportation of convicts and squatting. Lyon took over sole control in late 1847, but had money problems, gave sole control to Swan. Swan sold out to Thomas Blacket Stephens in about November 1859; the Moreton Bay Courier became The Courier, the Brisbane Courier in 1864. In June–July 1868, Stephens floated a new company, transferred the plant and copyright of the Brisbane Courier to "The Brisbane Newspaper Company".
He was the managing director. The Journal was, from November 1873 to December 1880, managed by one of the new part owners, the Tasmanian-born former public servant Gresley Lukin. Although called'managing editor', actual writing and editing was by William Augustine O'Carroll. Most prominent of the various editors and sub-editors of the Queenslander'literary staff' were William Henry Traill NSW politician and editor of the famed Sydney journal'The Bulletin', Carl Adolph Feilberg, Danish born but from the age of six educated in England and in France. Carl Feilberg followed William Henry Trail in the role of political commentator and the de facto editor of the Queenslander to January 1881, he succeeded William O'Carroll as Courier editor-in-chief from September 1883 to his death in October 1887. Lukin's roles as part owner-editor changed on 21 December 1880. Charles Hardie Buzacott, former'Postmaster General' in the first McIlwraith government, had been a staff journalist. John James Knight was editor-in-chief of the Brisbane Courier 1906–16 managing director chairman of all the company's publications.
The first edition of The Courier-Mail was published on 28 August 1933, after Keith Murdoch's Herald and Weekly Times acquired and merged the Brisbane Courier and the Daily Mail. In 1987, Rupert Murdoch's News Limited acquired newspaper control, outstanding shares of Queensland Newspapers Pty Ltd; the Courier-Mail was inducted into the Queensland Business Leaders Hall of Fame in 2015. The Courier-Mail is a right leaning newspaper with four editorial endorsements for the coalition to one for Labor in the period 1996–2007; the Courier-Mail supports free market economic policies and the process of globalisation. It supported the 2003 invasion of Iraq; the Courier-Mail has the fourth-highest circulation of any daily newspaper in Australia. Its average Monday-Friday net paid print sales were 172,801 between January and March 2013, having fallen 8.0 per cent compared to the previous year. Its average Saturday net paid print sales were 228,650 between January and March 2013, down 10.5 per cent compared to the previous year.
The paper's Monday-Friday readership was 488,000 in March 2013, having fallen 11.6 per cent compared to the previous year. Its Saturday readership was 616,000 in March 2013, down 13.8 per cent compared to the previous year. Around three-quarters of the paper's readership is located in the Brisbane metropolitan area. Although claimed to be Brisbane's only daily newspaper since the demise of Queensland Newspapers' own afternoon newspaper The Telegraph in 1988, it arguably has had two competitors since 2007. News Corp itself published mX, a free afternoon newspaper, since 2007, but mX had a low news content, was discontinued in mid 2015. Fairfax Media has published the online Brisbane Times since 2007. According to third-party web analytics providers Alexa and SimilarWeb, Courier-Mail's website is the 141st and 273rd most visited in Australia as of August 2015. SimilarWeb rates the site as the 25th most visited news website in Australia, attracting 2.6 million visitors per month. Prominent journalists and columnists include Mike O'Connor.
Its current Editor is Lachlan Heywood. Its editorial cartoonist is Sean Leahy, its National Political Corresp