A film director is a person who directs the making of a film. A film director controls a film's artistic and dramatic aspects and visualizes the screenplay while guiding the technical crew and actors in the fulfilment of that vision; the director has a key role in choosing the cast members, production design, the creative aspects of filmmaking. Under European Union law, the director is viewed as the author of the film; the film director gives direction to the cast and crew and creates an overall vision through which a film becomes realized, or noticed. Directors need to be able to mediate differences in creative visions and stay within the boundaries of the film's budget. There are many pathways to becoming a film director; some film directors started as screenwriters, producers, film editors or actors. Other film directors have attended a film school. Directors use different approaches; some outline a general plotline and let the actors improvise dialogue, while others control every aspect, demand that the actors and crew follow instructions precisely.
Some directors write their own screenplays or collaborate on screenplays with long-standing writing partners. Some directors appear in their films, or compose the music score for their films. A film director's task is to envisage a way to translate a screenplay into a formed film, to realize this vision. To do this, they oversee the technical elements of film production; this entails organizing the film crew in such a way to achieve their vision of the film. This requires skills of group leadership, as well as the ability to maintain a singular focus in the stressful, fast-paced environment of a film set. Moreover, it is necessary to have an artistic eye to frame shots and to give precise feedback to cast and crew, excellent communication skills are a must. Since the film director depends on the successful cooperation of many different creative individuals with strongly contradicting artistic ideals and visions, he or she needs to possess conflict resolution skills in order to mediate whenever necessary.
Thus the director ensures that all individuals involved in the film production are working towards an identical vision for the completed film. The set of varying challenges he or she has to tackle has been described as "a multi-dimensional jigsaw puzzle with egos and weather thrown in for good measure", it adds to the pressure that the success of a film can influence when and how they will work again, if at all. The sole superiors of the director are the producer and the studio, financing the film, although sometimes the director can be a producer of the same film; the role of a director differs from producers in that producers manage the logistics and business operations of the production, whereas the director is tasked with making creative decisions. The director must work within the restrictions of the film's budget and the demands of the producer and studio. Directors play an important role in post-production. While the film is still in production, the director sends "dailies" to the film editor and explains his or her overall vision for the film, allowing the editor to assemble an editor's cut.
In post-production, the director works with the editor to edit the material into the director's cut. Well-established directors have the "final cut privilege", meaning that they have the final say on which edit of the film is released. For other directors, the studio can order further edits without the director's permission; the director is one of the few positions that requires intimate involvement during every stage of film production. Thus, the position of film director is considered to be a stressful and demanding one, it has been said that "20-hour days are not unusual". Some directors take on additional roles, such as producing, writing or editing. Under European Union law, the film director is considered the "author" or one of the authors of a film as a result of the influence of auteur theory. Auteur theory is a film criticism concept that holds that a film director's film reflects the director's personal creative vision, as if they were the primary "auteur". In spite of—and sometimes because of—the production of the film as part of an industrial process, the auteur's creative voice is distinct enough to shine through studio interference and the collective process.
Some film directors started as screenwriters, film producers or actors. Several American cinematographers have become directors, including Barry Sonnenfeld the Coen brothers' DP. Other film directors have attended a film school to get a bachelors degree studying cinema. Film students study the basic skills used in making a film; this includes, for example, shot lists and storyboards, protocols of dealing with professional actors, reading scripts. Some film schools are equipped with post-production facilities. Besides basic technical and logistical skills, students receive education on the nature of professional relationships that occur during film production. A full degree course can be designed for up to five years of studying. Future directors complete short films during their enrollment; the National Film School of Denmark has the student's final projects presented on national TV. Some film schools retain the rights for their students' works. Many directors prepared for making feature films by working in television.
The German Film and Television Academy Berlin cooperate
Sergiu Florin Nicolaescu was a Romanian film director and politician. He was best known for his historical films, such as Mihai Viteazul, Razboiul Independenței, as well as for his series of thrillers that take place in the interwar Kingdom of Romania, such as Un comisar acuză. Joanna Pacuła starred in his film Ultima noapte de dragoste in 1979 before emigrating to the U. S. where she went on to successful career. Sergiu Nicolaescu was born in Târgu Jiu, but grew up in Timişoara, where his family moved when he was 5 years old, he graduated from the Polytechnic University of Bucharest as a mechanical engineer. After graduation he started to work as a camera operator, he was hard-working, well-organized, curious and keen of learning. During these years he acquired many of the skills that have proved so useful when making his movies. Sergiu Nicolaescu was considered during his lifetime, as he is now, the most popular and prolific Romanian movie director, his overwhelming film career spanning 55 years, leaves us today his legacy of some 60 movies, for the making of which he used to act at times as film director, as an actor, the writer/screenplayer.
In his native Romania he is remembered as a superstar for his patriotism, the high praise he gained as a film director, his charismatic and strong personality. Nicolaescu's debut as a director was in 1962 with the short film Scoicile nu au vorbit niciodată, his first feature film was the 1967 French-Romanian co-production Dacii. The film was entered into the 5th Moscow International Film Festival. Nicolaescu continued his film-making career by both directing a large number of movies and starring in many of his own films, his 1971 film Mihai Viteazul was entered into the 7th Moscow International Film Festival. As an anecdotal detail, in Steven Spielberg's E. T; the Extraterrestrial, the young boy Elliott watches this movie on TV - Mihai Viteazul in the US version - the scene with the battle of Calugareni. His 1976 film The Doom was entered into the 10th Moscow International Film Festival. Mihai Viteazul ruled the Romanian-speaking principalities, a union he accomplished under his reign for a brief period.
It was planned that Sergiu Nicolaescu would produce Mihai Viteazul with Hollywood superstars playing the lead characters. The communist authorities of the time drastically ruled for an all Romanian cast; the obstacle was circumvented by means of casting, in the lead role of Mihai Viteazul the actor Amza Pellea who achieved a masterful rendition of the hero. Sergiu Nicolaescu was able, throughout his career, to select the best actors available for the characters they had to portray. Most of Nicolaescu's films are built around figures and events in Romanian history, although showing superior mastery, in the realistic approach they somewhat follow the patterns of historical movies from the Communist governed countries. During the Communist period, some of these movies were seen as ground-breaking through either their way of publicly presenting Romanian history, or the masterful depiction of the heroical dimension of its history. For instance, the movie "Războiul independenţei" was the first picture made during the Communist-era in Romania to describe a Romanian king in a positive fashion.
On the other hand, Mircea was considered by some critics as being a less artistically fulfilled endeavour. Mircea was blocked from distribution, until the Romanian Revolution of 1989. Yet, when Mircea was released to the public the film was well appreciated. Sergiu Nicolaescu produced impeccable renderings of the historical costumes. For example, through his reenactments of the Battle of Călugăreni in Mihai Viteazul and both the Crusade of Nicopole and the Battle of Rovine in Mircea, Nicolaescu shows a brilliant command of his craft, masterfully directing a huge acting crew towards the rendering of accurate details, by these means forging successful movies. For instance, when making Mihai Viteazul, Nicolaescu managed a 5,000-member crew and extras and, despite the obvious technical limitations of the communication means in the 1970s, he imposed a strict discipline during filming of every cannon fire and every attack scene, thus helping everything to fall in place under his unique order, his movie Mihai Viteazul was considered the best of the Romanian historical movies and is one of the most appreciated world-wide of this kind.
The film was released in 1970 in Romania, worldwide by Columbia Pictures as The Last Crusade. A TV sequence in Steven Spielberg's "E. T." show images from "Mihai Viteazul". While creating such historical movies he was supported by the Romanian Ministry of Defence with large numbers of extras and war equipment, he documented his historical movies meticulously, to this end seeking the advice of military consultants and distinguished historians of the Romanian Academy. Regardless these films have aesthetic qualities too, are the expression of Sergiu
An actor is a person who portrays a character in a performance. The actor performs "in the flesh" in the traditional medium of the theatre or in modern media such as film and television; the analogous Greek term is ὑποκριτής "one who answers". The actor's interpretation of their role—the art of acting—pertains to the role played, whether based on a real person or fictional character. Interpretation occurs when the actor is "playing themselves", as in some forms of experimental performance art. In ancient Greece and Rome, the medieval world, the time of William Shakespeare, only men could become actors, women's roles were played by men or boys. After the English Restoration of 1660, women began to appear on stage in England. In modern times in pantomime and some operas, women play the roles of boys or young men. After 1660 in England, when women first started to appear on stage, the terms actor or actress were used interchangeably for female performers, but influenced by the French actrice, actress became the used term for women in theater and film.
The etymology is a simple derivation from actor with -ess added. When referring to groups of performers of both sexes, actors is preferred. Actor is used before the full name of a performer as a gender-specific term. Within the profession, the re-adoption of the neutral term dates to the post-war period of the 1950 and'60s, when the contributions of women to cultural life in general were being reviewed; when The Observer and The Guardian published their new joint style guide in 2010, it stated "Use for both male and female actors. The guide's authors stated that "actress comes into the same category as authoress, manageress,'lady doctor','male nurse' and similar obsolete terms that date from a time when professions were the preserve of one sex.". "As Whoopi Goldberg put it in an interview with the paper:'An actress can only play a woman. I'm an actor – I can play anything.'" The UK performers' union Equity has no policy on the use of "actor" or "actress". An Equity spokesperson said that the union does not believe that there is a consensus on the matter and stated that the "...subject divides the profession".
In 2009, the Los Angeles Times stated that "Actress" remains the common term used in major acting awards given to female recipients. With regard to the cinema of the United States, the gender-neutral term "player" was common in film in the silent film era and the early days of the Motion Picture Production Code, but in the 2000s in a film context, it is deemed archaic. However, "player" remains in use in the theatre incorporated into the name of a theatre group or company, such as the American Players, the East West Players, etc. Actors in improvisational theatre may be referred to as "players". In 2015, Forbes reported that "...just 21 of the 100 top-grossing films of 2014 featured a female lead or co-lead, while only 28.1% of characters in 100 top-grossing films were female...". "In the U. S. there is an "industry-wide in salaries of all scales. On average, white women get paid 78 cents to every dollar a white man makes, while Hispanic women earn 56 cents to a white male's dollar, Black women 64 cents and Native American women just 59 cents to that."
Forbes' analysis of US acting salaries in 2013 determined that the "...men on Forbes' list of top-paid actors for that year made 21/2 times as much money as the top-paid actresses. That means that Hollywood's best-compensated actresses made just 40 cents for every dollar that the best-compensated men made." The first recorded case of a performing actor occurred in 534 BC when the Greek performer Thespis stepped onto the stage at the Theatre Dionysus to become the first known person to speak words as a character in a play or story. Prior to Thespis' act, Grecian stories were only expressed in song, in third person narrative. In honor of Thespis, actors are called Thespians; the male actors in the theatre of ancient Greece performed in three types of drama: tragedy and the satyr play. Western theatre developed and expanded under the Romans; the theatre of ancient Rome was a thriving and diverse art form, ranging from festival performances of street theatre, nude dancing, acrobatics, to the staging of situation comedies, to high-style, verbally elaborate tragedies.
As the Western Roman Empire fell into decay through the 4th and 5th centuries, the seat of Roman power shifted to Constantinople and the Byzantine Empire. Records show that mime, scenes or recitations from tragedies and comedies and other entertainments were popular. From the 5th century, Western Europe was plunged into a period of general disorder. Small nomadic bands of actors traveled around Europe throughout the period, performing wherever they could find an audience. Traditionally, actors were not of high status. Early Middle Ages actors were denounced by the Church during the Dark Ages, as they were viewed as dangerous and pagan. In many parts of Europe, traditional beliefs of the region and time period meant actors could not receive a Christian burial. In the Early Middle Ages, churches in Europe began staging dramatized versions of biblical events. By the middle of the 11th century, liturgical drama had spread from Russia to Scandinavia
Philanthropy means the love of humanity. A conventional modern definition is "private initiatives, for the public good, focusing on quality of life", which combines an original humanistic tradition with a social scientific aspect developed in the 20th century; the definition serves to contrast philanthropy with business endeavors, which are private initiatives for private good, e.g. focusing on material gain, with government endeavors, which are public initiatives for public good, e.g. focusing on provision of public services. A person who practices philanthropy is called a philanthropist. Philanthropy has distinguishing characteristics separate from charity. A difference cited is that charity aims to relieve the pain of a particular social problem, whereas philanthropy attempts to address the root cause of the problem—the difference between the proverbial gift of a fish to a hungry person, versus teaching them how to fish. In the second century CE, Plutarch used the Greek concept of philanthrôpía to describe superior human beings.
During the Roman Catholic Middle Ages, philanthrôpía was superseded by Caritas charity, selfless love, valued for salvation and escape from purgatory. Philanthropy was modernized by Sir Francis Bacon in the 1600s, credited with preventing the word from being owned by horticulture. Bacon considered philanthrôpía to be synonymous with "goodness", correlated with the Aristotelian conception of virtue, as consciously instilled habits of good behaviour. Samuel Johnson defined philanthropy as "love of mankind; this definition still survives today and is cited more gender-neutrally as the "love of humanity." In London prior to the 18th century and civic charities were established by bequests and operated by local church parishes or guilds. During the 18th century, however, "a more activist and explicitly Protestant tradition of direct charitable engagement during life" took hold, exemplified by the creation of the Society for the Promotion of Christian Knowledge and Societies for the Reformation of Manners.
In 1739, Thomas Coram, appalled by the number of abandoned children living on the streets of London, received a royal charter to establish the Foundling Hospital to look after these unwanted orphans in Lamb's Conduit Fields, Bloomsbury. This was "the first children's charity in the country, one that'set the pattern for incorporated associational charities' in general." The hospital "marked the first great milestone in the creation of these new-style charities."Jonas Hanway, another notable philanthropist of the era, established The Marine Society in 1756 as the first seafarer's charity, in a bid to aid the recruitment of men to the navy. By 1763, the society had recruited over 10,000 men and it was incorporated in 1772. Hanway was instrumental in establishing the Magdalen Hospital to rehabilitate prostitutes; these organizations were run as voluntary associations. They raised public awareness of their activities through the emerging popular press and were held in high social regard—some charities received state recognition in the form of the Royal Charter.
Philanthropists, such as anti-slavery campaigner William Wilberforce, began to adopt active campaigning roles, where they would champion a cause and lobby the government for legislative change. This included organized campaigns against the ill treatment of animals and children and the campaign that succeeded in ending the slave trade throughout the Empire starting in 1807. Although there were no slaves allowed in Britain itself, many rich men owned sugar plantations in the West Indies, resisted the movement to buy them out until it succeeded in 1833. Financial donations to organized charities became fashionable among the middle-class in the 19th century. By 1869 there were over 200 London charities with an annual income, all together, of about £2 million. By 1885, rapid growth had produced with an income of about £ 4.5 million. They included a wide range of religious and secular goals, with the American import, the YMCA as one of the largest, many small ones such as the Metropolitan Drinking Fountain Association.
In addition to making annual donations wealthy industrialists and financiers left generous sums in their wills. A sample of 466 wills in the 1890s revealed a total wealth of £76 million, of which £20 million was bequeathed to charities. By 1900 London charities enjoyed an annual income of about £8.5 million. Led by the energetic Lord Shaftesbury, philanthropists organized themselves. In 1869 they set up the Charity Organisation Society, it was a federation of one in each of the 42 Poor Law divisions. Its central office had experts in coordination and guidance, thereby maximizing the impact of charitable giving to the poor. Many of the charities were designed to alleviate the harsh living conditions in the slums; such as the Labourer's Friend Society founded in 1830. This included the promotion of allotment of land to labourers for "cottage husbandry" that became the allotment movement, in 1844 it became the first Model Dwellings Company—an organization that sought to improve the housing conditions of the working classes by building new homes for them, while at the same time receiving a competitive rate of return on any investment.
This was one of the first housing associations, a philanthropic endeavor that flourished in the second half of the nineteenth century, brought about by the growth of the middle class. Associations included the Peabody Trust, t
National Order of Faithful Service
The National Order of Faithful Service is an honorific order of Romania. It was established as the Medal of Faithful Service in 1878, during the reign of King Carol I. In 1906 the Cross of Faithful Service was added to the existing medal, as a superior class. During the reign of King Carol II, in 1932, the Order was established with four ranks: grand cross, grand officer and officer. Between 1940 and 1948, only the medal was awarded, it was discontinued along all the other Romanian decorations. It was re-instituted on 31 March 2000, alongside Medal of Faithful Service, it differs from the 1932 version in the number of an order of knight being added. Is awarded for special services to Romania, it is awarded to foreign people. The order is awarded in three classes and is composed of 5 levels: Grand Cross Grand Officer Commander Officer KnightThere is a National Cross of Faithful Service and a National Medal of Faithful Service; the ribbon of the order is light blue with a white central stripe: King Michael I of Romania with collar and diamonds as final sovereign of the order during the Kingdom of Romania Princess Madeleine, Duchess of Hälsingland and Gästrikland Prince Carl Philip, Duke of Värmland World Medal Index – Republic of Romania: Order of Faithful Service Romania’s national system of decorations.
Bucharest: Monitorul Oficial. 2003. Pp. 382–396. ISBN 973-567-404-1
Ion Cojar was a Romanian acting teacher and theatre director. He is the founder of a unique method. Ion Cojar changed the old way of understanding acting in Romania, when the actor was taught how to play theatre, to act, to fake, imitate or mimic life, emotions or characters, with a new one that demands actors and teachers to create the circumstances in which the truth of life can occur, the actor/actress to go onstage or during filming through authentic psychologically-realistic processes that cannot be anticipated or consciously controlled, at the end of which he/she would be changed as a person, so that the audiences may be able to follow the lifelike processes, to understand and believe what they see and hear, to empathize with the actors. Ion Cojar argued that in order to have an authentic performance, the actor's psycho-emotional processes, along with his speech, body movements and physiological changes, which are the results of those processes, must not be anticipated, because this way they would be anchored in preconceived ideas and would not be new and authentic, must not be consciously controlled, because we cannot observe our own processes as they are taking place without interrupting them.
In everyday life we never know what is going to happen or how we are going to behave or what we are going to say when we interact with someone. We just try to change something in that person. In the same way, the actor, in a certain life situation and with a certain psychology that were assumed, aims to change something in his partner in order to achieve his goal, without anticipating any obstacles, by venturing into the unknown and allowing himself the freedom to make mistakes; this way, everything that will happen to him in the process, from emotions to body movements to speech, will come organically, without being consciously controlled or anticipated, this way they will be authentic, just like in everyday life, thus the audiences will understand and believe what they'll see and hear and will empathize with the actor. Ion Cojar argued that we can know for sure that the actor is not faking or acting, but is going through an authentic process when we see instant, organic changes in the color and texture of his face, like when blood floods its vessels in important moments, because these changes are impossible to fake.
As a professor and researcher at The National University of Theatre and Film from Bucharest, guided by the principle "process, not success", Ion Cojar worked with his students in order for them to develop a specific psycho-emotional mechanism that, along with the use of a specific acting method, would allow them to transform conventions in life truth, unlike the old acting school when students were taught how to play theatre. Ion Cojar always said that "the art of the actor has nothing in common with theatre", a statement that became his trademark; the professional actors who were trained via Cojar's pedagogical method tend to use in their creative processes an acting method derived from the previous one. One of his former students, Luminita Gheorghiu, won the Los Angeles Film Critics Association Award for Best Supporting Actress with her performance in The Death of Mr. Lazarescu. Professor Mircea Gheorghiu, another former student of Ion Cojar, is considered to be the main continuator of his teaching method in the art of the actor.
Adrian Țofei, a former student of Mircea Gheorgiu, won the Special Jury Prize for Best Actor at the 2016 Nashville Film Festival for his performance in Be My Cat: A Film for Anne. In parallel with the development of his method, Ion Cojar supported an educational system in which the students are not taught or modeled by the teachers, but in which the environment is that of laboratory experimentation and self-knowledge, of despecialization and deliverance from preconceptions acquired in family and society, an environment in which the student is able to become aware of and to use his/her full native creative potential that makes him/her unique. In theory, Ion Cojar gathered all his research and discoveries in his book entitled "O poetică a artei actorului"; as a theatre director, Ion Cojar argued that the audiences, in order to empathize in a total way with what they're seeing and hearing, must not have any clue or the impression that they're witnessing a theatre show, but a genuine life event.
He aimed to make theatre shows that paradoxically don't look like shows at all, where the audiences would find no elements whatsoever to indicate that they are witnessing a theatre show and not an actual life event. Stanislavski's system Method acting Constantin Stanislavski Lee Strasberg Sanford Meisner Ivana Chubbuck Cojar, Ion - O poetică a artei actorului - Bucharest, Unitext, 1996 / Bucharest, Paideia, 1998 Cojar, Ion - Inițiere în arta actorului, series of articles published in Teatrul magazine, Bucharest, 1983-1984 Tofei, Adrian - Ion Cojar's Acting Method http://www.mediafax.ro/cultura-media/doliu-in-lumea-teatrului-5008432/ Ion Cojar on IMDb http://www.evenimentul.ro/articol/arta-actorului-daca-nu.html Ion Cojar on IMDb
Moreni is a town in Dâmbovița County, located about 100 km north-west of Bucharest, with a population of 22,868. In 1861, Moreni became the first place in Romania. An industrial park was built by the local authorities to encourage investment in the area. Photos from Moreni