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George Pólya

George Pólya was a Hungarian mathematician. He was a professor of mathematics from 1914 to 1940 at ETH Zürich and from 1940 to 1953 at Stanford University, he made fundamental contributions to combinatorics, number theory, numerical analysis and probability theory. He is noted for his work in heuristics and mathematics education, he has been described as one of The Martians. Pólya was born in Budapest, Austria-Hungary to Anna Deutsch and Jakab Pólya, Hungarian Jews who had converted to the Roman Catholic faith in 1886. Although his parents were religious and he was baptized into the Roman Catholic Church, George Pólya grew up to be an agnostic, he was a professor of mathematics from 1914 to 1940 at ETH Zürich in Switzerland and from 1940 to 1953 at Stanford University. He remained Stanford Professor Emeritus for the rest of his career, he worked on a range of mathematical topics, including series, number theory, mathematical analysis, algebra and probability. He was an Invited Speaker of the ICM in 1928 at Bologna, in 1936 at Oslo, in 1950 at Cambridge, Massachusetts.

He died in Palo Alto, United States. Early in his career, Pólya wrote with Gábor Szegő two influential problem books Problems and Theorems in Analysis. In his career, he spent considerable effort to identify systematic methods of problem-solving to further discovery and invention in mathematics for students and researchers, he wrote five books on the subject: How to Solve It, Mathematics and Plausible Reasoning, Mathematical Discovery: On Understanding and Teaching Problem Solving. In How to Solve It, Pólya provides general heuristics for solving a gamut of problems, including both mathematical and non-mathematical problems; the book includes advice for teaching students of mathematics and a mini-encyclopedia of heuristic terms. It has sold over a million copies. Russian physicist Zhores I. Alfyorov praised it; the Australian-American mathematician Terence Tao used the book to prepare for the International Mathematical Olympiad. The book is still used in mathematical education. Douglas Lenat's Automated Mathematician and Eurisko artificial intelligence programs were inspired by Pólya's work.

In addition to his works directly addressing problem solving, Pólya wrote another short book called Mathematical Methods in Science, based on a 1963 work supported by the National Science Foundation, edited by Leon Bowden, published by the Mathematical Association of America in 1977. As Pólya notes in the preface, Bowden followed a tape recording of a course Pólya gave several times at Stanford in order to put the book together. Pólya notes in the preface "that the following pages will be useful, yet they should not be regarded as a finished expression." There are three prizes named after Pólya. In 1969 the Society for Industrial and Applied Mathematics established the George Pólya Prize, given alternately in two categories for "a notable application of combinatorial theory" and for "a notable contribution in another area of interest to George Pólya." In 1976 the Mathematical Association of America established the George Pólya Award "for articles of expository excellence" published in the College Mathematics Journal.

In 1987 the London Mathematical Society established the Pólya Prize for "outstanding creativity in, imaginative exposition of, or distinguished contribution to, mathematics within the United Kingdom."A mathematics center has been named in Pólya's honor at the University of Idaho in Moscow, Idaho. The mathematics center focuses on tutoring students in the subjects of algebra and calculus. Aufgaben und Lehrsätze aus der Analysis, 1st edn. 1925.. Springer, Berlin 1975. Reihen. 1975, 4th edn. ISBN 3-540-04874-X. Funktionentheorie, Polynome, Zahlentheorie. 1975, 4th edn. ISBN 3-540-05456-1. Mathematik und plausibles Schliessen. Birkhäuser, Basel 1988,Induktion und Analogie in der Mathematik, 3rd edn. ISBN 3-7643-1986-0. Typen und Strukturen plausibler Folgerung, 2nd edn. ISBN 3-7643-0715-3.– English translation: Mathematics and Plausible Reasoning, Princeton University Press 1954, 2 volumes Schule des Denkens. Vom Lösen mathematischer Probleme. 4th edn. Francke Verlag, Tübingen 1995, ISBN 3-7720-0608-6. – English translation: How to Solve It, Princeton University Press 2004 Vom Lösen mathematischer Aufgaben.

2nd edn. Birkhäuser, Basel 1983, ISBN 3-7643-0298-4. – English translation: Mathematical Discovery: On Understanding and Teaching Problem Solving, 2 volumes, Wiley 1962 Collected Papers, 4 volumes, MIT Press 1974. Vol. 1: Singularities of Analytic Functions, Vol. 2: Location of Zeros, Vol. 3: Analysis, Vol. 4: Probability, Combinatorics with R. C. Read: Combinatorial enumeration of groups and chemical compounds, Springer Verlag 1987 with Godfrey Harold

555th Engineer Brigade (United States)

The 555th Engineer Brigade "Triple Nickle" is a combat engineer brigade of the United States Army based at Joint Base Lewis-McChord, Washington. The brigade is a Corps separate falling directly under I Corps; the 555 numbering was first used in 1947, but the brigade traces its history to a group active under the 1103d designation from 1943 to 1946. Activation through World War II The 555th Engineer Brigade was first constituted 1 February 1943 as Headquarters and Headquarters Company, 1103d Engineer Combat Group and activated 25 February 1943 at Fort Devens, Massachusetts. Intensive unit training at Fort Devens culminated in an exercise at the West Virginia Maneuver Area in October through December 1943. In late December 1943, the 1103d sailed for England after completing overseas processing at Camp Kilmer, New Jersey; the unit landed in Liverpool in January 1944, proceeded to Henley-on-Thames where they trained on bridging operations until the invasion of Normandy in June 1944. While assigned to the First Army, the 1103d crossed the English Channel during the period of 20 to 22 June 1944.

The 1103d earned its first of five campaign streamers during the Normandy Invasion and maintaining supply routes at Omaha and Utah beaches. In August 1944, the 1103d was transferred to General George S. Patton's Third Army. Throughout the fall of 1944, the 1103d protected captured bridges on the Loire River, bridged the Moselle River, breached the massive and cubicled Metz forts for the assaulting forces. During these engagements, the 1103d earned two additional campaign streamers for the Northern France and Ardennes-Alsace Campaigns. In February 1945, the 1103rd supported the Ninth Army in the Ruhr cleanup on the northern sector. Here they earned a fourth streamer in support of the Rhineland Campaign; the unit proceeded across the Rhineland with XVIII Airborne Corps for the remainder of the war, earning a fifth campaign streamer in support of the Central European Campaign. The 1103d Engineer Combat Group was inactivated 8 May 1946 and reactivated 20 January 1947 at Rüsselsheim, Germany. On 5 March 1947, it was redesignated as Headquarters and Headquarters Detachment, 555th Composite Service Group.

On 7 March 1949, it was further redesignated as Headquarters and Headquarters Detachment, 555th Engineer Combat Group and allotted to the Regular Army on 16 February 1951. Subunits of the 1103d during this period included 150th Engineer Combat Battalion, 160th Engineer Combat Battalion, 204th Engineer Combat Battalion, 206th Engineer Combat Battalion, 551st Engineer Heavy Pontoon Battalion, 989th Engineer Treadway Bridge Company, 537th Engineer Light Pontoon Company and 623d Engineer Light Equipment Company; the 1103d was inactivated on 8 May 1946 in Germany. Between 1947 and 1969, the unit served at Rüsselsheim, Kaufbeuren and Karlsruhe, Germany as it contributed to the defense of western Europe during the Cold War. During this period it was redesignated multiple times. On 20 January 1947, the 1103d was activated again at Germany. On 5 March 1947, the 1103d was redesignated as Headquarters and Headquarters Detachment, 555th Composite Service Group. Two years on 7 March 1949, it was redesignated and reorganized as Headquarters and Headquarters Company, 555th Engineer Combat Group.

On 9 August 1950 the Group moved from Russelheim to Kaufbeuren, seven months to Rhineland Kaserne in Ettlingen. In October 1952, the unit deployed to Karlsruhe. On 1 April 1953, the 555th Engineer Combat Group was reorganized and redesignated as Headquarters and Headquarters Company, 555th Engineer Group. While in Europe, the 555th was responsible for providing engineer support to 7th Army, including obstacle construction, route maintenance, tactical bridging. One of their most important missions while in Germany was maintaining and operating prefabricated Class 60 float bridges along the Rhine River that were known as “swing bridges"; the prefabricated bridges consisted of two pre-assembled spans, one on each shore of the river, that could be "swung" across the river and connected in less than 15 minutes if required. The bridges were left open to allow commercial river traffic to travel unimpeded along the Rhine. On 11 August 1955, two C-119 Flying Boxcars with 56 Soldiers from the 499th Engineer Battalion, 555th Engineer Group collided in midair over the Black Forest near the village of Edelweiler, Germany.

All personnel on both planes were killed. At the time, it was the U. S. Army's worst post-war disaster in Europe. Principal units assigned to the 555th during this time period consisted of the 499th Combat Engineer Battalion, 78th Engineer Combat Battalion, the 55th Engineer Company, the 502nd Engineer Company, the 809th Engineer Company, the 11th Labor Service District Headquarters, the 6961st Civilian Labor Group, the 44th Finance Dispensation Section. On 17 January 1967, the unit moved one more time, to Smiley Barracks in Karlsruhe. On 25 June 1969, the 555th was inactivated. Personnel and equipment from the group joined with the 540th Engineer Group to form the 7th Engineer Brigade; the 555th Combat Engineer Group was reactivated at Fort Lewis, Washington on 16 January 1992. The group began forming in August 1991 with a nucleus of soldiers from the inactivating 15th Combat Engineer Battalion, 9th Infantry Division; the arrival of the 7th Engineer Brigade soldiers and equipment in October and December 1991 completed the group organization.

The 864th Engineer Battalion and the 73rd Engineer Company were the first units assigned to the Group on 16 November 1991. The 87th Engineer Detachment (Fire Figh

KGPE

KGPE, virtual channel 47, is a CBS-affiliated television station licensed to Fresno, United States. The station is owned by Nexstar Media Group, as part of a duopoly with NBC affiliate KSEE; the two stations share studios on McKinley Avenue in eastern Fresno. The station first signed on the air on September 20, 1953 as KJEO. Channel 47 operated as a primary ABC affiliate with a secondary CBS affiliation. KFRE-TV took the CBS affiliation full-time when it signed on in May 1956, due to sister radio station KFRE's longtime affiliation with the CBS Radio Network; the station was owned by O'Neill Broadcasting Company, which sold the station in 1961 to Shasta Telecasting Corporation. Retlaw Broadcasting, a unit of Retlaw Enterprises, acquired KJEO from Shasta Telecasting in 1968. On September 8, 1985, KFSN's owner, Capital Cities Communications merged with ABC. KFSN-TV became an ABC owned-and-operated station, sending the CBS affiliation to KJEO. Fisher Broadcasting merged with Retlaw in 1998 proceeded to sell channel 47 to the Ackerley Group in 2000.

Under Ackerley, the station changed its call letters to KGPE on September 14, 2000, revamped its news operation as News 47. Clear Channel Communications merged with Ackerley in 2001; the acquisition was approved by the Federal Communications Commission and was finalized in 2002. Under Clear Channel, KGPE rebranded as CBS 47 On Your Side in October 2004. On April 20, 2007, Clear Channel entered into an agreement to sell its entire group of television stations to Newport Television, a broadcast holding company controlled by the private equity firm Providence Equity Partners; that sale was finalized on March 14, 2008. In mid-May 2008, Newport Television agreed to sell the license assets of KGPE and five other stations to High Plains Broadcasting, Inc. due to ownership conflicts as a result of Providence Equity Partners holding a 19% ownership stake in the Spanish-language network Univision, owner of KFTV-DT and Telefutura station KTFF-DT ). The sale closed on September 15, 2008; this resulted in KGPE having its sixth owner over the course of ten years.

KJEO/KGPE has long been one of CBS' weaker affiliates. However, in recent years, it has traded fifth place with KSEE in total day viewership; the November 2012 sweeps period had KGPE place just ahead of KSEE. Newport Television agreed to sell KGPE, along with NBC affiliate KGET-TV and Telemundo affiliate KKEY-LP in Bakersfield, to Nexstar Broadcasting Group on November 5, 2012; the FCC approved the sale on January 23, 2013. Nexstar subsequently announced the acquisition of KSEE from Granite Broadcasting, in the process forming a duopoly with KGPE. Duopolies between two "Big Four" affiliates or "Big Three" affiliates would not be allowed because such stations constituted among the four highest-rated stations in a market. FCC regulations do not allow common ownership of any two of the four top-rated stations in total day viewership in the same market. However, according to Nielsen, KGPE was ranked as the fourth highest-rated station in the market and KSEE placed fifth in total day viewership, allowing a duopoly to be formed between the stations.

This marked the second instance in which a single company owns a duopoly involving two stations that are affiliated by a Big Three television network. The sale was consummated on May 31. In May 2013, KGPE and KSEE's general manager Matt Rosenfield told The Fresno Bee that KGPE would be consolidated into the facilities of KSEE by the end of the year. New high definition-capable studios were built for the two stations; the station moved its operations from its longtime studio facility on First Street to the KSEE building on October 9, 2013. The station's digital signal is multiplexed: KGPE digital subchannel 47.2 carried programming from Untamed Sports TV beginning in 2010. After Nexstar took ownership of KGPE in 2014, the station dropped ZUUS Country. Replacing it with a standard definition simulcast of its main channel. KGPE shut down its analog signal, over UHF channel 47, on June 12, 2009, the official date in which full-power television in the United States transitioned from analog to digital broadcasts under federal mandate.

The station's digital signal remained on its pre-transition UHF channel 34. Through the use of PSIP, digital television receivers display the station's virtual channel as its former UHF analog channel 47. Syndicated programs broadcast by KGPE include The Ellen DeGeneres Show, Ent

Laurence Picken

Laurence Ernest Rowland Picken was an ethnomusicologist and scientist. He had a wide research interest, published works on cytology, musicology, Turkish musical instruments, ancient Chinese and Japanese music. Laurence Picken was born in Nottingham to Rosa Louisa Bevan, he studied at Birmingham. In 1928 he won a scholarship to Trinity College, where he graduated with a double first in natural sciences, his PhD, in 1935, was in zoology. He obtained a two-year Rockefeller Studentship to work at the École de Chimie, University of Geneva, studying the thermoelastic properties of living muscle and long-chain polymers using X-ray crystallography, he obtained a Francis Maitland Balfour Studentship at the Department of Zoology, Cambridge to study long-chain molecules and their effect of on cell shape, in the summer he studied freshwater ciliates in Lake Ohrid in Yugoslavia. He returned to England when the second world war broke out, while was in charge of a blood transfusion unit during the war, he refined the methods for filtration and drying of plasma.

In 1944 he became a Fellow at Jesus College. Between 1946 and 1966 he was assistant director of research in zoology at the university, he was made a fellow of the Institute of Biology, was a visiting professor at the University of Washington in 1959, received the Trail Award from the Linnean Society in 1960 for his work on microscopy. Among the publications he produced was The Organization of Cells and Other Organisms in 1960. In 1944 produced his first work on musicology, Bach quotations from the eighteenth century. In 1944, he revived his interest in Chinese music which he had since the 1930s, started to research in traditional Chinese music, an interest he conducted in parallel with his career in zoology, he joined Joseph Needham on his research mission to Chongqing in 1944, mastered the Chinese music instrument guqin. In the 1950s, he wrote articles on Chinese and Japanese music for Grove's Dictionary and The New Oxford History of Music, edited the Journal of the International Folk Music Council.

He edited an occasional periodical Musica Asiatica. His many publications show his broad ethnomusicological interests, including a book on instrument studies and music of Turkey. In 1981, he started a 25-volume project Music from the Tang Court, a study on Tang dynasty music preserved in the Japanese Togaku tradition, but the project was not completed by the time of his death with only 7 volumes published; the interpretations of Japanese collections of Tang music by Picken and his students drew criticisms from some Japanese academics, although they have received some gradual but not complete acceptance. He became involved in the beginning of the Ancient Asian Music Project at the Library of Congress in 1997. Between 1966 and 1976 he was assistant director at the Faculty of Oriental Studies at Cambridge University, he was elected to a high number of academic positions, amongst them are: Fellow of the British Academy and Docteur Honoris Causa of the Université de Paris X, Nanterre. Two Festschriften, commemorating his 60th and 70th birthday, were published, an indication of his esteem amongst scholars.

Some of his papers and his library can be found at the Cambridge University Library. According to an obituary in The Times Picken was'accomplished to such a degree that few in the university could appreciate the range of his achievements in fields that were united in him as in no one else.' The Organization of Cells and Other Organisms. Oxford University Press, 1960 Folk Musical Instruments of Turkey. Oxford University Press, London 1975 Musica Asiatica. 1: 1977, Vol. 2: 1979, Vol. 3, 1981, Vol. 4: 1984, Vol. 5: 1988, Vol. 6: 1991 Music from the Tang Court. Vol. 1: 1981, Vol. 3: 1985, Vol. 5: 1990, Vol. 6: 2007, Vol. 7: 2006, Oxford University Press, London Asian Music, vi/1–2, 1975, edited by F. A. Kuttner and F. Lieberman Music and Tradition: Essays on Asian and other Musics presented to Laurence Picken, edited by D. R. Widdess and R. F. Wolpert, Cambridge: Cambridge University Press 1981. An interview with Laurence Picken on YouTube Interviewed by Roger Blench and Carole Pegg 3 and 4 August 1983 Event to celebrate Picken's Centenary

Ade Ipaye

Adeola Rahman Ipaye is a Nigerian lawyer, the "Deputy Chief of Staff" to the President of Nigeria, President Muhammadu Buhari. He was the former Attorney General of Lagos State among other political posts he has held. Ipaye attended Igbobi College Lagos and obtained both bachelor's and master's degrees in Law from the University of Lagos, Lagos, he began his law career at Oditah Adebiyi & Co. in Lagos as a research coordinator before he joined the services of the University of Lagos as an assistant lecturer. He rose to the position of a senior lecturer on October 1999 and became the sub-dean of the faculty of law on October 2000. On May 2001 he was appointed Special Assistant to Bola Tinubu on Legal Affairs and in 2003 he became the Governor's Senior Special Assistant on Legal Matters, he served in that capacity for 4 years until he was appointed Special Adviser on Taxation and Revenue to Babatunde Fashola who succeeded Bola Tinubu in 2007. On May 2007, he was appointed Attorney General. On 3 September 2015, President Muhammadu Buhari appointed Ade Ipaye as Deputy Chief of Staff in his cabinet

Ramanatham

Ramanatham and Tholudur or Thozhudur, are twin towns decorated by Vellar River in Cuddalore District, Tamil Nadu, India. Ramanatham -- Tholudur are well served by government institutions like post office, etc.. Other private educational institutes like schools and colleges serve people. All major hotels, shopping center, bus stands, marriage halls, petrol/disel/gas station are located on Ramanatham highway where as Tholudur is popularly known for its traditional house. People refer Ramanatham bus stand as Tholudur stop – however, Tholudur is 5 km away from this stop; this is due to British rule as during their time they referred this place as Tholudur instead of Ramanatham. For locals – its a twin town; the main occupation of the people is agriculture. Rice, sugarcane and other cereals are cultivated. Nature so loved this village that it gave a river, green pastures and lovely people. 500 years ago – Its believed that the current residents of Ramanatham migrated from Vaagaiyur and from Thinniyam, Near Trichy -hence they are referred as Devan Thinnyam Vahariaa.

Cricket and badminton are the famous tournaments have been conducted for decades. The higher secondary school boasts different variety of trees. Nearby is a Chivan temple with inscriptions of Chola dynasty. Ramanatham – Tholudur towns are located on the banks of Vellar River. Ramanatham is situated on NH 45 the highway connecting the state capital Chennai and Trichy cities – Tholudur is 5 km from Ramanatham main road, it is 15 km far from the nearest town panchayat. Tittakudi, its Taluk. Ramanatham -- Tholudur is 76 km away from Trichy. Indian Bank Aadhar Card Center Police Station TN Govt Electricity Board Bus Stand for all Bus to stop Petrol/Gas Stations Govt cottages Panchayat owned Marriage Hall Vishan computer education and tech Primary Health Centre Higher Secondary School Girls' High School Post Office Registrar Office Veterinary hospital PDS centre Co-operative bank List of schools that serve people as below. Government Higher Secondary School Girls' High School National Matric School O.

P. R. Nursery & Primary School Elementary and Middle School – Ramanatham Below are Popular Business/LandMark in Ramanatham Kuppusamy Thirumana Mandabam American Mahal Thirumana Mandabam Santhi Mahal Thirumana Mandabam Vishan Computer Education NeelaRam Shopping Center Vinayagar Temple MRF Tire Center Lamsi Shopping Center Petrol Stations Mosques Church Below are the private colleges situated here. Dr. Navalar Nedunchezhiyan College of Engineering Sree Arumugam Polytechnic College Sree Arumugam Arts and Science College Sree Arumugham College of Education Sree Arumugam Teacher Training Institute Sree Renga Teacher Training Institute All gods reside here and are celebrated; each temple has its own festivals. Pongal is the major festival lasting four days. Bhogi is celebrated without tummy full of eatable like kozhukattai, El-Urundai, etc.. Pongal is for actual delicious pongal. Mattu Pongal is for cattle that are fed delicious pongal. Kaanum Pongal is to play on the riverbed; this day is for non-veg specials.

Diwali and Christmas are other festivals celebrated