Virtual International Authority File
The Virtual International Authority File is an international authority file. It is a joint project of several national libraries and operated by the Online Computer Library Center. Discussion about having a common international authority started in the late 1990s. After a series of failed attempts to come up with a unique common authority file, the new idea was to link existing national authorities; this would present all the benefits of a common file without requiring a large investment of time and expense in the process. The project was initiated by the US Library of Congress, the German National Library and the OCLC on August 6, 2003; the Bibliothèque nationale de France joined the project on October 5, 2007. The project transitioned to being a service of the OCLC on April 4, 2012; the aim is to link the national authority files to a single virtual authority file. In this file, identical records from the different data sets are linked together. A VIAF record receives a standard data number, contains the primary "see" and "see also" records from the original records, refers to the original authority records.
The data are available for research and data exchange and sharing. Reciprocal updating uses the Open Archives Initiative Protocol for Metadata Harvesting protocol; the file numbers are being added to Wikipedia biographical articles and are incorporated into Wikidata. VIAF's clustering algorithm is run every month; as more data are added from participating libraries, clusters of authority records may coalesce or split, leading to some fluctuation in the VIAF identifier of certain authority records. Authority control Faceted Application of Subject Terminology Integrated Authority File International Standard Authority Data Number International Standard Name Identifier Wikipedia's authority control template for articles Official website VIAF at OCLC
Yambol is a city in southeastern Bulgaria and administrative centre of Yambol Province. It lies on both banks of the Tundzha river in the historical region of Thrace, it is spelled Jambol. The administrative centres of two municipalities are situated in Yambol. One is of the rural area of Tundzha Municipality and the other is of the homonymous Yambol Municipality that embraces the city itself. Yambol Peak on Livingston Island in the South Shetland Islands, Antarctica is named after Yambol; the area surrounding Yambol has been inhabited since the Neolithic. The ancient Thracian royal city of Kabile or Kabyle, dating from the end of the 2nd millennium BCE, was located 10 km from current-day Yambol, it contained one of the kings' palaces. The city was conquered by King Philip II of Macedon in 341 BCE and was re-established as an Ancient Greek polis. After the collapse of Alexander the Great’s empire in the 3rd century BCE, Kabile was ruled by the Ancient Thracians once again, it was conquered by the Romans in 71 BCE, incorporated into the Roman province of Thrace.
By 136 CE, Kabile was one of the largest Roman military camps in the region housing at least 600 soldiers. A large military officers' residence has been excavated in the archaeological park. Kabile was expanded by Roman Emperor Diocletian in 293 CE; the name evolved through Diampolis, Dinibouli and Diamboli to become Yambol. Kabile was conquered by the Goths in the 4th century CE and was destroyed by the Avars in 583; as the Slavs and Bulgars arrived in the Balkans in the Middle Ages, the fortress was contested by the First Bulgarian Empire and the Eastern Roman Empire, becoming part of Bulgaria in 705 CE during the reign of Khan Tervel. It has been an important Bulgarian center since; the town expanded during the reign of Khan Omurtag of the First Bulgarian Empire, a new fortress was built. Its proximity to the border made it an important center for military purposes. During the reign of Boris I and Tsar Simeon, the first literary centers were established as part of the church. Books were studied in the town's churches.
During the reign of Tsar Kaloyan, the town again increased in importance due to the ongoing conflict between Bulgaria and the Crusaders. A major battle between Tsar Kaloyan and the crusaders happened in 1204 CE, about 80 kilometers south-west of the town, where Bulgaria defeated the crusaders in the battle of Adrianopole on 14 April 1205. During the Ottoman period, the town had a large Muslim population as well. Ottomans conquered it in 1373 CE, but a militarized, semi-independent Bulgarian population remained as voyinuks in the southern part of the city, it was renamed to "Yanbolu". It was kaza center, bound successively to Çirmen Sanjak of Rumelia Eyalet, Silistre Sanjak of Rumelia Eyalet, Silistre Sanjak of Silistre Eyalet, İslimye Sanjak of Edirne Vilayet, the department of Sliven in Eastern Rumelia before joining the Principality of Bulgaria in 1885; the predominant religion in Yambol is Orthodox Christianity, with a number of churches having been erected in 1888. These include the Holy Trinity church, the St George church, the St Nicholas cathedral, with the cathedral of St Nicholas being the largest.
Eastern Rite Catholic and Protestant religious buildings exist in Yambol. In modern times, Yambol was the center of Yambol Okolia starting in 1878 Yambol Okrug starting in 1948. In 1984 it became part of the newly formed Burgas Oblast. Since the early 1990s Yambol has been the center of Yambol Oblast; the city was affected by the turmoils of the early 20th century. Some Bulgarian refugees from East Thrace, attacked by the Turkish Army in their 1913 ethnic cleansing campaign against Thracian Bulgarians, settled in the town, its Greek population left during the exchange of populations. It hosted Bulgarian Macedonian refugees from the failed 1903 Ilinden Uprising. During World War I, Yambol hosted a base for Luftstreitkräfte zeppelins used for missions in Romania, Russia and Malta; the town was chosen by the Germans due to its favorable weather conditions. During the Balkan Wars, Yambol was the headquarters of the First Bulgarian Army, which played a vital role in the defeat of the Turks in Trace. In the early 21st century, the city became the first one in Bulgaria to use natural gas for domestic purposes.
The population of Yambol during the first decade after the liberation of Bulgaria exceeded 10,000. It was 11,241 in 1887. Since it started growing decade by decade because of migrants from rural areas and the surrounding smaller towns. Yambol's population reached its peak in the period of 1985-1992, exceeding 90,000. After this time, the population started decreasing rapidly; this was due to the poor economic situation in the Bulgarian provinces during the 1990s, which led to migration to the capital and abroad. As of February 2011, the city had a population of 74,132 inhabitants; the population of Tundzha Municipality, of which the city is the administrative center, was 98,287. Local industry has declined since the 1990s with many factories closing down; the city is the centre of its thriving agricultural surroundings. According to the latest 2011 census data, the individuals declared their ethnic identity were distributed as foll
Integrated Authority File
The Integrated Authority File or GND is an international authority file for the organisation of personal names, subject headings and corporate bodies from catalogues. It is used for documentation in libraries and also by archives and museums; the GND is managed by the German National Library in cooperation with various regional library networks in German-speaking Europe and other partners. The GND falls under the Creative Commons Zero licence; the GND specification provides a hierarchy of high-level entities and sub-classes, useful in library classification, an approach to unambiguous identification of single elements. It comprises an ontology intended for knowledge representation in the semantic web, available in the RDF format; the Integrated Authority File became operational in April 2012 and integrates the content of the following authority files, which have since been discontinued: Name Authority File Corporate Bodies Authority File Subject Headings Authority File Uniform Title File of the Deutsches Musikarchiv At the time of its introduction on 5 April 2012, the GND held 9,493,860 files, including 2,650,000 personalised names.
There are seven main types of GND entities: LIBRIS Virtual International Authority File Information pages about the GND from the German National Library Search via OGND Bereitstellung des ersten GND-Grundbestandes DNB, 19 April 2012 From Authority Control to Linked Authority Data Presentation given by Reinhold Heuvelmann to the ALA MARC Formats Interest Group, June 2012
Bulgarians are a South Slavic ethnic group who are native to Bulgaria and its neighboring regions. Bulgarians derive their ethnonym from the Bulgars, their name is not understood and difficult to trace back earlier than the 4th century AD, but it is derived from the Proto-Turkic word bulģha and its derivative bulgak. Alternate etymologies include derivation from a compound of Proto-Turkic bel and gur, a proposed division within the Utigurs or Onogurs. According to the Art.25 of Constitution of Bulgaria, a Bulgarian citizen shall be anyone born to at least one parent holding a Bulgarian citizenship, or born on the territory of the Republic of Bulgaria, should they not be entitled to any other citizenship by virtue of origin. Bulgarian citizenship shall further be acquirable through naturalization. About 77% of Bulgaria's population identified themselves as Bulgarians in 2011 Bulgarian census; the population of Bulgaria descend from peoples with different numbers. They became assimilated by the Slavic settlers in the First Bulgarian Empire.
Two of the non-Slavic nations maintain a legacy among modern-day Bulgarians: the Thracians, from whom cultural and ethnic elements were taken. From the indigenous Thracian people certain cultural and ethnic elements were taken. Other pre-Slavic Indo-European peoples, including Dacians, Goths, Ancient Greeks, Sarmatians and Illyrians settled into the Bulgarian land; the Thracian language has been described as a southern Baltic language. It was still spoken in the 6th century becoming extinct afterwards, but that in a period the Bulgarians replaced long-established Greek/Latin toponyms with Thracian toponyms might suggest that Thracian had not been obliterated then; some pre-Slavic linguistic and cultural traces might have been preserved in modern Bulgarians. Scythia Minor and Moesia Inferior appear to have been Romanized, although the region became a focus of barbarian re-settlements during the 4th and early 5th centuries AD, before a further "Romanization" episode during the early 6th century.
According to archeological evidence from the late periods of Roman rule, the Romans did not decrease the number of Thracians in major cities. By the 4th century the major city of Serdica had predominantly Thracian populace based on epigraphic evidence, which shows prevailing Latino-Thracian given names, but thereafter the names were replaced by Christian ones; the Early Slavs emerged from their original homeland in the early 6th century, spread to most of the eastern Central Europe, Eastern Europe and the Balkans, thus forming three main branches: the West Slavs in eastern Central Europe, the East Slavs in Eastern Europe, the South Slavs in Southeastern Europe. The latter inflicted total linguistic replacement of Thracian, if the Thracians had not been Romanized or Hellenized. Most scholars accept that they began large-scale settling of the Balkans in the 580s based on the statement of the 6th century historian Menander speaking of 100,000 Slavs in Thrace and consecutive attacks of Greece in 582.
They continued coming to the Balkans in many waves, but leaving, most notably Justinian II settled as many as 30,000 Slavs from Thrace in Asia Minor. The Byzantines grouped the numerous Slavic tribes into two groups: the Sklavenoi and Antes; some Bulgarian scholars suggest. The Bulgars are first mentioned in the 4th century in the vicinity of the North Caucasian steppe. Scholars suggest that the ultimate origins of the Bulgar is Turkic and can be traced to the Central Asian nomadic confederations as part of loosely related Oghuric tribes which spanned from the Pontic steppe to central Asia. However, any direct connection between the Bulgars and postulated Asian counterparts rest on little more than speculative and "contorted etymologies"; some Bulgarian historians question the identification of the Bulgars as a Turkic tribe and suggest an Iranian origin. In the 670s, some Bulgar tribes, the Danube Bulgars led by Asparukh and the Macedonian Bulgars, led by Kouber, crossed the Danube river and settled in the Balkans with a single migration wave, the former of which Michael the Syrian described as numbering 10,000.
The Bulgars are not thought to have been numerous, becoming a ruling elite in the areas they controlled. However, according to Steven Runciman a tribe, able to defeat a Byzantine army, must have been of considerable dimensions. Asparukh's Bulgars made a tribal union with the Severians and the "Seven clans", who were re-settled to protect the flanks of the Bulgar settlements in Scythia Minor, as the capital Pliska was built on the site of a former Slavic settlement. During the Early Byzantine Era, the Roman provincials in Scythia Minor and Moesia Secunda were engaged in economic and social exchange with the'barbarians' north of the Danube; this might have facilitated their eventual Slavonization, although the majority of the population appears to have been withdrawn to the hinterland of Constantinople or Asia Minor prior to any permanent Slavic and Bulgar settlement south of the Danube. The major port towns in Pontic Bulgaria remained Byzantine Greek in their outlook; the large scale population transfers and territorial expansions during the 8th and 9th century, additionally increased the number of the Slavs and Byzantine Christians within the state, making the Bulgars quite a
Pablo Ruiz Picasso was a Spanish painter, printmaker, stage designer and playwright who spent most of his adult life in France. Regarded as one of the most influential artists of the 20th century, he is known for co-founding the Cubist movement, the invention of constructed sculpture, the co-invention of collage, for the wide variety of styles that he helped develop and explore. Among his most famous works are the proto-Cubist Les Demoiselles d'Avignon, Guernica, a dramatic portrayal of the bombing of Guernica by the German and Italian airforces during the Spanish Civil War. Picasso demonstrated extraordinary artistic talent in his early years, painting in a naturalistic manner through his childhood and adolescence. During the first decade of the 20th century, his style changed as he experimented with different theories and ideas. After 1906, the Fauvist work of the older artist Henri Matisse motivated Picasso to explore more radical styles, beginning a fruitful rivalry between the two artists, who subsequently were paired by critics as the leaders of modern art.
Picasso's work is categorized into periods. While the names of many of his periods are debated, the most accepted periods in his work are the Blue Period, the Rose Period, the African-influenced Period, Analytic Cubism, Synthetic Cubism referred to as the Crystal period. Much of Picasso's work of the late 1910s and early 1920s is in a neoclassical style, his work in the mid-1920s has characteristics of Surrealism, his work combines elements of his earlier styles. Exceptionally prolific throughout the course of his long life, Picasso achieved universal renown and immense fortune for his revolutionary artistic accomplishments, became one of the best-known figures in 20th-century art. Picasso was baptized Pablo Diego José Francisco de Paula Juan Nepomuceno María de los Remedios Cipriano de la Santísima Trinidad Ruiz y Picasso, a series of names honouring various saints and relatives. Ruiz y Picasso were included for his father and mother as per Spanish law. Born in the city of Málaga in the Andalusian region of Spain, he was the first child of Don José Ruiz y Blasco and María Picasso y López.
Though baptized a Catholic, Picasso would on become an atheist. The surname "Picasso" comes from a coastal region of north-western Italy. There was a painter from the area named Matteo Picasso, born in Recco, of late neoclassical style portraiture, though investigations have not definitively determined his kinship with the branch of ancestors related to Pablo Picasso; the direct branch from Sori, can be traced back to Tommaso Picasso. His son Giovanni Battista, married to Isabella Musante, was Pablo's great-great-grandfather. Of this marriage was born Tommaso. Pablo's maternal great-grandfather, Tommaso Picasso moved to Spain around 1807. Picasso's family was of middle-class background, his father was a painter who specialized in naturalistic depictions of other game. For most of his life Ruiz was a professor of art at the School of Crafts and a curator of a local museum. Ruiz's ancestors were minor aristocrats. Picasso showed a skill for drawing from an early age. According to his mother, his first words were "piz, piz", a shortening of lápiz, the Spanish word for "pencil".
From the age of seven, Picasso received formal artistic training from his father in figure drawing and oil painting. Ruiz was a traditional academic artist and instructor, who believed that proper training required disciplined copying of the masters, drawing the human body from plaster casts and live models, his son became preoccupied with art to the detriment of his classwork. The family moved to A Coruña in 1891, where his father became a professor at the School of Fine Arts, they stayed four years. On one occasion, the father found his son painting over his unfinished sketch of a pigeon. Observing the precision of his son's technique, an apocryphal story relates, Ruiz felt that the thirteen-year-old Picasso had surpassed him, vowed to give up painting, though paintings by him exist from years. In 1895, Picasso was traumatized when his seven-year-old sister, died of diphtheria. After her death, the family moved to Barcelona, where Ruiz took a position at its School of Fine Arts. Picasso thrived in the city.
Ruiz persuaded the officials at the academy to allow his son to take an entrance exam for the advanced class. This process took students a month, but Picasso completed it in a week, the jury admitted him, at just 13; as a student, Picasso lacked discipline but made friendships that would affect him in life. His father rented a small room for him close to home so he could work alone, yet he checked up on him numerous times a day, judging his drawings; the two argued frequently. Picasso's father and uncle decided to send the young artist to Madrid's Real Academia de Bellas Artes de San Fernando, the country's foremost art school. At age 16, Picasso set off for the first time on his own, but he disliked formal instruction and stopped attending classes soon after enrollment. Madrid held many other attractions; the Prado housed paintings by Diego Velázquez, Francisco Goya, Francisco Zurbarán. Picasso admired the works of El Greco. Picasso's training under his father began before 1890, his progress can be traced in the collection
Scientific Committee on Antarctic Research
The Scientific Committee on Antarctic Research is an interdisciplinary body of the International Council for Science. It was established in February 1958 to continue the international coordination of Antarctic scientific activities that had begun during the International Geophysical Year of 1957-58. SCAR is charged with the initiating and coordinating of scientific research in the Antarctic region; the scientific business of SCAR is conducted by its Standing Scientific Groups. SCAR provides scientific advice to the Antarctic Treaty Consultative Meetings and other organizations on issues of science and conservation affecting the management of Antarctica and the Southern Ocean. In that role, SCAR has made numerous recommendations on a variety of matters few of which have been incorporated into Antarctic Treaty instruments. SCAR meets every two years to conduct its administrative business at the SCAR Delegates Meeting. An executive committee elected from the delegates is responsible for the day-to-day administration of SCAR through its secretariat at the Scott Polar Research Institute in Cambridge, England.
The executive committee comprises four vice-presidents. The SCAR Secretariat is staffed by the executive director, executive officer and an administrative assistant. SCAR holds, prior to the delegates meeting, a major open science conference to draw attention to Antarctic issues, along with meetings of the standing scientific groups that are designed to finalize the science programmes for eventual approval by the delegates. In 2002 SCAR received the prestigious Prince of Asturias Award for International Cooperation. Since 2006, SCAR has awarded three medals biennially in recognition of excellence in Antarctic and Southern Ocean research and outstanding service to the international Antarctic community. There is one medal for Excellence in Antarctic Research, one for International Scientific Coordination, the SCAR President's medal for Outstanding Achievement. Presentations are made at the SCAR Open Science Conference and are intended to reward those who exemplify the best of the Antarctic community and serve as role models for the next generation.
Composite Gazetteer of Antarctica Anna Wåhlin, committee co-chair Official website