Donald Maclean (British politician)
Sir Donald Maclean, KBE was a Liberal Party politician in the United Kingdom. Born in Farnworth, Lancashire, Maclean was the eldest son of John Maclean, a cordwainer originally of Kilmoluaig, Tiree in the Inner Hebrides, Maclean practised as a solicitor with practices in Cardiff and Lincolns Inn Fields, London. He was a choice as one of the Liberal Party candidates in Bath at the 1900 general election. At the 1906 general election, he again and was elected as a Liberal Member of Parliament for the constituency. Whilst an MP he voted in favour of the 1908 Womens Enfranchisement Bill, Maclean was appointed a Privy Counsellor in 1916, and was knighted in 1917. He was Leader of the Liberal Parliamentary Party from 1918 to 1920, as the leader of the Liberal Party, for those two years he served as Leader of the Opposition, while Labour had no official leader and Sinn Féin refused to participate in parliamentary government. Towards the end of his life, Maclean joined the National Government headed by Ramsay MacDonald and he served as President of the Board of Education from 1931 to 1932.
He died from disease on 15 June 1932 at the age of sixty-eight. Maclean married Gwendolen Margaret Devitt daughter of Andrew Devitt and wife Jane Dales Morrison, on 2 October 1907 and they and their eldest son, are buried in the churchyard of Holy Trinity Church, Buckinghamshire. Another of his sons was the diplomat and spy, Donald Duart Maclean
Kensington is an affluent district within the Royal Borough of Kensington and Chelsea in West London. Its commercial heart is Kensington High Street, the affluent and densely populated area contains the major museum district of South Kensington, which has the Royal Albert Hall for music and nearby Royal College of Music. The area is home to many of Londons European embassies, the first mention of the area is in the Domesday Book of 1086, where it was written in Latin as Chenesitone, which has been interpreted to have originally been Kenesignetun in Anglo-Saxon. A variation may be Kesyngton, in 1396 and he in turn granted the tenancy of Kensington to his vassal Aubrey de Vere I, who was holding the manor in 1086, according to Domesday Book. The bishops heir, Robert de Mowbray, rebelled against William Rufus, Aubrey de Vere I had his tenure converted to a tenancy in-chief, holding Kensington after 1095 directly of the crown. He granted land and church there to Abingdon Abbey at the deathbed request of his young eldest son, Geoffrey.
As the Veres became the earls of Oxford, their estate at Kensington came to be known as Earls Court, while the Abingdon lands were called Abbots Kensington and the church St Mary Abbots. The original Kensington Barracks, built at Kensington Gate in the late 18th century, were demolished in 1858, the focus of the area is Kensington High Street, a busy commercial centre with many shops, typically upmarket. The street was declared Londons second best shopping street in February 2005 thanks to its range, since October 2008 the street has faced competition from the Westfield shopping centre in nearby White City. Kensingtons second group of buildings is at South Kensington, where several streets of small to medium-sized shops. This is the end of Exhibition Road, the thoroughfare that serves the areas museums. To the west, a border is kept along the line of the Counter Creek marked by the West London railway line, in the north east, the large Royal Park of Kensington Gardens is a green buffer. The other main area in Kensington is Holland Park, just north of Kensington High Street.
Kensington is, in general, an affluent area, a trait that it now shares with its neighbour to the south. In early 2007, houses sold in Upper Phillimore Gardens for in excess of £20 million, Kensington is very densely populated, it forms part of the most densely populated local government district in the United Kingdom. This high density is not formed from high-rise buildings, unlike northern extremities of the Borough, Kensington lacks high-rise buildings except for the Holiday Inns London Kensington Forum Hotel in Cromwell Road, which is a 27-storey building. The Olympia exhibition hall is just over the border in West Kensington. Kensington is part of the Royal Borough of Kensington and Chelsea, the head office of newspaper group DMGT is located in Northcliffe House in Kensington, which is the office part of the large Barkers building
Order of the Companions of Honour
The Order of the Companions of Honour is an order of the Commonwealth realms. Founded on the date as the Order of the British Empire. The order consists of the Sovereign plus no more than 65 members, foreigners from outside the realms may be added as honorary members. Membership confers no title or precedence, but those inducted into the order are entitled to use the post-nominal letters CH. Appointments can be made on the advice of Commonwealth realm prime ministers, for Canadians, the advice to the Sovereign can come from a variety of officials. The quota numbers were altered in 1970 to 47 for the United Kingdom,7 for Australia,2 for New Zealand, the quota was adjusted again in 1975 by adding 2 places to the New Zealand quota and reducing the 9 for the other countries to 7. While able to nominate candidates to the Order, New Zealand, as of 2016 those countries have nominated only politicians who have served as Prime Minister or Deputy Prime Minister. Men wear the badge on a ribbon and women on a bow at the left shoulder.
Sovereign Queen Elizabeth II List of Members of the Order of the Companions of Honour List of honorary British Knights List of people who have declined a British honour
John Dalberg-Acton, 1st Baron Acton
He was the only son of Sir Ferdinand Dalberg-Acton, 7th Baronet and a grandson of the Neapolitan admiral Sir John Acton, 6th Baronet. He is perhaps best known for the remark, Power tends to corrupt, great men are almost always bad men. This idea has been tested in laboratory settings, however, by the extinction of the elder branch, the admiral became head of the family. After Sir Richard Actons death in 1837, she became the wife of the 2nd Earl Granville, marie Louise Pelline de Dalberg was heiress of Herrnsheim in Germany. She became the mother of John Dalberg-Acton who was born in Naples, from an old Roman Catholic family, young Acton was educated at Oscott College under future-Cardinal Nicholas Wiseman until 1848 and at Edinburgh where he studied privately. His attempt to be admitted to the University of Cambridge failed because he was a Catholic, Döllinger had inspired in him a deep love of historical research and a profound conception of its functions as a critical instrument, particularly in the history of liberty.
In politics, he was always an ardent Liberal, through extensive travels, Acton spent much time in the chief intellectual centres reading the actual correspondence of historical personalities. Among his friends were Montalembert, Fustel de Coulanges, von Sybel, in 1855, he was appointed Deputy Lieutenant of Shropshire. A year later, he was attached to Lord Granvilles mission to Moscow as British representative at the coronation of Alexander II of Russia, in 1859, Acton settled in England, at his country house, Aldenham, in Shropshire. He returned to the House of Commons that same year as member for the Irish Borough of Carlow and became a devoted admirer and adherent of Prime Minister William Ewart Gladstone. However, Acton was not an active MP, and his career came to an end after the general election of 1865. Acton defeated Conservative leader Henry Whitmore, who petitioned for a scrutiny of the ballots. After the Reform Act 1867, Acton again contested Bridgnorth, this reduced to a single seat, in 1868.
Acton took a great interest in the United States, considering its structure the perfect guarantor of individual liberties. His notes to Gladstone on the subject helped sway many in the British government to sympathise with the South, after the Souths surrender, he wrote to Robert E. In 1869 Queen Victoria raised Acton to the peerage as Baron Acton and his elevation came primarily through the intercession of Gladstone. The two were friends and frequent correspondents. Matthew Arnold said that Gladstone influences all round him but Acton, Acton was appointed to the Royal Victorian Order as a Knight Commander in the 1897 Birthday Honours
Reading (UK Parliament constituency)
Reading was a parliamentary borough, and a borough constituency, represented in the House of Commons of the Parliament of the United Kingdom. It comprised the town of Reading in the county of Berkshire, from 1295, as a parliamentary borough, Reading elected two members of parliament. When the parliamentary borough was replaced by a constituency in 1885. The constituency was abolished in 1950, re-created in 1955, 1918-1950, The County Borough of Reading. 1955-1974, The County Borough of Reading wards of Abbey, Castle, Christchurch, Minster, Thames, Reading was one of the boroughs summoned to send members to the Model Parliament. The boundaries were unchanged from 1295 to 1918. In 1831, the population of the borough was 15,935, the right to vote was exercised by all inhabitants paying scot and lot, a relatively wide franchise for the period, and almost 2,000 votes were cast at the general election of 1826. Despite this high electorate, the corporation of the town was considered in practice to control elections to a large extent.
The single-member Reading constituency continued to exist until it was split in 1950 into the constituencies of Reading North. Today the area covered by the Reading constituency is within the constituencies of Reading East. Constituency created 1295 A General Election was due to place by the end of 1915. By the summer of 1914, the candidates had been adopted to contest that election. Due to the outbreak of war, the election never took place, unionist Party, Leslie Orme Wilson Liberal Party, Henry Norman Spalding Wilson was the endorsed candidate of the Coalition Government. The Liberal Party candidate, Rosalie Glynn Grylls withdrew at close of nominations General Election 1939/40, Another General Election was required to take place before the end of 1940
Edmond Robert Wodehouse PC was an English Liberal and Liberal Unionist politician who sat in the House of Commons from 1885 to 1906. Wodehouse was the child of Sir Philip Edmond Wodehouse, Governor of Bombay. He was educated at Eton College and at Balliol College, Oxford being awarded B. A. and M. A.1865 and he was called to the bar at Lincolns Inn in 1861. Wodehouse married in 1876 Adele Sophia Harriett Bagot, daughter of Reverend Charles Walter Bagot Chancellor of Bath and Wells and Rector of Castle Rising, at the 1880 general election Wodehouse was elected as a Member of Parliament for Bath. He held the seat until 1906, in 1898 he was admitted to the Privy Council. Wodehouse died in December 1914, aged 79, hansard 1803–2005, contributions in Parliament by Edmond Wodehouse
Col Sir Charles Wyndham Murray Kt KCB GCStJ was a British Army officer and politician. He served as a Conservative Member of Parliament MP for Bath from 1892–1906 and he began his military career as an Ensign in the 61st South Gloucestershire Regiment in November 1862, promoted to Lieutenant in October 1865 and passed from Staff College in 1872. By October 1877 he was a Captain and in July 1881, during World War I, he served as military Kings Messenger in France. In 1875, he was appointed Deputy-Assistant Quartermaster-General in Cork, in 1878, he moved to Turkey, where he was a military attaché. During the Anglo-Zulu War, he was aide-de-camp to Major General Crealocke, in Spring 1880, he was attached to 72nd Highlanders at Kabul, became orderly officer to General Thomas Durand Baker, taking part in the Logar Valley expedition of May–June 1880. During 1884-85, he took part in the Bechuanaland operations and he retired from the service in 1890. He was elected Conservative MP for Bath 1892-1906 and was a member of Carlton and Army and he married Emma Cecilia Walker in 1890.
Lady Murray, as she was known, died in 1922 and their country seat was Culverlands at Burghfield in Berkshire. Culverlands, the residence of Col. Sir Charles Wyndham Murray, C. B. is an 18th-century house altered and enlarged in 1879 and it is a plain plastered building with a balustraded parapet and slate roofs, situated in an elevated well-wooded park, the cedars being particularly fine. The araucarias were raised from seed brought from South America by the late Thomas Bland Garland and are probably the oldest in England grown by this method, on his death Murray was buried in Brookwood Cemetery. Hansard 1803–2005, contributions in Parliament by Charles Wyndham Murray Portraits of Sir Wyndham Murray at the National Portrait Gallery, London
World War I
World War I, known as the First World War, the Great War, or the War to End All Wars, was a global war originating in Europe that lasted from 28 July 1914 to 11 November 1918. More than 70 million military personnel, including 60 million Europeans, were mobilised in one of the largest wars in history and it was one of the deadliest conflicts in history, and paved the way for major political changes, including revolutions in many of the nations involved. The war drew in all the worlds great powers, assembled in two opposing alliances, the Allies versus the Central Powers of Germany and Austria-Hungary. These alliances were reorganised and expanded as more nations entered the war, Japan, the trigger for the war was the assassination of Archduke Franz Ferdinand of Austria, heir to the throne of Austria-Hungary, by Yugoslav nationalist Gavrilo Princip in Sarajevo on 28 June 1914. This set off a crisis when Austria-Hungary delivered an ultimatum to the Kingdom of Serbia. Within weeks, the powers were at war and the conflict soon spread around the world.
On 25 July Russia began mobilisation and on 28 July, the Austro-Hungarians declared war on Serbia, Germany presented an ultimatum to Russia to demobilise, and when this was refused, declared war on Russia on 1 August. Germany invaded neutral Belgium and Luxembourg before moving towards France, after the German march on Paris was halted, what became known as the Western Front settled into a battle of attrition, with a trench line that changed little until 1917. On the Eastern Front, the Russian army was successful against the Austro-Hungarians, in November 1914, the Ottoman Empire joined the Central Powers, opening fronts in the Caucasus and the Sinai. In 1915, Italy joined the Allies and Bulgaria joined the Central Powers, Romania joined the Allies in 1916, after a stunning German offensive along the Western Front in the spring of 1918, the Allies rallied and drove back the Germans in a series of successful offensives. By the end of the war or soon after, the German Empire, Russian Empire, Austro-Hungarian Empire, national borders were redrawn, with several independent nations restored or created, and Germanys colonies were parceled out among the victors.
During the Paris Peace Conference of 1919, the Big Four imposed their terms in a series of treaties, the League of Nations was formed with the aim of preventing any repetition of such a conflict. This effort failed, and economic depression, renewed nationalism, weakened successor states, and feelings of humiliation eventually contributed to World War II. From the time of its start until the approach of World War II, at the time, it was sometimes called the war to end war or the war to end all wars due to its then-unparalleled scale and devastation. In Canada, Macleans magazine in October 1914 wrote, Some wars name themselves, during the interwar period, the war was most often called the World War and the Great War in English-speaking countries. Will become the first world war in the sense of the word. These began in 1815, with the Holy Alliance between Prussia and Austria, when Germany was united in 1871, Prussia became part of the new German nation. Soon after, in October 1873, German Chancellor Otto von Bismarck negotiated the League of the Three Emperors between the monarchs of Austria-Hungary and Germany