Ballarat /ˈbæləræt/ is a city located on the Yarrowee River in the Grampians region of Victoria, Australia. The city is approximately 105 kilometres west-north-west of the capital, Melbourne. It is the third largest population for a city in Australia. Ballarat is arguably the most significant Victorian era gold rush boomtown in Australia, just months after Victoria was granted separation from the state of New South Wales, the Victorian gold rush transformed Ballarat from a small sheep station to a major settlement. Gold was discovered at Poverty Point on 18 August 1851, within months, migrants from across the world had rushed to the district in search of gold. Unlike many other boom towns, the Ballarat fields experienced sustained high gold yields for many decades. The Eureka Rebellion began in Ballarat, and the armed rebellion in Australian history. In response to the event the first male suffrage in Australia was instituted, the gold rush and boom gave birth to many other significant cultural legacies.
The rebellions symbol, the Eureka Flag, has become a symbol and is held at the Museum of Australian Democracy at Eureka in Ballarat. It has endured as a regional centre hosting the rowing and kayaking events from the 1956 Summer Olympics. It is the capital of the Central Highlands and the largest city in the Goldfields region of Victoria. Ballarat is known for its history and its well-preserved Victorian era heritage, after a narrow popular vote the city merged with the town of Ballarat East in 1921, ending a long standing rivalry. Prior to the European settlement of Australia, the Ballarat region was populated by the Wathaurong people, the Boro gundidj tribes territory was based along the Yarrowee River. The Yuille family, Scottish settlers Archibald Buchanan Yuille and his brother William Cross Yuille, arrived in 1837 and squatted a 10, the first houses were built near Woolshed Creek by William Yuille and Anderson, while Yuille erected a hut at Black Swamp in 1838. Outsiders originally knew of the settlement as Yuilles Station and Yuilles Swamp, Archibald Yuille named the area Ballaarat Some claim the name is derived from a local Wathaurong Aboriginal word for the area, balla arat.
The meaning of word is not certain, several translations have been made. In some dialects, balla means bent elbow, which is translated to mean reclining or resting, another claim is that the name derives from Yuilles native Gaelic Baile Ararat, alluding to the resting place of Noahs ark. The present spelling was adopted by the City of Ballarat in 1996
George C. Prendergast
Born in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania in 1961, Prendergast graduated from the University of Pennsylvania in 1983 with a BA in Biochemistry. Prendergast joined the Department of Cancer Research at Merck Research Laboratories as a staff scientist in 1991. In 1993, he returned to research at The Wistar Institute in Philadelphia, first as an assistant professor and as an associate professor. While at Wistar, in 1995, Prendergast was designated a Pew Scholar in the Biomedical Sciences, in 1999, Prendergast left Wistar to become Senior Director of the Cancer Research Group at DuPont Pharmaceuticals Company. After the sale of DuPont Pharmaceuticals to Bristol-Myers Squibb, Prendergast moved his groups at Wistar and he was appointed President and CEO of LIMR in 2004. In the field of genetics, his research helped define how genetic alterations lead to cancer development. His recent work has linked cancer genetics and cancer immunology in new ways, most recently, this area of work has illuminated new insights into autoimmunity and its treatment.
Prendergast is the author of over 200 peer-reviewed publications and 80 book chapters, editorials and he has edited two books, Molecular Cancer Therapeutics, Strategies for Drug Discovery and Development and the first and second editions of Cancer Immunotherapy, Immune Suppression and Tumor Growth. He currently serves as Editor-in-Chief of Cancer Research, the journal in the field. His work has been cited over 15,000 times, “Methylation-sensitive sequence-specific DNA binding by the c-Myc basic region”. Association of Myn, the homolog of Max, with c-Myc stimulates methylation-sensitive DNA binding. Doi,10. 1016/0092-867490457-A Sakamuro, D. Elliott, K. Wechsler-Reya, R. and Prendergast, bIN1 is a novel MYC-interacting protein with features of a tumor suppressor. Ge, K. DuHadaway, J. Du, W. Herlyn, M. Rodeck, U. and Prendergast, mechanism for elimination of a tumor suppressor, aberrant splicing of a brain-specific exon causes loss of function of Bin1 in melanoma. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America 96, sun, J. F.
Prendergast, G. C. and Benjamin, L. E. RhoB controls Akt trafficking and stage-specific survival of cells during vascular development. Inhibition of indoleamine 2, 3-dioxygenase, a target of the cancer suppression gene Bin1,11, 312-319 Prendergast, G. C. and Jaffee, E. M. Cancer immunologists and cancer cell biologists, why we didn’t talk then, Metz, R. DuHadaway, J. B. Kamasani, U. Laury-Kleintop, L. Muller, A. J. and Prendergast, novel tryptophan catabolic enzyme IDO2 is the preferred biochemical target of the antitumor IDO inhibitory compound D-1MT
Premier of Victoria
The Premier of Victoria is the leader of the government in the Australian state of Victoria. The Premier is appointed by the Governor of Victoria, and is the leader of the party able to secure a majority in the Legislative Assembly. Responsible government came to the colony of Victoria in 1855, between 1856 and 1892, the head of the government was commonly called the Premier or the Prime Minister, but neither title had any legal basis. The head of government always held another portfolio, usually Chief Secretary or Treasurer, the first head of government to hold the title of Premier without holding another portfolio was William Shiels in 1892. The incumbent Premier of Victoria since the 2014 election is Daniel Andrews of the Australian Labor Party, as of September 2016, six former premiers are alive, the oldest being John Cain. The most recent premier to die was Joan Kirner, on 1 June 2015, department of Premier and Cabinet, Victoria Deputy Premier of Victoria List of Premiers of Victoria by time in office ABC News - Premiers of Victoria
Adelaide is the capital city of the state of South Australia, and the fifth-most populous city of Australia. In June 2016, Adelaide had a resident population of 1,326,354 million. South Australia, with a total of 1, the demonym Adelaidean is used in reference to the city and its residents. Adelaide is north of the Fleurieu Peninsula, on the Adelaide Plains between the Gulf St Vincent and the low-lying Mount Lofty Ranges which surround the city. Adelaide stretches 20 km from the coast to the foothills, and 94 to 104 km from Gawler at its northern extent to Sellicks Beach in the south. Named in honour of Adelaide of Saxe-Meiningen, queen consort to King William IV, Colonel William Light, one of Adelaides founding fathers, designed the city and chose its location close to the River Torrens, in the area originally inhabited by the Kaurna people. Lights design set out Adelaide in a layout, interspaced by wide boulevards and large public squares. Early Adelaide was shaped by prosperity and wealth—until the Second World War, it was Australias third-largest city and it has been noted for early examples of religious freedom, a commitment to political progressivism and civil liberties.
It has been known as the City of Churches since the mid-19th century, as South Australias seat of government and commercial centre, Adelaide is the site of many governmental and financial institutions. Most of these are concentrated in the city centre along the boulevard of North Terrace, King William Street. Today, Adelaide is noted for its festivals and sporting events, its food and wine, its long beachfronts. It ranks highly in terms of liveability, being listed in the Top 10 of The Economist Intelligence Units Worlds Most Liveable Cities index in 2010,2011,2012 and 2015. It was ranked the most liveable city in Australia by the Property Council of Australia in 2011,2012 and 2013, prior to its proclamation as a British settlement in 1836, the area around Adelaide was inhabited by the indigenous Kaurna Aboriginal nation. Kaurna culture and language was almost completely destroyed within a few decades of the European settlement of South Australia in 1836, extensive documentation by early missionaries and other researchers has enabled a modern revival of both language and culture.
South Australia was officially proclaimed as a new British colony on 28 December 1836, the event is commemorated in South Australia as Proclamation Day. The site of the capital was surveyed and laid out by Colonel William Light. Adelaide was established as a colony of free immigrants, promising civil liberties and freedom from religious persecution. Wakefields idea was for the Government to survey and sell the land at a rate that would maintain land values high enough to be unaffordable for labourers and journeymen
George Elmslie (Australian politician)
George Alexander Elmslie, Australian politician, was the 25th Premier of Victoria, and the first Labor Premier. Elmslie was born in Lethbridge, near Geelong, and although he had a secondary education and he was employed on the first Wilson Hall at Melbourne University and on St Patricks Cathedral. From 1888 he was an official of the Operative Stonemasons Society, and he was President of the South Melbourne Football Club, ancestor of the Sydney Swans. In 1898, Elmslie was one of the founders of the Victorian Labour Federation, in 1902 he was elected to the Victorian Legislative Assembly as Labor member for Albert Park. The Parliamentary Labor Party remained small and contained limited talent, Elmslie became deputy leader in 1912 and leader in 1913. At the 1911 election, Labor won only 20 seats to the factions of the Liberal Partys 43. But in December 1913 the Liberal Premier, William Watt resigned after a dispute with the faction of his own party. The acting Governor, Sir John Madden, surprised the Liberals by sending for Elmslie, the Liberal factions re-united, and Watt moved a no-confidence motion in Elmslie, which Elmslie had to watch from the gallery since he was technically not a member.
Elmslie was duly voted out and Watt resumed office on 22 December, Elmslie remained as Labor leader until shortly before his death in 1918, although his health had broken down in 1916, requiring a long break. During World War I Elmslie supported the Allied cause but opposed conscription for overseas service and he died at his home in South Melbourne and was given a state funeral. Elmslie was largely forgotten until members of the Labor Historical Graves Committee discovered his neglected grave in the Melbourne General Cemetery in the 1990s, a new memorial headstone over his grave was unveiled by Steve Bracks, Labor Premier of Victoria, on 9 March 2001. A History of the Parliament of Victoria, 1856–1990, Oxford University Press, Melbourne,1992
James Service, Australian colonial politician, was the 12th Premier of Victoria, Australia. Service was born in Kilwinning, Scotland, the son of Robert Service, as a young man James worked in a Glasgow tea importing business, Thomas Corbett and Company. Service was elected to the Victorian Legislative Assembly for Melbourne in a by-election in March 1857 and he represented Ripon and Hampden from October 1859 to around August 1862, Maldon from May 1874 to March 1881 and Castlemaine from June 1883 to February 1886. He was a liberal in the context of Victorian politics. He was President of the Board of Land and Works in the Nicholson government from 1859 to 1860 and his attempt to cut tariffs in his 1875 budget led to the fall of Kerferds government. When Graham Berrys radical ministry fell in March 1880, Service formed a minority government, in May Service admitted that he could not go on and asked the Governor, Lord Normanby, for a dissolution, which was granted. But the elections did not improve Services position and in August he resigned, when Service agreed not to attempt to reduce tariffs, Berry joined him as a minister, such was the fluidity of party politics at this time.
The young Alfred Deakin held office for the first time in this government, in June 1883, at a banquet at Albury celebrating the opening of the railway line between Sydney and Melbourne, Service raised the question of Australian federation. He supported Sir Thomas McIlwraith in his action with regard to the annexation of New Guinea, there a bill constituting a federal council was framed which was carried by Service through the Victorian parliament in 1884. Service himself desired the establishment of a government, but the other premiers were comparatively lukewarm. By the time of the 1886 election Service was in declining health and decided to retire from active politics, in 1888 he was elected to the Victorian Legislative Council for Melbourne Province, and served there until April 1899. A History of the Parliament of Victoria, 1856-1990, Oxford University Press, Melbourne,1992 Serle, Percival
James Munro (Australian politician)
James Munro, Australian colonial politician, was the 15th Premier of Victoria. James Munro was born in Armadale, Scotland, to Donald Munro and his wife, James Munros grandparents were an Alexander Munro of the family of Foulis, Ross-shire and Barbara Mackay, a relative of the chief of Clan Mackay. After a primary education at a school in Armadale, Sutherland he left home for Edinburgh. He married in December 1853, Jane Macdonald, and had a family of four sons, in 1858 he emigrated to Victoria where he set up a printing business. In the 1860s he expanded into banking and promoting building societies, in 1865 he founded the Victorian Permanent Building Society of which he was manager for 17 years. By 1870 he was a wealthy man, and he continued to engage in speculation, particularly in land, after entering politics. He was a temperance advocate and prominent in the Presbyterian church. Munro was elected to the Victorian Legislative Assembly as one of two members for North Melbourne in 1874, in 1877 he was elected for the new seat of Carlton, for North Melbourne again in 1881, where he was defeated in 1883.
In 1886 he was elected as one of the three members for Geelong, retaining his seat until he resigned in 1892. Unlike many of the Land Boomers, he had a reputation for stern Scots integrity, in November he moved a successful no-confidence motion in the Gillies government and became Premier — he was the third Scottish-born Premier in succession. Munros government was generally liberal, but was weakened by the absence of Alfred Deakin, the leading Victorian liberal and it was quite unable to cope with the accelerating financial collapse which began almost as soon as it took office. The crash climaxed in late 1891 with the failure of major banks. Munros own companies were soon in trouble as the bottom out of the land market, and in December the Federal Bank. In February 1892 Munro, who was deeply in debt, asked his Cabinet to appoint him Victorian Agent-General in London and he resigned as Premier and immediately took ship from Port Melbourne. When the news there was a storm of protest, led by the many investors whose savings had been wiped out in Munros companies.
Eventually Munros successor, William Shiels, agreed to him from London. To his credit, he returned voluntarily to Victoria, where he was declared bankrupt in February 1893 and his companies left debts of over ₤600,000 – a staggering amount at that time. A few weeks he was attacked and beaten unconscious in a Melbourne street by a man who had been ruined in the crash, Munro has gone down in history as the most notorious of the corrupt Victorian politicians of the Land Boom period
Chief Secretary of New South Wales
Its role changed significantly from the time of its creation in 1821 to its final use in 1995, with various responsibilities changing hands. Originally having the role of the secretary to the Governor as well as secretary of the Colony this office was at first known as the Colonial Secretary or Principal Secretary. On 30 June 1820 Major Frederick Goulburn was commissioned as Colonial Secretary and Registrar of the Records of New South Wales, from 1894 the Colonial Secretary was thus a government minister and was basically equivalent to the British Home Secretary. For most of the role of the Chief Secretary up to its penultimate abolition in 1975. Gaming, racing and poker machines and regulation of literature, art and plays. Electoral matters Environmental protection and fisheries
Melbourne is the capital and most populous city of the Australian state of Victoria, and the second-most populous city in Australia and Oceania. The name Melbourne refers to an urban agglomeration spanning 9,900 km2, the metropolis is located on the large natural bay of Port Phillip and expands into the hinterlands towards the Dandenong and Macedon mountain ranges, Mornington Peninsula and Yarra Valley. It has a population of 4,641,636 as of 2016, and its inhabitants are called Melburnians. Founded by free settlers from the British Crown colony of Van Diemens Land on 30 August 1835, in what was the colony of New South Wales, it was incorporated as a Crown settlement in 1837. It was named Melbourne by the Governor of New South Wales, Sir Richard Bourke, in honour of the British Prime Minister of the day, William Lamb, 2nd Viscount Melbourne. It was officially declared a city by Queen Victoria, to whom Lord Melbourne was close, in 1847, during the Victorian gold rush of the 1850s, it was transformed into one of the worlds largest and wealthiest cities.
After the federation of Australia in 1901, it served as the interim seat of government until 1927. It is a financial centre in the Asia-Pacific region. It is recognised as a UNESCO City of Literature and a centre for street art, music. It was the host city of the 1956 Summer Olympics and the 2006 Commonwealth Games, the main passenger airport serving the metropolis and the state is Melbourne Airport, the second busiest in Australia. The Port of Melbourne is Australias busiest seaport for containerised and general cargo, Melbourne has an extensive transport network. The main metropolitan train terminus is Flinders Street Station, and the regional train. Melbourne is home to Australias most extensive network and has the worlds largest urban tram network. Before the arrival of settlers, humans had occupied the area for an estimated 31,000 to 40,000 years. At the time of European settlement, it was inhabited by under 2000 hunter-gatherers from three indigenous tribes, the Wurundjeri and Wathaurong.
The area was an important meeting place for the clans of the Kulin nation alliance and it would be 30 years before another settlement was attempted. Batman selected a site on the bank of the Yarra River. Batman returned to Launceston in Tasmania, in early August 1835 a different group of settlers, including John Pascoe Fawkner, left Launceston on the ship Enterprize
William Shiels was an Australian colonial-era politician, serving as the 16th Premier of Victoria. Shiels was born in Derry, County Londonderry, Ireland of a Presbyterian family and he was educated at Scotch College and the University of Melbourne, where he graduated in law and arts, gaining a masters degree in law in 1885. He was called to the Melbourne bar in 1872 and was active in public life. Shiels was elected to the Victorian Legislative Assembly for Normanby in 1880, as a moderate liberal and he was Attorney-General and Minister for Railways in the government of James Munro from 1890 to 1892. During this time Shiels was one of the few politicians to warn against the excesses of the Land Boom which swept Victoria between 1887 and 1891. As a result, when Munro suddenly resigned in the face of imminent bankruptcy in February 1892, the liberals turned to Shiels as a new leader. The conservatives who had supported the governments of Duncan Gillies and Munro opposed increased taxation. In January 1893 the conservative leader James Patterson moved a successful no-confidence motion, Shiels stayed in politics and kept his reputation for integrity.
He was Treasurer under Allan McLean and William Irvine and Minister for Railways, in 1904, his health broke down and he retired to rural South Australia shortly before his death, aged only 56. Shiels is buried at Straun House which is located on the Dukes HWY10 km out of Naracoorte in South Australias South East, a History of the Parliament of Victoria, 1856–1990, Oxford University Press, Melbourne,1992 Serle, Percival
Bourke Street, Melbourne
Bourke Street is one of the main streets of Melbournes Central Business District and a core feature of the Hoddle Grid. It was traditionally the entertainment hub of inner-city Melbourne, and is now a popular tourist destination, during the Marvellous Melbourne era, Bourke Street was the location of many of the citys theatres and cinemas. Today it continues as a retail shopping precinct with the Bourke Street Mall running between Elizabeth and Swanston Streets, numerous offices to the west end and restaurants to the east. Bourke Streets liveliness and activity has often been contrasted with the formality of nearby Collins Street. For this reason, Busier than Bourke Street is a popular colloquialism denoting a crowded or busy environment, Bourke Street is named for Sir Richard Bourke, the Governor of New South Wales in 1837 during the drafting of the Hoddle Grid. Bourke Street runs roughly from east to west and bisects the city centre along its long axis, Bourke Street runs parallel between Little Collins street to the south and Little Bourke street to the north.
There are two stretches of Bourke Street, split by Southern Cross railway station, the historic city centre. The city centre portion runs from Spring Street in the east to Spencer Street, the newer Docklands end continues on the other side of the station and finishes at its intersection with Collins Street further west. During the 1850s it gained a reputation as a busy thoroughfare popular as the centre for Saturday nightlife, as retail presence increased the street was often compared to Londons Oxford Street. Melbournes first theatre opened on Bourke Street as the Pavilion and public halls were complemented by billiard halls, cigar divans, rifle galleries, bowling alleys and sideshows. Cheap restaurants appeared from the 1870s, when Parers Hotel and Crystal Tea Rooms became a Melbourne institution, while the Café de Paris was a favourite literary, twentieth-century restaurants such as Florentinos and the Society Café have become Melbourne institutions. The late 20th century onwards has resulted in office developments, residential skyscrapers, the introduction of several shopping arcades.
The Bourke Street Mall is a pedestrian and tram-only strip running between Swanston and Elizabeth Streets, the mall is Bourke Streets most famous feature and contains retail hubs like Melbournes GPO, Myers flagship store and David Jones second flagship. Plans were eventually scaled down with pedestrians sharing space with a grade level tramline, the pedestrian mall was officially opened in 1983 by Their Royal Highnesses, Prince Charles and Diana, Princess of Wales. The mall received a facelift in preparation for the 2006 Commonwealth Games. In the 2017 Melbourne car attack, a person on the run from police deliberately drove their car onto the footpath, the attack claimed the lives of six people, including one baby and one child. Over twenty-five victims were hospitalised with injuries, Myers shopfront windows are decorated in a different Christmas-themed display and are visited by around 1,000,000 children and their parents each December. The Myer Christmas Parade was an annual parade running down Bourke Street from Spring Street to the Myer windows, the parade was last held in 2010