Henry Maudsley FRCP was a pioneering British psychiatrist, commemorated in the Maudsley Hospital in London and in the annual Maudsley Lecture of the Royal College of Psychiatrists. Maudsley was born on an isolated farm near Giggleswick in the North Riding of Yorkshire and educated at Giggleswick School. Maudsley lost his mother at an early age, his aunt cared for him, teaching him poetry which he would recite to the servants, secured for him a top tutor and an expensive apprenticeship to University College London medical school. He earned ten Gold Medals and graduated with an M. D. degree in 1857, though is said to have avoided subjects and clinical work he found onerous and to have antagonised his teachers. Maudsley had intended to pursue a career in surgery, but according to his autobiography, he changed his mind when he failed to receive a reply to his first application: it had gone to his previous address, he decided to leave the country and work for the East India Company, although in the event he never did.
It would require him first to do a stint in an asylum, so he spent nine months at the West Riding Asylum in Wakefield, followed less by a shorter period at the Essex County Asylum in Brentwood. At the age of 23, Maudsley was appointed medical superintendent at the small, middle-class Manchester Royal Lunatic Asylum in Cheadle Royal. Despite being inexperienced clinically and administratively, he managed to raise patient numbers and income, he returned to London in 1862, taking up residence in Cavendish Square. In 1865 he failed to gain the position of Physician to the Bethlem Royal Hospital, but succeeded at the West London Hospital. So ended Maudsley's brief period in public and charitable asylums. In the same year he was appointed co-editor of the Journal of Mental Science, an influential position he retained for 15 years. Maudsley was elected a Fellow of the Royal College of Physicians and delivered their Gulstonian Lectures in 1870 on Body and Mind; the text of Maudsley's lectures was studied by Charles Darwin in the preparation of his The Expression of the Emotions in Man and Animals.
Maudsley was appointed Professor of Medical Jurisprudence at University College London from 1869 to 1879. Maudsley married John Conolly's daughter, Ann Conolly, in February 1866, from 1866 took over the running of Conolly's private mental asylum, Lawn House, housing six wealthy women, until 1874, he withdrew from public life and focused on authoring and on an lucrative and secretive private consultancy for the wealthy aristocratic, in the West End of London. Maudsley acquired a reputation as an outstanding essayist on literary topics. An early hit was a spectacular essay on Edgar Allan Poe, he made numerous contributions to the Journal of Mental Science. His position as Britain's foremost mental specialist was sealed by his acquaintance with Charles Darwin and other leading Victorian intellectuals and by his magisterial textbooks The Physiology and Pathology of Mind and Mind and Mental Responsibility in Health and Disease, his popularity was exemplified by his influence on many novels by Rosa Nouchette Carey.
Maudsley adhered to degeneration theory and believed that inherited "taints" were exaggerated through succeeding generations. He argued that alcoholism was the most frequent trigger of inherited degeneracy, that drunkenness in one generation would lead to frenzied need for drink in the second, hypochondria in the third, idiocy in the fourth. However, having contributed to the British uptake of degeneration theory for over two decades, by the 1890s he was cautioning about it being used in a meaninglessly vague way, his views on maternity have been critiqued for displaying a "revulsion to both parturition and the care of an infant," which he claimed was an expression of the rational objective truth. He was challenged at the time for his negative views on women. Maudsley has been described as "a prime example of how the medical establishment naturalised and reinforced social divisions and hierarchies during the latter part of the 19th century." He has been described as "consistently inconsistent".
Maudsley was agnostic, as such critical of religion and reports of ostensibly supernatural phenomena. In his book Natural Causes and Supernatural Seemings he wrote that so-called supernatural experiences were disorders of the mind and "malobservations and misinterpretations of nature", his book is seen as an early text in the field of anomalistic psychology. In 1907, Maudsley collaborated with Frederick Mott, a neuropathologist, to make an offer to London County Council to found a new Maudsley Hospital, for which Maudsley donated £30,000, with the council finding another £30,000 plus; this was to be a new mental hospital that would treat early and acute cases and have an out-patient clinic. The hospital housed teaching and research; the buildings were ready in 1915, temporarily used for war veterans, opened in 1923. A special Act of Parliament had made voluntary treatment there financially possible. Maudsley's £30,000 has been described as an astonishingly high sum, he still had at least £60,000 spare upon his death.
A bronze bust of Maudsley overlooks the main staircase at the Institute of Psychiatry next to the Maudsley Hospital. In his years, Maudsley became something of a recluse, resigning from the Medico-Psychological Association and, in some scattered writings, expressing regret at his career choice of psychiatry, he watched cricket and sent postcards. While earlier he had argu
Adeline Virginia Woolf was an English writer, considered one of the most important modernist 20th-century authors and a pioneer in the use of stream of consciousness as a narrative device. Woolf was born into an affluent household in South Kensington, the seventh child in a blended family of eight, her mother, Julia Prinsep Jackson, celebrated as a Pre-Raphaelite artist's model, had three children from her first marriage, while Woolf's father, Leslie Stephen, a notable man of letters, had one previous daughter. The Stephens produced another four children, including the modernist painter Vanessa Bell. While the boys in the family received college educations, the girls were home-schooled in English classics and Victorian literature. An important influence in Virginia Woolf's early life was the summer home the family used in St Ives, where she first saw the Godrevy Lighthouse, to become iconic in her novel To the Lighthouse. Woolf's childhood came to an abrupt end in 1895 with the death of her mother and her first mental breakdown, followed two years by the death of her stepsister and surrogate mother, Stella Duckworth.
From 1897 to 1901, she attended the Ladies' Department of King's College London, where she studied classics and history and came into contact with early reformers of women's higher education and the women's rights movement. Other important influences were her Cambridge-educated brothers and unfettered access to her father's vast library. Encouraged by her father, Woolf began writing professionally in 1900, her father's death in 1905 caused another mental breakdown for Woolf. Following his death, the Stephen family moved from Kensington to the more bohemian Bloomsbury, where they adopted a free-spirited lifestyle, it was in Bloomsbury where, in conjunction with the brothers' intellectual friends, the Stephens formed the artistic and literary Bloomsbury Group. Following her 1912 marriage to Leonard Woolf, the couple founded the Hogarth Press in 1917, which published much of her work; the couple rented a home in Sussex and moved there permanently in 1940. Throughout her life, Woolf was troubled by bouts of mental illness.
She was institutionalized attempted suicide at least twice. Her illness is considered to have been bipolar disorder, for which there was no effective intervention during her lifetime. At age 59, Woolf committed suicide in 1941 by putting rocks in her coat pockets and drowning herself in the River Ouse. During the interwar period, Woolf was an important part of London's artistic society. In 1915 she published her first novel, The Voyage Out, through her half-brother's publishing house, Gerald Duckworth and Company, her best-known works include the novels Mrs Dalloway, To the Orlando. She is known for her essays, including A Room of One's Own, in which she wrote the much-quoted dictum, "A woman must have money and a room of her own if she is to write fiction." Woolf became one of the central subjects of the 1970s movement of feminist criticism and her works have since garnered much attention and widespread commentary for "inspiring feminism." Her works have been translated into more than 50 languages.
A large body of literature is dedicated to her life and work, she has been the subject of plays and films. Woolf is commemorated today by statues, societies dedicated to her work and a building at the University of London. Virginia Woolf was born Adeline Virginia Stephen on 25 January 1882 at 22 Hyde Park Gate in South Kensington, London to Julia and Leslie Stephen, historian, essayist and mountaineer. Julia Jackson was born in 1846 in Calcutta, British India to Dr. John Jackson and Maria "Mia" Theodosia Pattle, from two Anglo-Indian families. John Jackson FRCS was the third son of George Jackson and Mary Howard of Bengal, a physician who spent 25 years with the Bengal Medical Service and East India Company and a professor at the fledgling Calcutta Medical College. While John Jackson was an invisible presence, the Pattle family were famous beauties, moved in the upper circles of Bengali society; the seven Pattle sisters married into important families. Julia Margaret Cameron was a celebrated photographer, while Virginia married Earl Somers, their daughter, Julia Jackson's cousin, was Lady Henry Somerset, the temperance leader.
Julia moved to England with her mother at the age of two and spent much of her early life with another of her mother's sister, Sarah Monckton Pattle. Sarah and her husband Henry Thoby Prinsep, conducted an artistic and literary salon at Little Holland House where she came into contact with a number of Pre-Raphaelite painters such as Edward Burne-Jones, for whom she modelled. Julia was the youngest of three sisters and Adeline Virginia Stephen was named after her mother's eldest sister Adeline Maria Jackson and her mother's aunt Virginia Pattle; because of the tragedy of her aunt Adeline's death the previous year, the family never used Virginia's first name. The Jacksons were a well educated and artistic proconsular middle-class family. In 1867, Julia Jackson married Herbert Duckworth, a barrister, but within three years was left a widow with three infant children, she was devastated and entered a prolonged period of mourning, abandoning her faith and turning to nursing and philanthropy. Julia and Herbert Duckworth had three children.
Virtual International Authority File
The Virtual International Authority File is an international authority file. It is a joint project of several national libraries and operated by the Online Computer Library Center. Discussion about having a common international authority started in the late 1990s. After a series of failed attempts to come up with a unique common authority file, the new idea was to link existing national authorities; this would present all the benefits of a common file without requiring a large investment of time and expense in the process. The project was initiated by the US Library of Congress, the German National Library and the OCLC on August 6, 2003; the Bibliothèque nationale de France joined the project on October 5, 2007. The project transitioned to being a service of the OCLC on April 4, 2012; the aim is to link the national authority files to a single virtual authority file. In this file, identical records from the different data sets are linked together. A VIAF record receives a standard data number, contains the primary "see" and "see also" records from the original records, refers to the original authority records.
The data are available for research and data exchange and sharing. Reciprocal updating uses the Open Archives Initiative Protocol for Metadata Harvesting protocol; the file numbers are being added to Wikipedia biographical articles and are incorporated into Wikidata. VIAF's clustering algorithm is run every month; as more data are added from participating libraries, clusters of authority records may coalesce or split, leading to some fluctuation in the VIAF identifier of certain authority records. Authority control Faceted Application of Subject Terminology Integrated Authority File International Standard Authority Data Number International Standard Name Identifier Wikipedia's authority control template for articles Official website VIAF at OCLC
Dictionary of National Biography
The Dictionary of National Biography is a standard work of reference on notable figures from British history, published since 1885. The updated Oxford Dictionary of National Biography was published on 23 September 2004 in 60 volumes and online, with 50,113 biographical articles covering 54,922 lives. Hoping to emulate national biographical collections published elsewhere in Europe, such as the Allgemeine Deutsche Biographie, in 1882 the publisher George Smith, of Smith, Elder & Co. planned a universal dictionary that would include biographical entries on individuals from world history. He approached Leslie Stephen editor of the Cornhill Magazine, owned by Smith, to become the editor. Stephen persuaded Smith that the work should focus only on subjects from the United Kingdom and its present and former colonies. An early working title was the Biographia Britannica, the name of an earlier eighteenth-century reference work; the first volume of the Dictionary of National Biography appeared on 1 January 1885.
In May 1891 Leslie Stephen resigned and Sidney Lee, Stephen's assistant editor from the beginning of the project, succeeded him as editor. A dedicated team of sub-editors and researchers worked under Stephen and Lee, combining a variety of talents from veteran journalists to young scholars who cut their academic teeth on dictionary articles at a time when postgraduate historical research in British universities was still in its infancy. While much of the dictionary was written in-house, the DNB relied on external contributors, who included several respected writers and scholars of the late nineteenth century. By 1900, more than 700 individuals had contributed to the work. Successive volumes appeared quarterly with complete punctuality until midsummer 1900, when the series closed with volume 63; the year of publication, the editor and the range of names in each volume is given below. Since the scope included only deceased figures, the DNB was soon extended by the issue of three supplementary volumes, covering subjects who had died between 1885 and 1900 or, overlooked in the original alphabetical sequence.
The supplements brought the whole work up to the death of Queen Victoria on 22 January 1901. Corrections were added. After issuing a volume of errata in 1904, the dictionary was reissued with minor revisions in 22 volumes in 1908 and 1909. In the words of the Encyclopædia Britannica Eleventh Edition, the dictionary had "proved of inestimable service in elucidating the private annals of the British", providing not only concise lives of the notable deceased, but additionally lists of sources which were invaluable to researchers in a period when few libraries or collections of manuscripts had published catalogues or indices, the production of indices to periodical literatures was just beginning. Throughout the twentieth century, further volumes were published for those who had died on a decade-by-decade basis, beginning in 1912 with a supplement edited by Lee covering those who died between 1901 and 1911; the dictionary was transferred from its original publishers, Elder & Co. to Oxford University Press in 1917.
Until 1996, Oxford University Press continued to add further supplements featuring articles on subjects who had died during the twentieth century. The supplements published between 1912 and 1996 added about 6,000 lives of people who died in the twentieth century to the 29,120 in the 63 volumes of the original DNB. In 1993 a volume containing missing biographies was published; this had an additional 1,000 lives, selected from over 100,000 suggestions. This did not seek to replace any articles on existing DNB subjects though the original work had been written from a Victorian perspective and had become out of date due to changes in historical assessments and discoveries of new information during the twentieth century; the dictionary was becoming less and less useful as a reference work. In 1966, the University of London published a volume of corrections, cumulated from the Bulletin of the Institute of Historical Research. There were various versions of the Concise Dictionary of National Biography, which covered everyone in the main work but with much shorter articles.
The last edition, in three volumes, covered everyone who died before 1986. In the early 1990s Oxford University Press committed itself to overhauling the DNB. Work on what was known until 2001 as the New Dictionary of National Biography, or New DNB, began in 1992 under the editorship of Colin Matthew, professor of Modern History at the University of Oxford. Matthew decided that no subjects from the old dictionary would be excluded, however insignificant the subjects appeared to a late twentieth-century eye. Suggestions for new subjects were solicited through questionnaires placed in libraries and universities and, as the 1990s advanced and assessed by the editor, the 12 external consultant editors and several hundred associate editors and in-house staff. Digitization of the DNB was performed by the Alliance Photosetting Company in India; the new dictionary would cover British history, "broadly defined", up to 31 December 2000. The research project was conceived as a collaborative one, with in-house staff co-ordinating the work of
Royal College of Physicians
The Royal College of Physicians is a British professional body dedicated to improving the practice of medicine, chiefly through the accreditation of physicians by examination. Founded in 1518, it set the first international standard in the classification of diseases, its library contains medical texts of great historical interest; the college hosts four training faculties: the Faculty of Forensic and Legal Medicine, the Faculty for Pharmaceutical Medicine, the Faculty of Occupational Medicine and the Faculty of Physician Associates. The college is sometimes referred to as the Royal College of Physicians of London to differentiate it from other named bodies, its home in Regent's Park is one of the few post-war buildings to be granted Grade. In 2016 it was announced that the North of England centre of excellence was to be based at a new building in the Liverpool Knowledge Quarter in Liverpool; the new centre is set to open in 2020. A small group of distinguished physicians, led by the scholar and priest Thomas Linacre, petitioned King Henry VIII to be incorporated into a College similar to those found in a number of other European countries.
The main functions of the college, as set down in the founding Charter, were to grant licences to those qualified to practise and to punish unqualified practitioners and those engaging in malpractice. This included apothecaries as well as physicians, it was founded as the College of Physicians when it received a Royal Charter in 1518, affirmed by Act of Parliament in 1523. It is not known when the name "Royal College" was first granted, it came into use after the charter of 1663. It was confirmed in 1960 by the Royal College of Physicians of London Act; the college has been continuously active in improving the practice of medicine since its foundation though the accreditation of physicians. It is a member of the UK Academy of Medical Royal Colleges, it is sometimes referred to as the Royal College of Physicians of London to differentiate it from other named bodies. It was the first College of Physicians in Ireland, its establishment followed the incorporation of the Barber-Surgeons of Dublin in 1446, the first medical corporation in Ireland or Britain.
The college was based at three sites in the City of London near St Paul's Cathedral, before moving to Pall Mall East, on to its current location in Regent's Park. The first Harveian Librarian was a fellow of the college and a friend of Harvey, he was set up with a lifetime appointment that compensated him with room and board and a small stipend. In 1666, the Great fire of London destroyed many of the rooms and most of the books, so they tried to break the contract with Merret, but he fought them at the King's Court, claiming it was a lifetime appointment, he lost the case, was expelled from the Fellowship, had to seek private lodgings and return the books he had rescued from the fire. Throughout its history the college has issued advice across the whole range of medical and health matters. College publications include the first ten editions of the London Pharmacopoeia, the'Nomenclature of Diseases' in 1869; the latter created the international standard for the classification of diseases, to last until the World Health Organization's Manual of the international classification of diseases superseded it in the twentieth century.
The college became the licensing body for medical books in the late seventeenth century, sought to set new standards in learning through its own system of examinations. The college's tradition of examining continues to this day and it is still how the college is best known to the general public; the Royal College of Physicians celebrated its 500-year anniversary in 2018. The MRCP postnominal is used by doctors who have passed the examinations for the Diploma of Membership of the Royal Colleges of Physicians of the United Kingdom, which are held jointly by all of the UK Royal Colleges of Physicians. Holders of the MRCP may become "Collegiate Members" of the London College and/or of the other two UK colleges. Affiliate membership of the Royal College of Physicians is a similar level of membership as collegiate membership, but is awarded to senior doctors without MRCP. Both Collegiate Members and Affiliate Members may be considered for advancement to fellowship of the college; the college has associate, medical student, foundation doctor levels of membership.
Fellows of the Royal College of Physicians are elected from the general membership, but occasionally from among the members of the more specialised faculties within the Royal Colleges of Physicians, e.g. Occupational Medicine, Pharmaceutical Medicine, Forensic and Legal Medicine, etc. There are fellows who are elected de jure and honoris causa; the diploma of Licentiate of the Royal College of Physicians is no longer awarded. The LRCP qualification used to be reserved for medical graduates, in practice Bachelors of Medicine from Oxford and C
John Charles Bucknill
Sir John Charles Bucknill was an English psychiatrist and mental health reformer. He was the father of judge Sir Thomas Townsend Bucknill QC MP. Bucknill was born in Market Bosworth and educated at Rugby School and at University College, London, he served as an assistant to his father, a surgeon, began formal medical training in Dublin, transferring after a year to the University of London. Bucknill believed, he became acquainted with Dr. John Conolly's work at the Hanwell Asylum in Middlesex where no restraints were used to control agitated patients. Bucknill became an ardent supporter of this procedure, he had the protection of the civil rights of patients. He qualified as a doctor in 1840, obtained a Licentiate in the Society of Apothecaries and membership in the Royal College of Surgeons, he worked as a surgeon's dresser at University College Hospital and began private practice in Chelsea. From 1844 to 1862 he was medical superintendent at Devon County Asylum. In 1875, Bucknill travelled to America.
He visited ten asylums in the United States and three in Canada, reporting his findings in a book titled Notes on Asylums for the Insane in America. He praised the private Pennsylvania Hospital in Philadelphia, McLean in Boston, Bloomingdale in New York, but was critical of the public asylum, Blockley in Philadelphia and the New York City asylums on Ward's and Blackwell's Islands, he approved of the National Hospital for the Insane in Washington. He met Dorothea Dix in Washington and saw her again when she visited England. During his American visit he was invited to attend the annual meeting of the Association of Medical Superintendents of American Institutions for the Insane held in Nashville in 1875, he and the Superintendents disagreed about the practice of non-restraint for agitated patients. The Superintendents were unanimous in the opinion that they could not manage the hospitals without restraints. Bucknill offered a wager of 100 pounds if anyone would visit public British asylums and find restraint in use.
There were no takers. The Association elected him their first honorary member. In 1853 he founded the Journal of Mental Science, which he edited until 1862, was co-founder of the journal Brain, he was elected fellow of the Royal College of Physicians in 1859 and gave their annual Lumleian Lectures in 1878. He was knighted in 1894, he retired from London to Bournemouth and lived the life of a country gentleman. He died in 1897. Bucknill, J. C. Unsoundness of mind in relation to criminal acts. An essay to which the first Sugden prize was awarded by the King & Queen's college of physicians in Ireland, London:: Longman, Green, Longmans & Roberts https://archive.org/details/unsoundnessofmin00buck Bucknill, J. C.. H. Manual of psychological medicine: containing history, description, diagnosis and treatment of insanity, with an appendix of cases, London: Churchill https://archive.org/details/manualofpsycholo00buck Bucknill, J. C. Psychology of Shakespeare, London: Longman, Green, Longmans & Roberts https://archive.org/details/cu31924098139573 Bucknill, J.
C. The Medical Knowledge of Shakespeare https://archive.org/details/cu31924013163773 Bucknill, J. C; the Mad Folk of Shakespeare. Psychological essays and Cambridge: Macmillan and Co. https://archive.org/details/cu31924013163849 Bucknill, J. C. Notes on Asylums for the Insane in America, London: Churchill https://archive.org/details/notesonasylumsfo00buckrich Bucknill, J. C.. P. Bacon, Steam Printing Office Bucknill, J. C. Habitual drunkenness and insane drunkards, London: Macmillan and Co. https://archive.org/details/39002086347797.med.yale.edu Bucknill, J. C. Care of the Insane and their Legal Control https://archive.org/details/39002086343382.med.yale.edu Power, D'Arcy. "Bucknill, John Charles". In Lee, Sidney. Dictionary of National Biography. 1. London: Smith, Elder & Co. p. 331
Brighton is a seaside resort on the south coast of England, part of the City of Brighton and Hove, located 47 miles south of London. Archaeological evidence of settlement in the area dates back to the Bronze Age and Anglo-Saxon periods; the ancient settlement of "Brighthelmstone" was documented in the Domesday Book. The town's importance grew in the Middle Ages as the Old Town developed, but it languished in the early modern period, affected by foreign attacks, storms, a suffering economy and a declining population. Brighton began to attract more visitors following improved road transport to London and becoming a boarding point for boats travelling to France; the town developed in popularity as a health resort for sea bathing as a purported cure for illnesses. In the Georgian era, Brighton developed as a fashionable seaside resort, encouraged by the patronage of the Prince Regent King George IV, who spent much time in the town and constructed the Royal Pavilion in the Regency era. Brighton continued to grow as a major centre of tourism following the arrival of the railways in 1841, becoming a popular destination for day-trippers from London.
Many of the major attractions were built in the Victorian era, including the Metropole Hotel Grand Hotel, the West Pier, the Brighton Palace Pier. The town continued to grow into the 20th century, expanding to incorporate more areas into the town's boundaries before joining the town of Hove to form the unitary authority of Brighton and Hove in 1997, granted city status in 2000. Today and Hove district has a resident population of about 288,200 and the wider Brighton and Hove conurbation has a population of 474,485. Brighton's location has made it a popular destination for tourists, renowned for its diverse communities, quirky shopping areas, large cultural and arts scene and its large LGBT population, leading to its recognition as the "unofficial gay capital of the UK". Brighton attracted 7.5 million day visitors in 2015/16 and 4.9 million overnight visitors, is the most popular seaside destination in the UK for overseas tourists. Brighton has been called the UK's "hippest city", "the happiest place to live in the UK".
Brighton's earliest name was Bristelmestune, recorded in the Domesday Book. Although more than 40 variations have been documented, Brighthelmstone was the standard rendering between the 14th and 18th centuries."Brighton" was an informal shortened form, first seen in 1660. The name is of Anglo-Saxon origin. Most scholars believe that it derives from Beorthelm + tūn—the homestead of Beorthelm, a common Old English name associated with villages elsewhere in England; the tūn element is common in Sussex on the coast, although it occurs infrequently in combination with a personal name. An alternative etymology taken from the Old English words for "stony valley" is sometimes given but has less acceptance. Brighthelm gives its name to, among other things, a church and a pub in Brighton and some halls of residence at the University of Sussex. Writing in 1950, historian Antony Dale noted that unnamed antiquaries had suggested an Old English word "brist" or "briz", meaning "divided", could have contributed the first part of the historic name Brighthelmstone.
The town was split in half by the Wellesbourne, a winterbourne, culverted and buried in the 18th century. Brighton has several nicknames. Poet Horace Smith called it "The Queen of Watering Places", still used, "Old Ocean's Bauble". Novelist William Makepeace Thackeray referred to "Doctor Brighton", calling the town "one of the best of Physicians". "London-by-the-Sea" is well-known, reflecting Brighton's popularity with Londoners as a day-trip resort, a commuter dormitory and a desirable destination for those wanting to move out of the metropolis. "The Queen of Slaughtering Places", a pun on Smith's description, became popular when the Brighton trunk murders came to the public's attention in the 1930s. The mid 19th-century nickname "School Town" referred to the remarkable number of boarding and church schools in the town at the time; the first settlement in the Brighton area was Whitehawk Camp, a Neolithic encampment on Whitehawk Hill, dated to between 3500 BC and 2700 BC. It is one of six causewayed enclosures in Sussex.
Archaeologists have only explored it, but have found numerous burial mounds and bones, suggesting it was a place of some importance. There was a Bronze Age settlement at Coldean. Brythonic Celts arrived in Britain in the 7th century BC, an important Brythonic settlement existed at Hollingbury Castle on Hollingbury Hill; this Celtic Iron Age encampment dates from the 3rd or 2nd century BC and is circumscribed by substantial earthwork outer walls with a diameter of c. 1,000 feet. Cissbury Ring 10 miles from Hollingbury, is suggested to have been the tribal "capital". There was a Roman villa at Preston Village, a Roman road from London ran nearby, much physical evidence of Roman occupation has been discovered locally. From the 1st century AD, the Romans built a number of villas in Brighton and Romano-British Brythonic Celts formed farming settlements in the area. After the Romans left in the early 4th century AD, the Brighton area returned to the control of the native Celts. Anglo-Saxons invaded in the late 5th century AD, the region became part of the Kingdom of Sussex, founded in 477 AD by king Ælle.
Anthony Seldon identified five phases of development in pre-20th century Brighton. The village of Bristelmestune was founded by these