Peter the Patrician
Peter the Patrician was a senior East Roman or Byzantine official and historian. A well-educated and successful lawyer, he was sent as envoy to Ostrogothic Italy in the prelude to the Gothic War of 535–554. Despite his diplomatic skill, he was not able to avert war, was imprisoned by the Goths in Ravenna for a few years. Upon his release, he was appointed to the post of magister officiorum, head of the imperial secretariat, which he held for an unparalleled 26 years. In this capacity, he was one of the leading ministers of Emperor Justinian I, playing an important role in the Byzantine emperor's religious policies and the relations with Sassanid Persia, his historical writings survive only in fragments, but provide unique source material on early Byzantine ceremonies and diplomatic issues between Byzantium and the Sassanids. Peter was born in Thessalonica about the year 500, was of Illyrian origin according to Procopius. After studying law, he embarked on a successful career as a lawyer in Constantinople, which brought him to the attention of Empress Theodora.
In 534, on account of his rhetorical skills, he was employed as an imperial envoy to the Ostrogothic court at Ravenna. At the time, a power struggle was developing there between Queen Amalasuntha, regent to the young king Athalaric, her cousin Theodahad. Following the death of Athalaric, Theodahad usurped the throne, imprisoned Amalasuntha, sent messages to Emperor Justinian hoping for recognition. Peter met the envoys at Aulon, on his way to Italy, notified Constantinople, seeking new instructions. Emperor Justinian ordered him to convey the message to Theodahad that Amalasuntha was under the Emperor's protection and not to be harmed. At the time Peter arrived in Italy, Amalasuntha had been killed. Whatever assurances might have been given by Theodora to Theodahad, in public, Peter condemned the act, declared that there would be "war without truce between the emperor and themselves" as a result. Peter returned to Constantinople with letters from Theodahad and the Roman Senate to the imperial couple, bearing pleas for a peaceful solution, but by the time he reached the imperial capital, Emperor Justinian had resolved on war and was preparing his forces.
Peter returned to Italy in the summer of 535 conveying an ultimatum: only if Theodahad abdicated and returned Italy to imperial rule, could war be averted. A two-pronged Byzantine offensive followed soon thereafter, attacking the outlying possessions of the Ostrogothic kingdom: Belisarius took Sicily, while Mundus invaded Dalmatia. Upon hearing these news, Theodahad despaired, Peter was able to secure wide-ranging concessions from him: Sicily was to be ceded to the Byzantine Empire. Theodahad, fearing that his first offer would be rejected instructed Peter, under oath, to offer the cession of all Italy, but only if the original concessions were rejected by Justinian. In the event, Justinian rejected the first proposal, was delighted to learn of the second one. Peter was sent back to Italy with Athanasius, bearing letters to Theodahad and the Gothic nobles, for a time it seemed as if the cradle of the Roman Empire would return peacefully to the fold, it was not to be: upon their arrival in Ravenna, the Byzantine envoys found Theodahad in a changed disposition.
Supported by the Gothic nobility and buoyed up by a success against Mundus in Dalmatia, he resolved to resist, imprisoned the ambassadors. Peter remained imprisoned in Ravenna for three years, until released in June/July 539 by the new Gothic king, Witigis, in exchange for Gothic envoys sent to Persia, captured by the Byzantines; as a reward for his services, Emperor Justinian appointed Peter to the post of magister officiorum, one of the highest positions in the state, heading the palace secretariat, the imperial guards, the Public Post with the dreaded agentes in rebus. He would hold this post for 26 consecutive years, longer by a wide margin than any other before or after. At about the same time or shortly thereafter, he was raised to the supreme title of patrician and the supreme senatorial rank of gloriosissimus, he was awarded an honorary consulship. As magister, he took part in the discussions with Western bishops in 548 on the Three-Chapter Controversy, was sent as an envoy in 551–553 to Pope Vigilius, who opposed the emperor on the issue.
Peter is recorded as attending the Second Council of Constantinople in May 553. In 550, he was sent as envoy by Justinian to negotiate a peace treaty with Persia, a role he reprised in 561, when he met the Persian envoy Izedh Gushnap at Dara, to end the Lazic War. Reaching an agreement over the Persian evacuation of Lazica and the delineation of the border in Armenia, the two envoys concluded a fifty-year peace between the two empires and their respective allies; the annual Roman subsidies to Persia would resume, but the amount was lowered from 500 to 420 pounds of gold. Further clause
Ottoman Imperial Harem
The Imperial Harem of the Ottoman Empire was the Ottoman sultan's harem composed of the wives, female relatives, the sultan's concubines, occupying a secluded portion of the Ottoman imperial household. This institution played an important social function within the Ottoman court, demonstrated considerable political authority in Ottoman affairs during the long period known as the Sultanate of Women; the utmost authority in the Imperial Harem was the Valide Sultan, who ruled over the other women in the household and was of slave origin herself. The Kizlar Agha was the head of the eunuchs responsible for guarding the Imperial Harem; the word harem is derived from the Arabic harim or haram which give connotations of the sacred and forbidden. The female quarters of Turkish households were referred to as haremlik due to their prevailing exclusivity; the harem was the ultimate symbol of the Sultan's power. His ownership of women slaves, was a sign of wealth and sexual prowess; the institution was introduced in the Turkish society with adoption of Islam, under the influence of the Arab Caliphate, which the Ottomans emulated.
To ensure the obedience of the women, many of them were kept into slavery. However, not all members of the Harem were slaves; the main wives those taken into marriage to consolidate personal and dynastic alliances were free women. This was the exception, not the rule; the relationship between slavery and polygamy/harems in the Turkish Harem continued until 1908, at the least. The imperial harem served as a parallel institution to the sultan's household of male servants; the women were provided with an education on par with that provided to male pages, at the end of their respective educations they would be married off to one another, as the latter graduated from the palace to occupy administrative posts in the empire's provinces. Only a small fraction of the women in the harem engaged in sexual relations with the sultan, as most were destined to marry members of the Ottoman political elite, or else to continue service to the Valide Sultan; the Imperial Harem occupied one of the large sections of the private apartments of the sultan at the Topkapi Palace which encompassed more than 400 rooms.
After 1853, an lavish harem quarter was occupied at the new imperial palace at Dolmabahçe. The mother of a new sultan came to the harem with pomp and assumed the title of valide sultan or sultana mother upon her son's ascension, she ran the Harem and ruled over the members of the dynasty. The Valide Sultan who influenced the political life of the Ottoman Empire during various periods of history had the authority to regulate the relations between the sultan and his wives and children. At times the valide sultan acted as regent for her son in the seventeenth century, when a series of accidents necessitated regencies that endowed the position of Queen Mother with great political power. In 1868, Empress Eugénie of France visited the Imperial harem, to have a lasting effect, she was taken by the sultan Abdülaziz to his mother, Valide Sultan Pertevniyal Sultan, but Pertevniyal became outraged by the presence of a foreign woman in her harem, greeted the Empress with a slap in the face provoking an international incident.
The visit of the Empress, did cause a dress reform in the harem by making Western fashion popular among the harem women, who dressed according to Western fashion after. For the perpetuation and service of the Ottoman Dynasty and intelligent slave girls were either captured in war, recruited within the empire, or procured from neighbouring countries to become imperial court ladies. Odalisque, a word derived from the Turkish oda, meaning chamber: thus connoting odalisque to mean chamber girl or attendant, was not a term synonymous with concubine; the court ladies who were introduced into the harem in their tender age were brought up in the discipline of the palace. They became kalfas and ustas; the court ladies with whom the sultan shared his bed became a member of the dynasty and rose in rank to attain the status of Gözde, Ikbal or Kadın. The highest position was the Valide Sultan, the legal mother of the sultan, who herself used to be a wife or a concubine of the sultan's father and rose to the supreme rank in the harem.
No court lady could leave or enter the premises of the harem without the explicit permission of the valide sultan. The power of the valide sultan over concubines extended to questions of life and death, with eunuchs directly reporting to her; the court ladies either lived in the halls beneath the apartments of the consorts, the valide sultan and the sultan, or in separate chambers. The kadıns, who numbered up to four, formed the group. Right below the kadıns in rank were the ikbals, whose number was unspecified. Last in the hierarchy were the gözdes. During 16th and 17th century, chief consort of the sultan received title haseki sultan or sultana consort; this title surpassed other titles and ranks by which the prominent consorts of the sultans had been known. When the position of valide sultan was vacant, a haseki could take valide's role, have access to considerable economic resources, become chief of imperial harem, sultan's a
John VIII Palaiologos
John VIII Palaiologos or Palaeologus was the penultimate reigning Byzantine Emperor, ruling from 1425 to 1448. John VIII Palaiologos was the eldest son of Manuel II Palaiologos and Helena Dragaš, the daughter of the Serbian prince Constantine Dragaš, he was associated as co-emperor with his father before 1416 and became sole emperor in 1425. In June 1422, John VIII Palaiologos supervised the defense of Constantinople during a siege by Murad II, but had to accept the loss of Thessalonica, which his brother Andronikos had given to Venice in 1423. To secure protection against the Ottomans, he visited Pope Eugene IV and consented to the union of the Greek and Roman churches; the Union was ratified at the Council of Florence in 1439, which John attended with 700 followers including Patriarch Joseph II of Constantinople and George Gemistos Plethon, a Neoplatonist philosopher influential among the academics of Italy. The Union failed due to opposition in Constantinople, but through his prudent conduct towards the Ottoman Empire he succeeded in holding possession of the city.
John VIII Palaiologos named his brother Constantine XI, who had served as regent in Constantinople in 1437–1439, as his successor. Despite the machinations of his younger brother Demetrios Palaiologos his mother Helena was able to secure Constantine XI's succession in 1448. John VIII died at Constantinople in 1448, becoming the last reigning Byzantine emperor to die of natural causes. John VIII Palaiologos was married three times, his first marriage was in 1414 to Anna of Moscow, daughter of Grand Prince Basil I of Moscow and Sophia of Lithuania. She died in August 1417 of plague; the second marriage, arranged by his father Manuel II and Pope Martin V, was to Sophia of Montferrat in 1421. She was a daughter of Theodore II, Marquess of Montferrat, his second wife Joanna of Bar. Joanna was a daughter of Robert I, Duke of Bar, Marie de Valois, her maternal grandparents were John II of Bonne of Bohemia. His third marriage, arranged by the future cardinal, was to Maria of Trebizond in 1427, she was a daughter of Alexios IV of Theodora Kantakouzene.
She died in the winter of 1439 from plague. None of the marriages produced any children. John was the last Roman Emperor to both have an Empress consort and multiple consorts as the wives of his brother and only successor, Constantine XI Palaiologos, had died before he became emperor in 1449. John VIII Palaiologos was famously depicted by several painters on the occasion of his visit to Italy; the most famous of his portraits is the one by Benozzo Gozzoli, on the southern wall of the Magi Chapel, at the Palazzo Medici-Riccardi, in Florence. According to some interpretations, John VIII would be portrayed in Piero della Francesca's Flagellation. A portrait of John appears in a manuscript at the Saint Catherine's Monastery in the Sinai Peninsula. List of Byzantine emperors Oxford Dictionary of Byzantium, 1991; this article incorporates text from a publication now in the public domain: Chisholm, Hugh, ed.. "John VI or VII". Encyclopædia Britannica. 15. Cambridge University Press. P. 439. Harris, The End of Byzantium.
New Haven and London: Yale University Press, 2010. ISBN 978-0-300-11786-8 Kolditz, Johannes VIII. Palaiologos und das Konzil von Ferrara-Florenz. 2 Vol. Stuttgart: Anton Hiersemann Verlag 2013-2014, ISBN 978-3-7772-1319-4. Lazaris, Stavros, "L’empereur Jean VIII Paléologue vu par Pisanello lors du concile de Ferrare – Florence", Byzantinische Forschungen, 29, 2007, p. 293-324 Nicol, Donald M.. The Last Centuries of Byzantium, 1261-1453. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press
Sir James Cochran Stevenson Runciman, CH, FBA, known as Steven Runciman, was an English historian best known for his three-volume A History of the Crusades. His three-volume history has had a profound impact on common conceptions of the Crusades portraying the Crusaders negatively and the Muslims favourably. Runciman was a strong admirer of the Byzantine Empire, held a bias against the Crusaders for the Fourth Crusade evident in his work. While praised by older crusade historians as a storyteller and prose stylist, he is viewed as biased by some contemporary historians. Born in Northumberland, he was the second son of Walter Runciman, 1st Viscount Runciman of Doxford, Hilda Runciman, Viscountess Runciman of Doxford. Both of his parents were or became members of parliament for the Liberal Party, were the first married couple to sit in Parliament, his father was created Viscount Runciman of Doxford in 1937. His paternal grandfather, Walter Runciman, 1st Baron Runciman, was a shipping magnate, he was named after James Cochran Stevenson, the MP for South Shields.
It is said that he was reading Greek by the age of five. In the course of his long life he would master an astonishing number of languages, so that, for example, when writing about the Middle East, he relied not only on accounts in Latin and Greek and the Western vernaculars, but consulted Arabic, Persian, Syriac and Georgian sources as well. A King's Scholar at Eton College, he was an exact close friend of George Orwell. While there, they both studied French under Aldous Huxley. In 1921 he entered Trinity College, Cambridge as a history scholar and studied under J. B. Bury, becoming, as Runciman claimed, falsely, "his first, only, student". At first the reclusive Bury tried to brush him off, his work on the Byzantine Empire earned him a fellowship at Trinity in 1927. After receiving a large inheritance from his grandfather, Runciman resigned his fellowship in 1938 and began travelling widely. Thus, for much of his life he was an independent scholar, he went on to be a press attache at the British Legation in the Bulgarian capital, Sofia, in 1940 and at the British Embassy in Cairo in 1941.
From 1942 to 1945 he was Professor of Byzantine Art and History at Istanbul University, in Turkey, where he began the research on the Crusades which would lead to his best known work, the History of the Crusades. From 1945 to 1947 he was a representative in Athens of the British Council. Most of Runciman's historical works deal with Byzantium and her medieval neighbours between Sicily and Syria. Jonathan Riley-Smith, one of the leading historians of the Crusades, denounced Runciman for his perspective on the Crusades. Riley-Smith had been told by Runciman during an on-camera interview that he considered himself "not a historian, but a writer of literature."According to Christopher Tyerman and Tutor in History at Hertford College and Lecturer in Medieval History at New College, Runciman created a work that "across the Anglophone world continues as a base reference for popular attitudes, evident in print, television and on the internet."Runciman held sympathies toward the Byzantine Empire and blamed the Crusaders, whom he considered "intolerant barbarians", for causing the downfall of Constantinople in the Fourth Crusade.
Less than a decade after the Second World War ended, Runciman called the Fourth Crusade the greatest crime committed against humanity. In his personal life, Runciman was an old-fashioned English eccentric, among other things, as an aesthete and enthusiast of the occult. According to Andrew Robinson, a history teacher at Eton, "he played piano duets with the last Emperor of China, told tarot cards for King Fuad of Egypt, narrowly missed being blown up by the Germans in the Pera Palace hotel in Istanbul and twice hit the jackpot on slot machines in Las Vegas". Runciman was gay. There is little evidence of a long-term lover but Runciman boasted of a number of casual sexual encounters - telling a friend in life: "I have the temperament of a harlot, so am free of emotional complications." Runciman was discreet about his homosexuality perhaps because of religious feelings that homosexuality was "an inarguable offence against God". Runciman felt that his sexuality had held back his career. Max Mallowan related a conversation where Runciman told him "that he felt his life had been a failure because of his gayness".
He died in Radway, while visiting relatives, aged 97. He never married. Earlier the same year, he had made a final visit to Mount Athos to witness the blessing of the Protaton Tower at Karyes, refurbished thanks to a gift from him, he was interred in Dumfriesshire. Edward Peters claims Runciman's three-volume narrative history, "instantly became the most known and respected single-author survey of the subject in English."John M. Riddle says that for the greater part of the twentieth century Runciman was the "greatest historian of the Crusades." He reports that, "Prior to Runciman, in the early part of the century, historians related the Crusades as an idealistic attempt of Christendom to push Islam back." Runcim
Patras is Greece's third-largest city and the regional capital of Western Greece, in the northern Peloponnese, 215 km west of Athens. The city is built at the foothills of Mount Panachaikon. Patras has a population of 213,984; the core settlement has a history spanning for four millennia. According to the results of 2011 census, the metropolitan area has a population of 260,308 and extends over an area of 738.87 km2. Dubbed as Greece's Gate to the West, Patras is a commercial hub, while its busy port is a nodal point for trade and communication with Italy and the rest of Western Europe; the city has two public universities and one Technological Institute, hosting a large student population and rendering Patras an important scientific centre with a field of excellence in technological education. The Rio-Antirio bridge connects Patras' easternmost suburb of Rio to the town of Antirrio, connecting the Peloponnese peninsula with mainland Greece; every year, in February, the city hosts one of Europe's largest carnivals: notable features of the Patras Carnival include its mammoth satirical floats and balls and parades, enjoyed by hundreds of thousands of visitors in a Mediterranean climate.
Patras is famous for supporting an indigenous cultural scene active in the performing arts and modern urban literature. It was European Capital of Culture in 2006. Patras is 215 km west of Athens by road, 94 km northeast of Pyrgos, 7 kilometres south of Rio, 134 km west of Corinth, 77 km northwest of Kalavryta, 144 km northwest of Tripoli. A central feature of the urban geography of Patras is its division into lower sections; this is the result of an interplay between natural geography and human settlement patterns. It is built on what was a bed of river soils and dried-up swamps; the older upper section covers the area of the pre-modern settlement, around the Fortress, on what is the last elevation of Mount Panachaikon before the Gulf of Patras. The largest river in the area is the Glafkos. Glafkos springs in Mount Panachaikon and its water is, since 1925, collected in a small mountainous reservoir-dam near the village of Souli and subsequently pumped in order to provide energy for the country's first hydroelectric plant.
Other rivers are Haradros and the mountain torrent Diakoniaris. Patras has a Mediterranean climate, it features the typical mild, wet winters and hot, dry summers, with spring and autumn being pleasant transitional seasons. Autumn in Patras, however, is wetter than spring. Of great importance for the biological diversity of the area and the preservation of its climate is the swamp of Agyia, a small and coastal aquatic ecosystem of only 30 ha, north of the city centre; the main features of this wetland are its apparent survival difficulty, being at the heart of a densely populated urban centre that features a arid climate and its admittedly high level of biodiversity, with over 90 species of birds being observed until the early 1990s, according to a study by the Patras Bureau of the Hellenic Ornithological Society. Another geophysical characteristic of the region is its high level of seismicity. Small tremors are recorded along the coast of Patras constantly. Larger earthquakes hit the area every few years with destructive effects.
In 1993, a 5.0-magnitude earthquake caused some damage to several buildings throughout Patras due to the proximity of the epicenter to the city. On June 15, 1995, a 6.2-magnitude earthquake hit the nearby town of Aigion causing some structural damage to a few buildings in Patras. The Ionian Islands are frequently hit by more severe earthquakes, some of which can be felt in the city. In antiquity, the most notable example of destruction caused by an earthquake in the region was the total submergence of the ancient Achaean city of Helike, now Eliki; the first traces of settlement in Patras date to as early as the third millennium BC, in the area of modern Aroe. Patras flourished for the first time in the Mycenean period. Ancient Patras was formed by the unification of three Mycenaean villages in modern Aroe. Mythology has it that after the Dorian invasion, a group of Achaeans from Laconia led by the eponymous Patreus established a colony. In antiquity Patras remained a farming city, it was in Roman times.
After 280 BC and prior to the Roman occupation of Greece, Patras played a significant role in the foundation of the second "Achaean League", along with the cities of Dyme and Pharai. On, following the Roman occupation of Greece in 146 BC, Patras played a key role, Augustus refounded the city as a Roman colony in the area. In addition, Patras has been a Christian centre since the early days of Christianity, it is the city where Saint Andrew was crucified. In the Byzantine era Patras continued to be an important port as well as an industrial centre. One of the most scholarly philosophers and theologians of the time, Arethas of Caesarea was born at Patrae, at around 860. By the 9th century, there are
Encyclopædia Britannica, Eleventh Edition
The Encyclopædia Britannica, Eleventh Edition is a 29-volume reference work, an edition of the Encyclopædia Britannica. It was developed during the encyclopaedia's transition from a British to an American publication; some of its articles were written by the best-known scholars of the time. This edition of the encyclopedia, containing 40,000 entries, is now in the public domain, many of its articles have been used as a basis for articles in Wikipedia. However, the outdated nature of some of its content makes its use as a source for modern scholarship problematic; some articles have special value and interest to modern scholars as cultural artifacts of the 19th and early 20th centuries. The 1911 eleventh edition was assembled with the management of American publisher Horace Everett Hooper. Hugh Chisholm, who had edited the previous edition, was appointed editor in chief, with Walter Alison Phillips as his principal assistant editor. Hooper bought the rights to the 25-volume 9th edition and persuaded the British newspaper The Times to issue its reprint, with eleven additional volumes as the tenth edition, published in 1902.
Hooper's association with The Times ceased in 1909, he negotiated with the Cambridge University Press to publish the 29-volume eleventh edition. Though it is perceived as a quintessentially British work, the eleventh edition had substantial American influences, not only in the increased amount of American and Canadian content, but in the efforts made to make it more popular. American marketing methods assisted sales; some 14% of the contributors were from North America, a New York office was established to coordinate their work. The initials of the encyclopedia's contributors appear at the end of selected articles or at the end of a section in the case of longer articles, such as that on China, a key is given in each volume to these initials; some articles were written by the best-known scholars of the time, such as Edmund Gosse, J. B. Bury, Algernon Charles Swinburne, John Muir, Peter Kropotkin, T. H. Huxley, James Hopwood Jeans and William Michael Rossetti. Among the lesser-known contributors were some who would become distinguished, such as Ernest Rutherford and Bertrand Russell.
Many articles were carried over from some with minimal updating. Some of the book-length articles were divided into smaller parts for easier reference, yet others much abridged; the best-known authors contributed only a single article or part of an article. Most of the work was done by British Museum scholars and other scholars; the 1911 edition was the first edition of the encyclopædia to include more than just a handful of female contributors, with 34 women contributing articles to the edition. The eleventh edition introduced a number of changes of the format of the Britannica, it was the first to be published complete, instead of the previous method of volumes being released as they were ready. The print type was subject to continual updating until publication, it was the first edition of Britannica to be issued with a comprehensive index volume in, added a categorical index, where like topics were listed. It was the first not to include long treatise-length articles. Though the overall length of the work was about the same as that of its predecessor, the number of articles had increased from 17,000 to 40,000.
It was the first edition of Britannica to include biographies of living people. Sixteen maps of the famous 9th edition of Stielers Handatlas were translated to English, converted to Imperial units, printed in Gotha, Germany by Justus Perthes and became part this edition. Editions only included Perthes' great maps as low quality reproductions. According to Coleman and Simmons, the content of the encyclopedia was distributed as follows: Hooper sold the rights to Sears Roebuck of Chicago in 1920, completing the Britannica's transition to becoming a American publication. In 1922, an additional three volumes, were published, covering the events of the intervening years, including World War I. These, together with a reprint of the eleventh edition, formed the twelfth edition of the work. A similar thirteenth edition, consisting of three volumes plus a reprint of the twelfth edition, was published in 1926, so the twelfth and thirteenth editions were related to the eleventh edition and shared much of the same content.
However, it became apparent that a more thorough update of the work was required. The fourteenth edition, published in 1929, was revised, with much text eliminated or abridged to make room for new topics; the eleventh edition was the basis of every version of the Encyclopædia Britannica until the new fifteenth edition was published in 1974, using modern information presentation. The eleventh edition's articles are still of value and interest to modern readers and scholars as a cultural artifact: the British Empire was at its maximum, imperialism was unchallenged, much of the world was still ruled by monarchs, the tragedy of the modern world wars was still in the future, they are an invaluable resource for topics omitted from modern encyclopedias for biography and the history of science and technology. As a literary text, the encyclopedia has value as an example of early 20th-century prose. For example, it employs literary devices, such as pathetic fallacy, which are not as common in modern reference texts.
In 1917, using the pseudonym of S. S. Van Dine, the US art critic and author Willard Huntington Wright published Misinforming a Nation, a 200+
Jacques Paul Migne
Jacques Paul Migne was a French priest who published inexpensive and distributed editions of theological works and the texts of the Church Fathers, with the goal of providing a universal library for the Catholic priesthood. He was born at Saint-Flour and studied theology at Orléans, he was ordained in 1824 and placed in charge of the parish of Puiseaux, in the diocese of Orléans, where his uncompromisingly Catholic and royalist sympathies did not coincide with local patriotism and the new regime of the Citizen-King. In 1833, after falling out with his bishop over a pamphlet he had published, he went to Paris, on 3 November started a journal, L'Univers religieux, which he intended to keep free of political influence, it gained 1,800 subscribers and he edited it for three years. Migne believed in the power of the press and the value of information distributed. In 1836 he opened his great publishing house, Imprimerie Catholique, at Petit-Montrouge, in Paris's outlying 14th arrondissement, he published numerous religious works in rapid succession meant for lesser clergy at prices that ensured wide circulation.
The best known of these are: Scripturae sacrae cursus completus which assembled a wide repertory of commentaries on each of the books of the Bible, Theologiae cursus, each of them in 28 vols, 1840–45. The three great series that have made his reputation were Patrologiae cursus completus, Latin series in 221 vols.. Though scholars have always criticised them, these hastily edited and distributed texts have only been replaced during a century and a half with more critically edited modern editions. Though the cheap paper of the originals has made them fragile today, the scope of the Patrologia still makes it unique and valuable, when modern editions do not yet exist, it is a far more complete collection of Patristic and literature than anything that has appeared subsequently or is to. To create so much so Migne reprinted the best or latest earlier editions available to him. In the PG the Latin translations were made in the renaissance before any Greek text had been printed, so do not match the Greek text accurately.
The indexes themselves are useful for locating references in the patristic writings. The collection is available through archive.org. His publishing house was complemented during the Second Empire by painter artists' workhalls for the decoration of churches: three of their main works, in the style of Eugène Delacroix, still remain in the choir of the church of Saint John the Baptist of Audresselles in Pas de Calais, France. Migne bypassed the bookselling establishment with direct subscriptions, his Imprimerie Catholique developed into the largest held press in France. However, on the night of 12–13 February 1868, a devastating fire, which began in the printing plant, destroyed Migne's establishment, producing religious objects. Despite his insurance contracts, Migne was only able to retrieve a pittance. Shortly afterwards Mgr Georges Darboy, Archbishop of Paris, forbade the continuance of the business and suspended him from his priestly functions; the Franco-Prussian War of 1870 inflicted further losses.
From the curia of Pope Pius IX came a decree condemning the use of Mass stipends to purchase books, which called out Migne and his publications. Migne died without having regained his former prosperity and his Imprimerie Catholique passed in 1876 into the hands of Garnier Frères; the Patrologia Latina and the Patrologia Graeca, are among the great 19th century contributions to the scholarship of patristics and the Middle Ages. Within the Roman Catholic Church, Migne's editions put many original texts for the first time into the hands of the priesthood. Works written by or about Jacques Paul Migne at Wikisource Brief biography independent research Migne Patrologia Graeca Index of Authors / Download links Faulkner University Patristics Project A growing collection of English translations of patristic texts and high-resolution scans from the comprehensive Patrologia compiled by J. P. Migne. Documenta Catholica Omnia PDF's of much of the Patrologia Latina PL at Google Book Search Polytonic Greek OCR of PG from the Lace repository at Mount Allison University: vol.
45, vol. 46 Works by Jacques-Paul Migne at Project Gutenberg Works by or about Jacques Paul Migne at Internet Archive