A wheelwright is a craftsman who builds or repairs wooden wheels. The word is the combination of "wheel" and the archaic word "wright", which comes from the Old English word "wryhta", meaning a woodworker as in Wheelwright and Arkwright This occupational name became the English surname Wheelwright, akin to Arkwright and Wright, the latter pertaining to all woodworkers, or to metal workers being called Smith; these tradesmen made wheels for carts, wagons and coaches and the belt drives of steam powered machinery. First constructing the hub, the spokes and the rim/felloe segments and assembling them all into a unit working from the center of the wheel outwards. Most wheels were made from wood, but other materials have been used, such as bone and horn, for decorative or other purposes; some earlier construction for wheels such as those used in early chariots were bound by rawhide that would be applied wet and would shrink whilst drying and binding the woodwork together. After many centuries wheels evolved to be straked with iron, a method of nailing iron plates onto the felloes to protect against wear on the ground and to help bind the wheel together.
Over millennia the overall appearance of the wheel changed but subtle changes to the design of a wooden wheel such as dishing and staggered spokes helped keep up with the demands of a changing world. During the industrial age, iron strakes were replaced by a solid iron tyre custom made by a blacksmith after the Wheelwright had measured each wheel to ensure proper fit. Iron tyres that were always made smaller than the wheel in circumference, expanded by heating in a fire hammered and pulled by devils claw on the wheel it was released into the ducking pond where the afore mentioned work was conducted; this shrank it onto the wood, closed the wooden joints. Some heavy duty wheels needed extra fastenings be they nailed or tyre bolts, the metalwork was pre-drilled, Tyre-bolts were less than tyre-nails to break off because they were bolted through the fillies; the nails were flush countersunk into the wheel's outer surface. During the second half of the 19th century, the use of pre-manufactured iron hubs and other factory-made wood and rubber wheel parts became common.
Companies such as Henry Ford developed manufacturing processes that soon made the village wheelwright obsolete. With the onset of two world wars, the trade soon went into decline and was rare by the 1960s and extinct by the year 2000. However, owing to the efforts of organisations like the Worshipful Company of Wheelwrights, wheelwrights still continue to operate in the UK. In modern times, wheelwrights continue to make and repair a wide variety of wheels, including those made from wood and banded by iron tyres; the word wheelwright remains a term used for someone who makes and repairs wheels for horse-drawn vehicles, although it is sometimes used to refer to someone who repairs wheels, wheel alignment, drums and wire spokes on modern vehicles such as automobiles and trucks. Wheels for horse-drawn vehicles continue to be constructed and repaired for use by people who use such vehicles for farming and presentations of historical events such as reenactments and living history. A modern wooden wheel consists of three main parts, the nave or hub at the centre of the wheel, the spokes radiating out from the centre and the felloes or rims around the outside.
The wheel would be bound by a steel or iron tyre depending on its historical period and purpose. The main timbers used in a traditional wooden wheel are Elm for the nave, Oak for the spokes and Ash for the felloes although this can vary in some areas depending on availability of timber and style of production. Sometimes Hickory is substituted for Oak and Ash as it is easier to bend for mass production and is quite springy for light wheels that require a bit of flexibility; the Elm is used for its interwoven grain, this prevents the nave from splitting with the force of the spokes being driven in tight. The Oak is used because it doesn't bend, compress or flex and transfers any load pressures directly from the felloes to the nave; the Ash is used for its flexibility and springy nature, this acts as a form of suspension and protects against shock damage. In the second half of the 20th century wheelwright training faded away due to a lack of demand for new wooden wheels; the skills were kept alive by small businesses, museums and trusts such as The Colonial Williamsburg Foundation and The Countryside Agency.
The Worshipful company of Wheelwrights in London maintains a flourishing apprenticeship scheme that began in 2013. Colonial Williamsburg has an ongoing apprenticeship program and has taken on new apprentices. Wheelbuilding Hendrikson, M. C.. The Secrets of Wheelwrighting: Tyres. Australia: M. C. and P. Hendrikson. Kariong, N. S. W. ISBN 0-646-31201-4. Morrison, Bruce. Wheelwrighting: A Modern Introduction. Cottonwood Press. Pp. 371. ISBN 0-9731947-0-7. Peloubet, Don. Wooden Wheel Construction. KY: Carriage Museum of America. Pp. 248. ISBN 978-1-879335-73-8. CS1 maint: Extra text: authors list Sturt, George; the Wheelwright's Shop. Cambridge University Press. ISBN 0-521-09195-0. Wright, John. Making a wheel, how to make a traditional light English pattern wheel. UK: Natural England Countryside Agency. ISBN 1-869964-57-8. "An Old Craftman Preserves." Popular Mechanics, October 1947, p. 144-145. Worshipful Company
Church of God (Seventh-Day)
The Churches of God movement is composed of a number of sabbath-keeping churches, among which the General Conference of the Church of God, or CoG7, is the best-known organization. Like the Seventh Day Baptists and the Seventh-day Adventist Church, the Churches of God observe Sabbath, the seventh day of the week; the Church of God represents a line of Sabbatarian Adventists that rejected the visions and teachings of Ellen G. White before the formation of the Seventh-day Adventist Church in 1863. Robert Coulter, ex-president and official historian of the General Conference of the Church of God, in his book The Journey: A History of the Church of God credits Gilbert Cranmer of Michigan as being the founder of the church. Cranmer was a Biblical Unitarian, he was introduced to Sabbath keeping in 1852 by Joseph Bates, known as the founder and developer of Sabbatarian Adventism. In 1858, five years before the founding of the Seventh-day Adventist Church, a group led by Cranmer separated from the Adventists who supported James Springer White and Ellen G. White.
Another independent Sabbatarian Adventist body formed in Iowa in 1860, joined with the Church of God in 1863. A publication called The Hope of Israel was started in 1863, this publication extended the influence of the body into other areas. Through this publication, the doctrines of the second advent and seventh-day Sabbath were promoted, other Christians were invited to gather for meetings; this extended the movement into Missouri and other places, in 1884 the General Conference of the Church of God was organized. They incorporated in 1899, "" was added to the name in 1923. Offices were established in Missouri. A. N. Dugger and C. O. Dodd wrote a book attempting to trace the Church's history back to the Apostles through various medieval groups that they believed were Sabbath-keeping. In the case of some of these groups, such as the Waldensians and Paulicians, that claim is disputed. A well-publicized member of the church was evangelist Herbert W. Armstrong. In 1927 Armstrong was challenged by his wife, Loma, to find a Biblical justification for keeping Sunday as the Christian Sabbath day.
Loma had come under the influence of Emma Runcorn, a member of the Seventh Day church in the Willamette Valley of Oregon. Runcorn and her husband Ora were lay leaders in the Oregon conference. Armstrong soon became a minister for a writer for the Bible Advocate journal. Within a few years, Armstrong began teaching the British-Israel Theory – the alternative history that regarded the nations of Western Europe and North America as the literal descendants of the "Lost Ten Tribes" of Israel – and the mandatory keeping of the Feast Days in Leviticus 23. Armstrong disassociated himself from the Church of God - Salem Conference over these two issues, which were not original doctrines of the Churches of God; the following information concerning the division of 1933 is taken from an online history book, History of the Seventh Day Church of God, by Richard C. Nickels; the undivided conference named "Church of God" remained until 1933. According to Church of God historian A. N. Dugger, this is how the division occurred: Church of God members across the United States felt the need for a "Bible Organization" of the Church of God.
The idea was to move the world headquarters to Jerusalem. The time and place chosen to perform this work of "reorganization" was Salem, West Virginia, on November 4, 1933. More and more had been exerted by about half of the membership for more unity, when some on the other hand felt that they were denied freedom of expression. On the one side and others held to "reorganization" of church government, clean meats, no tobacco, Passover on Nisan 14. On the other hand, Burt F. Marrs led a group of "independents" who were pro-pork and tobacco, felt Passover should be on Nisan 15. On November 4, 1933, in Salem, the Salem Conference headquarters were started. On November 6, the Bible Advocate was printed at Salem, with the continuing volume number as the one still being published in Stanberry. Shortly thereafter, the number sequence was changed due to copyright laws. From 1933 to 1949 there were two separate Church of God organizations, one at Stanberry and the other at Salem, West Virginia; the headquarters in Salem still exists today and is still formally organized under the apostolic model.
The Salem Conference has members worldwide. Dugger was for a time part of the Salem Conference, but was never part of the Church Council of the Twelve as the Church was organized; the following information concerning the reunification in the 1940s is taken from History of the Seventh Day Church of God by Richard C. Nickels; the first attempt for a merger between the Stanberry and Salem Conferences occurred in 1942. A copyright lawsuit concerning the Bible Advocate magazine and the publication of the Bible Home Instructor hindered the merger. In 1947, the Salem Council of Ministers asked Stanberry to appoint a committee to meet with their committee to discuss a new attempt for a merger; the two churches met at Fairview, Oklahoma, on February 12–17, 1948. Because of the laws under which the Stanberry group was incorporated, the earliest possible time the union of the two groups could take place was August 1949; the merger was voted on August 12–20, 1949
Congregational churches are Protestant churches in the Reformed tradition practicing congregationalist church governance, in which each congregation independently and autonomously runs its own affairs. Congregationalism, as defined by the Pew Research Center, is estimated to represent 0.5 per cent of the worldwide Protestant population. The report defines it narrowly, encompassing denominations in the United States and the United Kingdom, which can trace their history back to nonconforming Protestants, Separatists, English religious groups coming out of the English Civil War, other English dissenters not satisfied with the degree to which the Church of England had been reformed. Congregationalist tradition has a presence in the United States, the United Kingdom, Canada, South Africa, New Zealand, various island nations in the Pacific region, it has been introduced either by immigrant dissenter Protestants or by missionary organization such as the London Missionary Society. A number of evangelical Congregational churches are members of the World Evangelical Congregational Fellowship.
In the United Kingdom, many Congregational churches claim their descent from Protestant denominations formed on a theory of union published by the theologian and English separatist Robert Browne in 1582. Ideas of nonconforming Protestants during the Puritan Reformation of the Church of England laid foundation for these churches. In England, the early Congregationalists were called Separatists or Independents to distinguish them from the Calvinistic Presbyterians, whose churches embrace a polity based on the governance of elders. Congregationalists differed with the Reformed churches using episcopalian church governance, led by a bishop. Congregationalism in the United States traces its origins to the Puritans of New England, who wrote the Cambridge Platform of 1648 to describe the autonomy of the church and its association with others. Within the United States, the model of Congregational churches was carried by migrating settlers from New England into New York into the Old North West, further.
With their insistence on independent local bodies, they became important in many social reform movements, including abolitionism and women's suffrage. Modern Congregationalism in the United States is split into three bodies: the United Church of Christ, the National Association of Congregational Christian Churches and the Conservative Congregational Christian Conference, the most theologically conservative. Congregationalists believe their model of church governance fulfills the description of the early church and allows people the most direct relationship with God. Congregationalism is more identified as a movement than a single denomination, given its distinguishing commitment to the complete autonomy of the local congregation; the idea that each distinct congregation constitutes the visible Body of the church can, however, be traced to John Wycliffe and the Lollard movement, which followed Wycliffe's removal from teaching authority in the Roman Catholic Church. The early Congregationalists shared with Anabaptist theology the ideal of a pure church.
They believed the adult conversion experience was necessary for an individual to become a full member in the church, unlike other Reformed churches. As such, the Congregationalists were a reciprocal influence on the Baptists, they differed in counting the children of believers in some sense members of the church. On the other hand, the Baptists required each member followed by baptism. King Henry VIII made himself Supreme Head of the Church without allowing a change in doctrine or liturgy during his lifetime, he was not excommunicated but broke with Rome to legitimize his marriage to Anne Boleyn in 1533 after trying unsuccessfully to have his marriage with his wife, Catherine of Aragon annulled. Henry forced Parliament to approve the Act of Supremacy in 1534 which made him "the only supreme head on earth of the Church in England"; the title was changed to Supreme Governor of the Church of England in 1559. Still in effect; the Church of England ceased to be subject to the Church of Rome. However, it continued as before with the same episcopal ecclesiastical structure, Canon Law, Apostolic Succession.
It saw itself as the continuing Church in England without break. However its worship life was changed." The whole story of the English Reformation which produced the Church of England is a tale of retreat from the Protestant advance of 1550..." Pope Saint Pius V regretfully excommunicated Queen Elizabeth I. From the beginning of her reign a small but vocal party of radical Reformers Calvinists who represented less than 10% of the population pressed for the abolition of episcopacy - the 3-fold order of bishop priest and deacon - church music, the old canon law and liturgical and doctrinal practices they regarded as hangovers from Catholicism, they got nowhere. The persistence of the government's religious program and time had defeated them: England 80% Catholic in 1558 with a Catholic clergy evolved under Elizabeth. By 1600 the country was 20 % Catholic, 70 % Protestant C of 10 % Radicals; the great majority of Catholics had gone over to the Settlement as the Catholic-trained clergy ministered to them in the early years "with the vestments and movements of the old mass," Christopher Haigh, English Reformations p. 289, were replaced over four decades by new clergy weaned on the Prayer Book.
Frustrated at these leftovers from an earlier Ag
Charles Taze Russell
Charles Taze Russell, or Pastor Russell, was an American Christian restorationist minister from Pittsburgh and founder of what is now known as the Bible Student movement. After his death, Jehovah's Witnesses and numerous independent Bible Student groups developed from this base. In July 1879, Russell began publishing a monthly religious journal, Zion's Watch Tower and Herald of Christ's Presence. In 1881 he co-founded Zion's Watch Tower Tract Society with William Henry Conley as president. Russell wrote many articles, tracts and sermons, totaling 50,000 printed pages. From 1886 to 1904, he published a six-volume Bible study series titled Millennial Dawn renamed Studies in the Scriptures, nearly 20 million copies of which were printed and distributed around the world in several languages during his lifetime; the Watch Tower Society ceased publication of Russell's writings in 1927, though his books are still published by several independent groups. After Russell's death, a crisis arose surrounding Rutherford's leadership of the society, culminating in a movement-wide schism.
As many as three-quarters of the 50,000 Bible Students, associating in 1917 had left by 1931. This shift resulted in the formation of several groups that retained variations on the name Bible Students; those who maintained fellowship with the Watch Tower Society adopted the name Jehovah's witnesses in 1931, while those who severed ties with the Society formed their own groups including the Pastoral Bible Institute in 1918, the Laymen's Home Missionary Movement in 1919, the Dawn Bible Students Association in 1929. Charles Taze Russell was born to Scottish-Irish parents, immigrant Joseph Lytel Russell and Ann Eliza Birney, on February 16, 1852 in Allegheny, Pennsylvania. Russell was the second of five children, his mother died. The Russells lived for a time in Philadelphia before moving to Pittsburgh, where they became members of the Presbyterian Church; when Charles was in his early teens, his father made him partner of his Pittsburgh haberdashery store. By age twelve, Russell was writing business contracts for customers and given charge of some of his father's other clothing stores.
At age thirteen, Russell left the Presbyterian Church to join the Congregational Church. In his youth he was known to chalk Bible verses on fence boards and city sidewalks in an attempt to convert unbelievers. At age sixteen, a discussion with a childhood friend on faults perceived in Christianity led Russell to question his faith, he investigated various other religions, but concluded that they did not provide the answers he was seeking. In 1870, at age eighteen, he attended a presentation by Adventist minister Jonas Wendell. Russell said that, although he had not agreed with Wendell's arguments, the presentation had inspired him with a renewed zeal and belief that the Bible is the word of God. On March 13, 1879, Russell married Maria Frances Ackley after a few months' acquaintance; the couple separated in 1897. Russell blamed the marriage breakup on disagreements over Maria Russell's insistence on a greater editorial role in Zion's Watch Tower magazine. A court judgment noted that he had labelled the marriage "a mistake" three years before the dispute over her editorial ambitions had arisen.
Maria Russell filed a suit for legal separation in the Court of Common Pleas at Pittsburgh in June 1903 and three years filed for divorce under the claim of mental cruelty. She was granted a separation, with alimony, in 1908. Maria Russell died at the age of 88 in St. Petersburg, Florida on March 12, 1938 from complications related to Hodgkin's disease. Russell was a charismatic figure, but claimed no special revelation or vision for his teachings and no special authority on his own behalf, he stated that he did not seek to found a new denomination, but intended to gather together those who were seeking the truth of God's Word "during this harvest time". He wrote that the "clear unfolding of truth" within his teachings was due to "the simple fact that God's due time has come, he viewed himself—and all other Christians anointed with the Holy Spirit—as "God's mouthpiece" and an ambassador of Christ. In his career he accepted without protest that many Bible Students viewed him as the "faithful and wise servant" of Matthew 24:45.
After his death, the Watch Tower said that he had been made "ruler of all the Lord's goods". About 1870, Russell and his father established a group with a number of acquaintances to undertake an analytical study of the Bible and the origins of Christian doctrine and tradition; the group influenced by the writings of Millerite Adventist ministers George Storrs and George Stetson, who were frequent attendees, concluded that many of the primary doctrines of the established churches, including the Trinity and inherent immortality of the soul, were not substantiated by the scriptures. Around January 1876 Russell received a copy of Nelson Barbour's Herald of the Morning in the mail. Barbour was publisher. Russell telegraphed Barbour to set up a meeting. Barbour and John Henry Paton visited in Allegheny in March 1876 at Russell's expense so that he could hear their arguments, compare the co
James Springer White
James Springer White known as Elder White, was a co-founder of the Seventh-day Adventist Church and husband of Ellen G. White. In 1849 he started the first Sabbatarian Adventist periodical entitled "The Present Truth", in 1855 he relocated the fledgling center of the movement to Battle Creek, in 1863 played a pivotal role in the formal organization of the denomination, he played a major role in the development of the Adventist educational structure beginning in 1874 with the formation of Battle Creek College. James White was born on August 1821 in the township of Palmyra in Maine; the fifth of nine children, James was a sickly child who suffered seizures. Poor eyesight prevented him from obtaining much education and he was required to work on the family farm. At age 19 his eyesight improved and he enrolled at a local academy, he earned a teaching certificate in the common branches and taught at an elementary school. He was baptized into the Christian Connexion at age 15, he learned of the Millerite message from his parents and after hearing powerful preaching at an advent camp meeting in Exeter, White decided to leave teaching and become a preacher.
He was ordained a minister of the Christian Connexion in 1843. White was a powerful preacher and it is recorded that during the winter of 1843, 1000 people accepted the Millerite message owing to his preaching. At times however, White was met with angry mobs. During these early travels he met Ellen G. Harmon whom he married on August 30, 1846. James and Ellen had Henry Nichols, James Edson, William Clarence and John Herbert; the paper which James White started, "The Present Truth", was combined with another periodical called the "Advent Review" in 1850 to become the "Second Advent Review and Sabbath Herald", still published as the "Adventist Review" today. This periodical became the main source of communication for the Sabbatarian Adventist movement regarding points of doctrine and organization, it became a venue for James and Ellen White to and efficiently share their views to like-minded believers. James White served as editor of the periodical until 1851 when he invited Uriah Smith to become editor.
He played a senior role in the management of church publications as president of the Review and Herald Publishing Association. He served on several occasions as president of the General Conference of Seventh-day Adventists.. In 1865 White suffered from a paralytic stroke. White determined that he should retire from the ministry and live out his days gracefully. In 1880, G. I. Butler replaced him as General Conference president. During the summer of 1881, White came down with a fever and was taken to the Battle Creek Sanitarium. Despite the efforts of Dr. Kellogg, White died on August 6, 1881. White was a prolific publisher for the Adventists; some of his most popular publications include: Life Incidents. Republished by Andrews University Press with an introduction by Jerry Moon Word to the Little Flock, 1847 Pamphlet Signs of the Times, 1853 Life Incidents, 1868 Steam Press Selections from Life Incidents, 1868 Steam Press Sermons on The Coming and Kingdom of Our Lord Jesus Christ, 1870 Steam Press Sketches of the Christian Life and Public Labors of William Miller, 1875 Steam Press The Sounding of the Seven Trumpets of Revelation 8 & 9, 1875 Steam Press The Second Coming of Christ, Matthew 24, 1876 Early Life & Experiences of Joseph Bates, 1877 Steam Press Biblical Institute, 1878 Steam Press Life Sketches, 1880 Steam Press General Conference of Seventh-day Adventists Seventh-day Adventist Church Ellen G. White Adventist Review Adventist Adventist Health Studies Seventh-day Adventist Church Pioneers Seventh-day Adventist eschatology Seventh-day Adventist theology Seventh-day Adventist worship Millerites History of the Seventh-day Adventist Church Teachings of Ellen White Inspiration of Ellen White Prophecy in the Seventh-day Adventist Church The Pillars of Adventism Second Advent Historicism Sabbath in Seventh-day Adventism Gerald Wheeler.
James White: Innovator and Overcomer. Review and Herald, 2003 Biography on www.whiteestate.org Marriage to Ellen G. White Life Incidents at Making of America Adventist Archives Contains many articles written by James White Original "The Present Truth" Articles Published by James White, known as the Advent Review
Nelson H. Barbour
Nelson H. Barbour Barbour was an influential Adventist writer and publisher, best known for his association with and opposition to Charles Taze Russell. Nelson H. Barbour was born in Throopsville, New York, August 21, 1824, died in Tacoma, August 30, 1905. Barbour was the grandson of Friend Barbour. Both the family and official documents use the spelling "Barbour" and its alternative spelling "Barber", he was related to a number of prominent New Yorkers including Dio Lewis. He attended Temple Hill Academy at Geneseo, New York, from 1839 to 1842. While at Temple Hill he studied for the Methodist Episcopal ministry with an Elder Ferris William H. Ferris. Barbour was introduced to Millerism through the efforts of a Mr. Johnson who lectured at Geneseo, in the winter of 1842. Barbour associated with other Millerites living in that area; these included William Marsh, Daniel Cogswell and Henry F. Hill. Cogswell became president of the New York Conference of the Advent Christian Church. Hill became a prominent author associated with the Evangelical Adventists.
Adventists in the Geneseo area met in Springwater to await the second coming in 1843. Their disappointment was profound, Barbour suffered a crisis of faith, he wrote: "We held together until the autumn of 1844. As if a raft floating in deep water should disappear from under its living burden, so our platform went from under us, we made for shore in every direction, he went to Australia to prospect for gold, returning via London in 1859. Barbour claimed to have preached during his time in Australia. A ship-board discussion with a clergyman reactivated his interest in Bible prophecy, he consulted books on prophetic themes at the British Library and became convinced that 1873 would mark the return of Christ, based on ideas advanced by others since at least as early as 1823. Returning to the United States, Barbour settled in New York City, continuing his studies in the Astor Library; when convinced, he wrote letters and visited those who he felt might best spread his message, though few were interested.
Barbour associated with Peter Cooper, the founder of Cooper Union. He patented several inventions. By 1863 he was in medical practice, dividing his time between New York, he returned to London in 1864 to demonstrate one of his inventions. He used his association with other inventors and scientists to spread his end-times doctrine, some of his earliest associates in that belief were inventors and physicians, he published something as early as 1868. In 1871 he wrote and published a small book entitled Evidences for the Coming of the Lord in 1873, or The Midnight Cry, which had two printings. Articles by Barbour appeared in the Second Adventist press, notably the World's Crisis; as 1873 approached, various groups began advocating it as significant. Jonas Wendell led one, another centered on the magazine The Watchman's Cry, the rest were associated with Barbour. British Barbourites were represented by a clergyman. Many gathered at Terry Island to await the return of Christ in late 1873. Barbour and others looked to the next year, which proved disappointing.
Led by Benjamin Wallace Keith, an associate of Barbour's since 1867, the group adopted the belief in a two-stage invisible presence. They would soon become visible for judgments. Barbour started a magazine in the fall of 1873 calling it The Midnight Cry, it was first issued with no apparent expectation of becoming a periodical. He changed the name to Herald of the Morning, issuing it monthly from January 1874. In December 1875, Charles Taze Russell a businessman from Allegheny, received a copy of Herald of the Morning, he met the principals in the Barbourite movement and arranged for Barbour to speak in Philadelphia in 1876. Barbour and Russell began their association, during which Barbour wrote the book Three Worlds and published a small booklet by Russell entitled Object and Manner of Our Lord's Return. Beginning in 1878, they each wrote conflicting views on Atonement doctrine. By May 3, 1879, Russell wrote that their "points of variance seem to me to be so fundamental and important that... I feel that our relationship should cease."
In a May 22, 1879 letter to Barbour, Russell explicitly resigned: "Now I leave the'Herald' with you. I withdraw from it, asking nothing from you... Please announce in next No. of the'Herald' the dissolution and withdraw my name." In July 1879, Russell began publishing Zion's Watch Tower, the principal journal of the Bible Student movement. By 1883 Barbour abandoned belief in an invisible presence and returned to more standard Adventist doctrine, he had organized a small congregation in Rochester in 1873. At least by that year he left Adventism for a form of British Literalism, he changed the name of the congregation to Church of the Strangers. In years the congregation associated with Mark Allen's Church of the Blessed Hope and called themselves Restitutionists. A photo of Nelson Barbour appeared in the Rochester Union and Advertiser in October 1895. Barbour intermittently published Herald of the Morning until at least 1903, occas