Oswald Arnold Gottfried Spengler was a German historian and philosopher of history whose interests included mathematics and art. He is best known for his book The Decline of the West, published in 1918 and 1922, covering all of world history. Spengler's model of history postulates that any culture is a superorganism with a limited and predictable lifespan. Spengler predicted that about the year 2000, Western civilization would enter the period of pre‑death emergency whose countering would necessitate Caesarism. Spengler is rendered as a nationalist, anti-democratic, a prominent member of the Conservative Revolution, but he rejected National Socialism due to its racialism. Instead, he saw his ideal realised in the dictator of Fascist Italy, he predicted important developments of his time and influenced other historians, including Franz Borkenau and Arnold J. Toynbee. Oswald Arnold Gottfried Spengler was born in 1880 in Blankenburg as the second child of Bernhard and Pauline Spengler. Oswald's elder brother was born prematurely in 1879, when his mother tried to move a heavy laundry basket, died at the age of three weeks.
Oswald was born ten months after his brother's death. His younger sisters were Adele and Hildegard. Oswald's paternal grandfather, Theodor Spengler, was a metallurgical inspector in Altenbrak. Oswald's father, Bernhard Spengler, held the position of a postal secretary and was a hard-working man with a marked dislike of intellectualism, who tried to instil the same values and attitudes in his son. On 26 May 1799, Friedrich Wilhelm Grantzow, a tailor's apprentice in Berlin, married a Jewish woman named Bräunchen Moses. Shortly before the wedding, Moses was baptized as Johanna Elisabeth Anspachin; the couple had eight children, one of whom was Gustav Adolf Grantzow —a solo dancer and ballet master in Berlin, who in 1837 married Katharina Kirchner, a nervously beautiful solo dancer from a Munich Catholic family. Like the Grantzows in general, Pauline was of a Bohemian disposition, before marrying Bernhard Spengler, accompanied her dancer sister on tours, she was the least talented member of the Grantzow family.
In appearance, she was a bit unseemly. Her temperament, which Oswald inherited, complemented her appearance and frail physique: she was moody and morose; when Oswald was ten years of age, his family moved to the university city of Halle. Here he received a classical education at the local Gymnasium, studying Greek, Latin and sciences. Here, too, he developed his propensity for the arts—especially poetry and music—and came under the influence of the ideas of Goethe and Nietzsche: I feel urged to name once more those to whom I owe everything: Goethe and Nietzsche. Goethe gave me method, Nietzsche the questioning faculty... After his father's death in 1901 Spengler attended several universities as a private scholar, taking courses in a wide range of subjects, his private studies were undirected. In 1903, he failed his doctoral thesis on Heraclitus because of insufficient references, which ended his chances of an academic career, he received his Ph. D. from Halle on 6 April 1904. In December 1904, he set to write the secondary dissertation necessary to qualify as a high school teacher.
This became The Development of the Organ of Sight in the Higher Realms of the Animal Kingdom. It was approved and he received his teaching certificate. In 1905 Spengler suffered a nervous breakdown. Biographers report his life, he served as a teacher in Saarbrücken and in Düsseldorf. From 1908 to 1911 he worked at a grammar school in Hamburg, where he taught science, German history, mathematics. In 1911, following his mother's death, he moved to Munich, where he would live until his death in 1936, he lived as a cloistered scholar, supported by his modest inheritance. Spengler survived on limited means and was marked by loneliness, he owned no books, took jobs as a tutor or wrote for magazines to earn additional income. He began work on the first volume of Decline of the West intending at first to focus on Germany within Europe, but the Agadir Crisis of 1911 affected him and he widened the scope of his study: At that time the World-War appeared to me both as imminent and as the inevitable outward manifestation of the historical crisis, my endeavor was to comprehend it from an examination of the spirit of the preceding centuries—not years....
Thereafter I saw the present—the approaching World-War—in a quite other light. It was no longer a momentary constellation of casual facts due to national sentiments, personal influences, or economic tendencies endowed with an appearance of unity and necessity by some historian's scheme of political or social cause-and-effect, but the type of a historical change of phase
Marshal Ferdinand Jean Marie Foch was a French general and military theorist who served as the Supreme Allied Commander during the First World War. An aggressive reckless commander at the First Marne and Artois campaigns of 1914–1916, Foch became the Allied Commander-in-Chief in late March 1918 in the face of the all-out German spring offensive, which pushed the Allies back using fresh soldiers and new tactics that trenches could not contain, he coordinated the French and American efforts into a coherent whole, deftly handling his strategic reserves. He launched a war-winning counterattack. In November 1918, Marshal Foch accepted the German cessation of hostilities and was present at the armistice of 11 November. At the outbreak of war in August 1914, Foch's XX Corps participated in the brief invasion of Germany before retreating in the face of a German counter-attack and blocking the Germans short of Nancy. Ordered west to defend Paris, Foch's prestige soared as a result of the victory at the Marne, for which he was credited as a chief protagonist while commanding the French Ninth Army.
He was promoted again to Assistant Commander-in-Chief for the Northern Zone, a role which evolved into command of Army Group North, in which role he was required to cooperate with the British forces at Ypres and the Somme. At the end of 1916 owing to the disappointing results of the latter offensive and owing to wartime political rivalries, Foch was transferred to Italy. Foch was appointed "Commander-in-Chief of the Allied Armies" on 26 March 1918 following being the Commander-in-Chief of Western Front with title Généralissime in 1918, he played a decisive role in halting a renewed German advance on Paris in the Second Battle of the Marne, after which he was promoted to Marshal of France. Addington says, "to a large extent the final Allied strategy which won the war on land in Western Europe in 1918 was Foch's alone."On 11 November 1918, Foch accepted the German request for an armistice. Foch advocated peace terms that would make Germany unable to pose a threat to France again, he considered the Treaty of Versailles too lenient on Germany and as the Treaty was being signed on 28 June 1919, he declared: "This is not a peace.
It is an armistice for twenty years". His words proved prophetic: the Second World War started twenty years and 65 days later. Ferdinand Foch was born at Tarbes in the Hautes-Pyrénées region, his Germanic first name reflects the ancestry of his father, a civil servant from Comminges whose lineage traces to the Alsace region in the 18th century. He attended school at Tarbes and the Jesuit College at Saint-Étienne, his brother became a Jesuit priest, which may have hindered Foch's rise in the French Army since the Republican government of France was anti-clerical. When the Franco-Prussian War broke out in 1870, the 19 year-old Foch enlisted in the French 4th Infantry Regiment, which did not take part in combat, he remained in the army after the war. In 1871, he entered the École Polytechnique. In 1873, he received his commission as an artillery officer and served as a lieutenant in the 24th Artillery Regiment in Tarbes, despite not having had time to complete his course due to the shortage of junior officers.
In 1876, he attended the cavalry school of Saumur to train as a mounted artillery officer. On 30 September 1878 he became a captain and arrived in Paris on 24 September 1879 as an assistant in the Central Personnel Service Depot of the artillery. In 1885 Foch undertook a course at the École Supérieure de Guerre where he was an instructor from 1895 to 1901, he was promoted Lieutenant-Colonel in 1898, colonel in 1903. As a colonel he became regimental commander of the 35th Artillery Regiment at Vannes. An short man, Foch was known for his physical strength and his sharp mind who always maintained a dignified bearing. Foch was a quiet man, known for saying little and when he did speak, it was a volley of words accompanied by much gesturing of his hands that required some knowledge of him to understand properly. One of Foch's favorite phrases was "Pas de protocole!" as he preferred to be approachable by all officers. Foch's only rigidity was always taking his meals at noon and at 7:30. In 1907 Foch was promoted to Général de Brigade, in the same year he assumed command of the French War College.
He held this position until 1911, the year. Foch influenced General Joseph Joffre when he drafted the French plan of campaign in 1913. In 1913 he took command of XX Corps at Nancy, he had held this appointment for one year when he led XX Corps into battle in August 1914. Foch was acclaimed as "the most original military thinker of his generation", he became known for his critical analyses of the Franco-Prussian and Napoleonic campaigns and of their relevance to military operations in the new twentieth Century. His re-examination of France's defeat in 1870 was among the first of its kind. At the College, Foch was a professor of military history and general tactics while becoming the French theorist on offensive strategies. During his time as an instructor Foch created renewed interest in French military history, inspired confidence in a new class of French officers, brought about "the intellectual and moral regeneration of the French Army", his thinking on military doctrine was shaped by the Clausewitzian philosophy uncommon in France, that "the will to conquer is the first condition of victory."
Marxism is a theory and method of working class self-emancipation. As a theory, it relies on a method of socioeconomic analysis that views class relations and social conflict using a materialist interpretation of historical development and takes a dialectical view of social transformation, it originates from the works of 19th-century German philosophers Friedrich Engels. Marxism uses a methodology, now known as historical materialism, to analyze and critique the development of class society and of capitalism as well as the role of class struggles in systemic economic and political change. According to Marxist theory, in capitalist societies, class conflict arises due to contradictions between the material interests of the oppressed and exploited proletariat—a class of wage labourers employed to produce goods and services—and the bourgeoisie—the ruling class that owns the means of production and extracts its wealth through appropriation of the surplus product produced by the proletariat in the form of profit.
This class struggle, expressed as the revolt of a society's productive forces against its relations of production, results in a period of short-term crises as the bourgeoisie struggle to manage the intensifying alienation of labor experienced by the proletariat, albeit with varying degrees of class consciousness. In periods of deep crisis, the resistance of the oppressed can culminate in a proletarian revolution which, if victorious, leads to the establishment of socialism—a socioeconomic system based on social ownership of the means of production, distribution based on one's contribution and production organized directly for use; as the productive forces continued to advance, Marx hypothesized that socialism would be transformed into a communist society: a classless, humane society based on common ownership and the underlying principle: "From each according to his ability, to each according to his needs". Marxism has developed into many different branches and schools of thought, with the result that there is now no single definitive Marxist theory.
Different Marxian schools place a greater emphasis on certain aspects of classical Marxism while rejecting or modifying other aspects. Many schools of thought have sought to combine Marxian concepts and non-Marxian concepts, which has led to contradicting conclusions; however there is movement toward the recognition that historical materialism and dialectical materialism remains the fundamental aspect of all Marxist schools of thought. Marxism has had a profound impact on global academia and has influenced many fields such as archaeology, media studies, political science, history, art history and theory, cultural studies, economics, criminology, literary criticism, film theory, critical psychology and philosophy; the term "Marxism" was popularized by Karl Kautsky, who considered himself an "orthodox" Marxist during the dispute between the orthodox and revisionist followers of Marx. Kautsky's revisionist rival Eduard Bernstein later adopted use of the term. Engels did not support the use of the term "Marxism" to describe either his views.
Engels claimed that the term was being abusively used as a rhetorical qualifier by those attempting to cast themselves as "real" followers of Marx while casting others in different terms, such as "Lassallians". In 1882, Engels claimed that Marx had criticized self-proclaimed "Marxist" Paul Lafargue, by saying that if Lafargue's views were considered "Marxist" "one thing is certain and, that I am not a Marxist". Marxism analyzes the material conditions and the economic activities required to fulfill human material needs to explain social phenomena within any given society, it assumes that the form of economic organization, or mode of production, influences all other social phenomena—including wider social relations, political institutions, legal systems, cultural systems and ideologies. The economic system and these social relations form a superstructure; as forces of production, i.e. technology, existing forms of organizing production become obsolete and hinder further progress. As Karl Marx observed: "At a certain stage of development, the material productive forces of society come into conflict with the existing relations of production or—this expresses the same thing in legal terms—with the property relations within the framework of which they have operated hitherto.
From forms of development of the productive forces these relations turn into their fetters. Begins an era of social revolution"; these inefficiencies manifest themselves as social contradictions in society which are, in turn, fought out at the level of the class struggle. Under the capitalist mode of production, this struggle materializes between the minority who own the means of production and the vast majority of the population who produce goods and services. Starting with the conjectural premise that social change occurs because of the struggle between different classes within society who are under contradiction against each other, a Marxist would conclude that capitalism exploits and oppresses the proletariat, therefore capitalism will lead to a proletarian revolution. Marxian economics and its proponents view capitalism as economically unsustainable and incapable of improving the living standards of the population due to its need to compensate for falling rates of profit by cutting employee's wages, social benefits and pursuing military aggression.
The socialist system would succeed capitalism as humanity's mode of production through workers' revolution. According to Marxian crisis theory, socialism is not an economic necessity. In a sociali
Benito Amilcare Andrea Mussolini was an Italian politician and journalist, the leader of the National Fascist Party. He ruled Italy as Prime Minister from 1922 to 1943. Known as Il Duce, Mussolini was the founder of Italian Fascism. In 1912, Mussolini had been a leading member of the National Directorate of the Italian Socialist Party, but was expelled from the PSI for advocating military intervention in World War I, in opposition to the party's stance on neutrality. Mussolini served in the Royal Italian Army during the war until he was wounded and discharged in 1917. Mussolini denounced the PSI, his views now centering on nationalism instead of socialism and founded the fascist movement which came to oppose egalitarianism and class conflict, instead advocating "revolutionary nationalism" transcending class lines. Following the March on Rome in October 1922, Mussolini became the youngest Prime Minister in Italian history until the appointment of Matteo Renzi in February 2014. After removing all political opposition through his secret police and outlawing labor strikes and his followers consolidated their power through a series of laws that transformed the nation into a one-party dictatorship.
Within five years, Mussolini had established dictatorial authority by both legal and extraordinary means and aspired to create a totalitarian state. In 1929, Mussolini signed the Lateran Treaty with the Vatican, ending decades of struggle between the Italian state and the Papacy, recognized the independence of Vatican City. After the Abyssinia Crisis of 1935–1936, Mussolini invaded Ethiopia in the Second Italo–Ethiopian War; the invasion was condemned by the Western powers and was answered with economic sanctions against Italy. Relations between Germany and Italy improved due to Hitler's support of the invasion. In 1936, Mussolini surrendered Austria to the German sphere of influence, signed the treaty of cooperation with Germany and proclaimed the creation of a Rome–Berlin Axis. From 1936 through 1939, Mussolini provided huge amounts of military support to Franco's forces in the Spanish Civil War; this active intervention further distanced Italy from Britain. Mussolini had sought to delay a major war in Europe, but Germany invaded Poland on 1 September 1939, resulting in declarations of war by France and the UK and the start of World War II.
On 10 June 1940—with the Fall of France imminent—Italy entered the war on the side of Germany, though Mussolini was aware that Italy did not have the military capacity and resources to carry out a long war with the British Empire. He believed that after the imminent French armistice, Italy could gain territorial concessions from France, he could concentrate his forces on a major offensive in North Africa, where British and Commonwealth forces were outnumbered by Italian forces. However, the British government refused to accept proposals for a peace that would involve accepting Axis victories in Eastern and Western Europe. In October 1940, Mussolini sent Italian forces into Greece; the invasion failed and the following Greek counter-offensive pushed the Italians back to occupied Albania. The Greek debacle and simultaneous defeats against the British in North Africa reduced Italy to dependence on Germany. Beginning in June 1941, Mussolini sent Italian forces to participate in the invasion of the Soviet Union, Italy declared war on the United States in December.
In 1943, Italy suffered one disaster after another: by February the Red Army had destroyed the Italian Army in Russia. As a consequence, early on 25 July, the Grand Council of Fascism passed a motion of no confidence for Mussolini. After the king agreed the armistice with the allies, on 12 September 1943 Mussolini was rescued from captivity in the Gran Sasso raid by German paratroopers and Waffen-SS commandos led by Major Otto-Harald Mors. Adolf Hitler, after meeting with the rescued former dictator put Mussolini in charge of a puppet regime in northern Italy, the Italian Social Republic, informally known as the Salò Republic. In late April 1945, in the wake of near total defeat and his mistress Clara Petacci attempted to flee to Switzerland, but both were captured by Italian communist partisans and summarily executed by firing squad on 28 April 1945 near Lake Como, his body was taken to Milan, where it was hung upside down at a service station to publicly confirm his demise. Mussolini was born on 29 July 1883 in Dovia di Predappio, a small town in the province of Forlì in Romagna.
During the Fascist era, Predappio was dubbed "Duce's town" and Forlì was called "Duce's city", with pilgrims going to Predappio and Forlì to see the birthplace of Mussolini. Benito Mussolini's father, Alessandro Mussolini, was a blacksmith and a socialist, while his mother, was a devout Catholic schoolteacher. Owing to his father's political leanings, Mussolini was named Benito after liberal Mexican president Benito Juárez, while his middle names Andrea and Amilcare were from Italian socialists Andrea Costa and Amilcare Cipriani. Benito was the eldest of his parents' three children, his siblings Arnaldo and Edvige fol
The Saturday Evening Post
The Saturday Evening Post is an American magazine published six times a year. It was published weekly under this title from 1897 until 1963 every two weeks until 1969. From the 1920s to the 1960s, it was one of the most circulated and influential magazines for the American middle class, with fiction, non-fiction and features that reached millions of homes every week; the magazine declined in readership through the 1960s, in 1969 The Saturday Evening Post folded for two years before being revived as a quarterly publication with an emphasis on medical articles in 1971. The magazine was redesigned in 2013; the Saturday Evening Post was founded in 1821 and grew to become the most circulated weekly magazine in America. The magazine gained prominent status under the leadership of its longtime editor George Horace Lorimer; the editors claimed it had historical roots in the Pennsylvania Gazette, first published in 1728 by Samuel Keimer and sold to Benjamin Franklin in 1729. It discontinued publication in 1800.
The Saturday Evening Post published current event articles, human interest pieces, illustrations, a letter column, single-panel gag cartoons and stories by the leading writers of the time. It was known for original works of fiction. Illustrations were embedded in stories and advertising; some Post illustrations became popular and continue to be reproduced as posters or prints those by Norman Rockwell. Curtis Publishing Co. stopped publishing the Post in 1969 after the company lost a landmark defamation suit and was ordered to pay over $3 million in damages. The Post was revived in 1971 as a limited circulation quarterly publication; as of the late 2000s, The Saturday Evening Post is published six times a year by the Saturday Evening Post Society, which purchased the magazine in 1982. In 1916, Saturday Evening Post editor George Horace Lorimer discovered Norman Rockwell an unknown 22-year-old New York artist. Lorimer promptly purchased two illustrations from Rockwell, using them as covers, commissioned three more drawings.
Rockwell's illustrations of the American family and rural life of a bygone era became icons. During his 50-year career with the Post, Rockwell painted more than 300 covers; the Post employed Nebraska artist John Philip Falter, who became known "as a painter of Americana with an accent of the Middle West," who "brought out some of the homeliness and humor of Middle Western town life and home life." He produced 120 covers for the Post between 1943 and 1968, ceasing only when the magazine began displaying photographs on its covers. Another prominent artist was Charles R. Chickering, a freelance illustrator who went on to design numerous postage stamps for the U. S. Post Office. Other popular cover illustrators include the artists Constantin Alajalov. John Clymer, W. H. D. Koerner, J. C. Leyendecker, Charles Archibald MacLellan, John E. Sheridan, Douglass Crockwell, Amos Sewell, N. C. Wyeth; the magazine's line-up of cartoonists included Bob Barnes, Irwin Caplan, Tom Henderson, Al Johns, Clyde Lamb, Jerry Marcus, Frank O'Neal, B.
Tobey, Pete Wyma and Bill Yates. The magazine ran Ted Key's cartoon panel series Hazel from 1943 to 1969; each issue featured several original short stories and included an installment of a serial appearing in successive issues. Most of the fiction was written for mainstream tastes by popular writers, but some literary writers were featured; the opening pages of stories featured paintings by the leading magazine illustrators. The Post published stories and essays by H. E. Bates, Ray Bradbury, Kay Boyle, Agatha Christie, Brian Cleeve, Eleanor Franklin Egan, William Faulkner, F. Scott Fitzgerald, C. S. Forester, Ernest Haycox, Robert A. Heinlein, Kurt Vonnegut, Paul Gallico, Normand Poirier, Hammond Innes, Louis L'Amour, Sinclair Lewis, Joseph C. Lincoln, John P. Marquand, Edgar Allan Poe, Sax Rohmer, William Saroyan, John Steinbeck and Rex Stout and Rob Wagner, it published poetry by such noted poets as Carl Sandburg, Ogden Nash, Dorothy Parker and Hannah Kahn. Jack London's best-known novel The Call of the Wild was first published, in serialized form, in the Saturday Evening Post in 1903.
Emblematic of the Post's fiction was author Clarence Budington Kelland, who first appeared in 1916–17 with stories of homespun heroes, Efficiency Edgar and Scattergood Baines. Kelland was a steady presence from 1922 until 1961. For many years William Hazlett Upson contributed a popular series of short stories about the escapades of Earthworm Tractors salesman Alexander Botts. Publication in the Post helped established artists and writers stay afloat. P. G. Wodehouse said "the wolf was always at the door" until the Post gave him his "first break" in 1915 by serializing Something New. After the election of Franklin Delano Roosevelt, Post columnist Garet Garrett became a vocal critic of the New Deal. Garrett accused the Roosevelt Administration of initiating socialist strategies. After Lorimer died, Garrett became editorial writer-in-chief and criticized the Roosevelt Administration's support of the United Kingdom and efforts to prepare to enter what became the Second World War. Garrett's positions may have cost the Post readers and advertisers.
The Post readership began to decline in the late 1960s. In general, the decline of general interest magazines was blamed on television, which competed for advertisers and readers' attention; the Post had problems retaining readers: the public's taste in fiction was changing, the Post's conservative politics and values appealed to a declining number of people. Content by popular writer
Holyoke is a city in Hampden County, United States, that lies between the western bank of the Connecticut River and the Mount Tom Range. As of the 2010 census, the city had a population of 39,880; as of 2017, the estimated population was 40,341. Sitting 8 miles north of Springfield, Holyoke is part of the Springfield Metropolitan Area, one of the two distinct metropolitan areas in Massachusetts. Holyoke is among the early planned industrial cities in the United States. Built in tandem with the Holyoke Dam to utilize the water power of Hadley Falls, it is one of a handful of cities in New England built on the grid plan. During the late 19th century the city produced an estimated 80% of the writing paper used in the United States and was home to the largest paper mill architectural firm in the country, as well as the largest paper and alpaca wool mills in the world. Although a smaller number of businesses in Holyoke work in the paper industry today, it is still referred to as "The Paper City". Today the city contains a number of specialty manufacturing companies, as well as the Massachusetts Green High Performance Computing Center, an intercollegiate research facility which opened in 2012.
Holyoke is home to the Volleyball Hall of Fame and known as the "Birthplace of Volleyball", as the internationally played Olympic sport was invented and first played at the local YMCA chapter by William G. Morgan in 1895. While working for the Holyoke Water Power Company in the 1880s, hydraulic engineer Clemens Herschel invented the Venturi meter to determine the water use of individual mills in the Holyoke Canal System; this device, the first accurate means of measuring large-scale flows, is used in a number of engineering applications today, including waterworks and carburators, as well as aviation instrumentation. Powered by these municipally owned canals, Holyoke has among the lowest energy rates in the Commonwealth, as of 2016 between 85% and 90% of the city's energy was carbon neutral, with administrative goals in place to reach 100% in the immediate future. English colonists arrived in the Connecticut River Valley in 1633, when traders from the Plymouth Plantation established a post at Windsor, Connecticut.
In 1636, Massachusetts Bay Colony assistant treasurer and Puritan iconoclast William Pynchon led a group of settlers from Roxbury, Massachusetts to the Valley to establish Springfield on land scouts had found to be advantageous for farming and trading. This settlement was built north of the Connecticut River's first major falls, Enfield Falls, where seagoing vessels had to transfer cargo into smaller shallops to continue northward on the river. Due to its proximity to the banks of the river Springfield became a successful settlement on the Bay Path to Boston, as well as the Massachusetts Path to Albany; the settlement spanned both sides of the river but was partitioned in 1774 with the land on the western bank becoming West Springfield, Massachusetts. This area allotted to landowners on the east side of the river in Springfield, was settled by colonists by 1655. Holyoke as a geographic entity was incorporated as a parish; the area's first post office, "Ireland", was established June 3, 1822, with Martin Chapin as first postmaster.
Another, "Ireland Depot", was established February 26, 1847, with John M. Chapin as first postmaster, assumed the town name upon Holyoke's incorporation. Though the name Hampden was considered, the area was subsequently named for earlier Springfield settler William Pynchon's son-in-law, Elizur Holyoke, who had first explored the area in the 1650s. Following land acquisitions and development by the Hadley Falls Company, the town of Holyoke was incorporated on March 14, 1850; the first official town meeting took place a week on March 22, 1850. A part of Northampton known as Smith's Ferry was separated from the rest of the town by the creation of Easthampton in 1809; the shortest path to downtown Northampton was on a road near the Connecticut River oxbow, subject to frequent flooding. The neighborhood became the northern part of Holyoke in 1909. Holyoke had few inhabitants until the construction of the dam and the Holyoke Canal System in 1849 and the subsequent construction of water-powered mills paper mills, the first and last to operate in the city, being those of the Parsons Paper Company.
At one point over 25 paper mills were in operation in the city. The Holyoke Machine Company, manufacturer of the Hercules water turbine, was among many industrial developments of the era. Holyoke's population rose from just under 5,000 in 1860 to over 60,000 in 1920. Due to this staggering growth the municipality was incorporated as a city on April 7, 1873, only 23 years after its initial incorporation as the "Town of Holyoke"; that year the city elected its first mayor, William B. C. Pearsons, who, a quarter-century earlier, had established himself among the first lawyers in the city, was the first editorial writer of the area newspaper-of-record, the Hampden Freeman, best known as the Holyoke Transcript-Telegram. In 1888, Holyoke's paper industry spurred the foundation of the American Pad & Paper Company, which as of 2007 is one of the largest suppliers of office products in the world. Holyoke was previously the location of the headquarters of the American Writing Paper Company, a trust company established in 1899 with the merging of 23 rag paper mills, 13 of which were located in Holyoke.
At one point the company was the largest producer of fine papers in the world, however incompetent leadership lacking technical knowledge of the industry, a