Harvard College is the undergraduate liberal arts college of Harvard University. Founded in 1636 in Cambridge, Massachusetts, it is the oldest institution of learning in the United States. The school came into existence in 1636 by vote of the Great and General Court of the Massachusetts Bay Colony—though without a single building, in 1638, the college became home for North Americas first known printing press, carried by the ship John of London. Three years later, the college was renamed in honor of deceased Charlestown minister John Harvard who had bequeathed to the school his entire library, Harvards first instructor was schoolmaster Nathaniel Eaton, in 1639, he became its first instructor to be dismissed, for overstrict discipline. The schools first students were graduated in 1642, in 1665, Caleb Cheeshahteaumuck from the Wampanoag … did graduate from Harvard, the first Indian to do so in the colonial period. The colleges of Englands Oxford and Cambridge Universities are communities within the university, each an association of scholars sharing room.
The Indian College was active from 1640 to no than 1693, the body known as The President and Fellows of Harvard College retains its traditional name despite having governance of the entire University. Radcliffe College originally paid Harvard faculty to repeat their lectures for women students, since the 1970s, Harvard has been responsible for undergraduate governance matters for women, women were still formally admitted to and graduated from Radcliffe until a final merger in 1999. About 2,000 students are admitted each year, representing between five and ten percent of those applying, of those admitted, approximately three-quarters choose to attend and these figures make Harvard perhaps the most selective and sought-after college in the world. Midway through the year, most undergraduates join one of fifty standard fields of concentration. Joint concentrations and special concentrations are possible, a smaller number receive the Scientiarum Baccalaureus. There are special programs, such as a five-year program leading to both a Harvard undergraduate degree and a Master of Arts from the New England Conservatory of Music.
In 2012, dozens of students were disciplined for cheating on an exam in one course. The university instituted a code beginning in the fall of 2015. The total annual cost of attendance, including tuition and room and board, under financial aid guidelines adopted in 2012, families with incomes below $65,000 no longer pay anything for their children to attend, including room and board. Families with incomes between $65,000 to $150,000 pay no more than 10% of their annual income, grants total 88% of Harvards aid for undergraduate students, with aid provided by loans and work-study. Each house is presided over by a senior-faculty Faculty Dean, while its Allston Burr Resident Dean supervises undergraduates day-to-day academic, many tutors reside in the House, as do the Faculty Dean and Resident Dean. The way in which students come to live in particular Houses has changed greatly over time, under the original draft system, Masters negotiated privately over the assignment of rising sophomores considered most—or least—promising
The term orchestra derives from the Greek ὀρχήστρα, the name for the area in front of a stage in ancient Greek theatre reserved for the Greek chorus. A full-size orchestra may sometimes be called an orchestra or philharmonic orchestra. The actual number of employed in a given performance may vary from seventy to over one hundred musicians, depending on the work being played. The term chamber orchestra usually refers to smaller-sized ensembles of about fifty musicians or fewer, the typical orchestra grew in size throughout the 18th and 19th centuries, reaching a peak with the large orchestras called for in the works of Richard Wagner, and later, Gustav Mahler. Orchestras are usually led by a conductor who directs the performance with movements of the hands and arms, the conductor unifies the orchestra, sets the tempo and shapes the sound of the ensemble. The first violin, commonly called the concertmaster, plays an important role in leading the musicians, the typical symphony orchestra consists of four groups of related musical instruments called the woodwinds, brass and strings.
The orchestra, depending on the size, contains almost all of the instruments in each group. Chamber orchestra usually refers to smaller-sized ensembles, a chamber orchestra might employ as many as fifty musicians. The term concert orchestra may be used, as in the BBC Concert Orchestra, the so-called standard complement of doubled winds and brass in the orchestra from the first half of the 19th century is generally attributed to the forces called for by Beethoven. The composers instrumentation almost always included paired flutes, clarinets, horns, the exceptions to this are his Symphony No. 4, Violin Concerto, and Piano Concerto No,4, which each specify a single flute. Beethoven carefully calculated the expansion of this particular timbral palette in Symphonies 3,5,6, the third horn in the Eroica Symphony arrives to provide not only some harmonic flexibility, but the effect of choral brass in the Trio movement. Piccolo and trombones add to the finale of his Symphony No.5. A piccolo and a pair of trombones help deliver the effect of storm and sunshine in the Sixth, for several decades after his death, symphonic instrumentation was faithful to Beethovens well-established model, with few exceptions.
Apart from the core orchestral complement, various instruments are called for occasionally. These include the guitar, flugelhorn, harpsichord. Saxophones, for example, appear in some 19th- through 21st-century scores.6 and 9 and William Waltons Belshazzars Feast, and many other works as a member of the orchestral ensemble. The euphonium is featured in a few late Romantic and 20th-century works, usually playing parts marked tenor tuba, including Gustav Holsts The Planets, cornets appear in Pyotr Ilyich Tchaikovskys ballet Swan Lake, Claude Debussys La Mer, and several orchestral works by Hector Berlioz
Gypsy jazz is a style of jazz music often said to have been started by guitarist Jean Django Reinhardt in the 1930s. Because its origins are in France it is called by the French name, jazz manouche, or alternatively, manouche jazz. The term is now used for this style of music. Many of the musicians in this style worked in Paris in various popular Musette ensembles, the Musette style waltz remains an important component in the gypsy jazz repertoire. Reinhardt was noted for combining a dark, chromatic gypsy flavor with the articulation of the period. This combination is critical to this style of jazz, in addition to this, his approach continues to form the basis for contemporary gypsy jazz guitar. Reinhardts most famous group, the Quintette du Hot Club de France, the original Quintette du Hot Club de France played acoustically without a drummer, facilitating the use of the acoustic guitar as a lead instrument. Guitar and violin are still the main instruments, although clarinet, mandolin. The rhythm guitar is played using a distinct percussive technique, la pompe, most gypsy jazz guitarists and rhythm, play a version of the Selmer-Maccaferri guitar design favored by Reinhardt himself.
Although many instrumental line-ups exist, a group including one lead guitar, violin, in Eastern gypsy jazz, the rhythm section is most likely covered by one or two cymbaloms, or a cymbalom and/or drums and an acoustic guitar. An upright bass fills out the ensembles, rhythm guitar in gypsy jazz uses a special form of strumming known as la pompe, i. e. the pump. This form of rhythm is similar to the boom-chick in bluegrass styles, it is what gives the music its fast swinging feeling. The strumming hand, which never touches the top of the guitar, the up-down part of la pompe must be done extremely fast, regardless of the tempo of the music. It is very similar to a note in classical music. This pattern is played in unison by two or more guitarists in the rhythm section. Another important aspect of style of playing is based on the chord shapes Django was forced to use due to his injury. Standard barre chords are not as common in gypsy jazz, standard major and minor chords are almost never played, and are instead replaced by major 7th chords, major 6th chords, and 6/9 chords.
Gypsy reharmonisation is often aimed at giving a minor feel even where a song is in a major key, dominant seventh chords are altered by lowering the 9th and 13th scale degree
Jazz bass is the use of the double bass or bass guitar to improvise accompaniment basslines and solos in a jazz or jazz fusion style. Players began using the bass in jazz in the 1890s to supply the low-pitched walking basslines that outlined the chord progressions of the songs. Beginning in the early 1950s, some bass players began to use the electric bass guitar in place of the double bass. Most jazz bassists specialize in either the bass or the electric bass. A small number of players, such as Stanley Clarke and John Patitucci, have achieved virtuoso skill on both instruments, beginning around 1890, the African-American communities in early New Orleans used a jazz ensemble which played a mixture of marches and dixieland music. This ensemble was initially a band with sousaphone supplying the bass line. As the music moved from playing for funerals on the street and into bars and brothels, many early bassists doubled on both the brass bass and string bass, as the instruments were often referred to.
Bassists played walking basslines—scale-based lines that outlined the harmony and provided a foundation for the tunes, for more about the slap style, see Playing styles, below. The cool style of jazz was influenced by such as Scott LaFaro and Percy Heath. Paul Chambers achieved renown for being one of the early jazz bassists to play Bebop solos in arco style, ron Carter, is credited as a key figure of the modern school of jazz bass playing. He is one of the most-recorded bassists in jazz. Free jazz was influenced by the composer/bassist Charles Mingus and Charlie Haden, in the 1950s, some big band bandleaders began to ask their upright players to use the then-newly available Fender bass, the first widely available electric bass. In the 1970s, as jazz and rock music were blended by performers to create the fusion genre, apart from jazz fusion and Latin-influenced jazz, the double bass is still widely used in jazz in the 2010s. The deep sound and woody tone of the double bass is distinct from the sound of the fretted bass guitar.
The bass guitar produces a different sound than the double bass, as well, bass guitars usually have a solid wood body, which means that the sound is produced by electronic amplification of the vibration of the strings. The solid body upright, known as a bass or EUB variation is still widely used by bass players in salsa and timba bands. The EUB is smaller and lighter than a bass, making touring and travelling easier. In jazz, since the 1950s, the bass is usually played with amplification and it is mostly played with the fingers, pizzicato style, except during some solos. The pizzicato style varies between different players and genres, some players perform with the sides of one, two, or three fingers, especially for walking basslines and slow tempo ballads, because this is purported to create a stronger and more solid tone
European free jazz
European free jazz is a part of the global free jazz scene with its own development and characteristics. It is hard to establish who are the founders of European free jazz because of the different developments in different European countries. One can, however, be certain that European free jazz took its development from American free jazz, although the roots of free jazz music are based in the United States, it did not receive mainstream popularity nor did it achieve significant commercial success until much later. Rather it was viewed as a musical and social backlash to the structure of jazz music, Jazz musicians like Ornette Coleman, Albert Ayler, Don Cherry, Bud Powell, Don Byas amongst others traveled and performed extensively throughout Europe. In contrast to the lack of success in America, many American free jazz musicians experienced both commercial success as well as societal acceptance amongst the European community. This acceptance led many of the innovators of this genre of music to travel extensively throughout Europe, a number of jazz musicians migrated to other parts of the world, where they received an opposite response, being considered the ultimate expression of high culture.
Thus, many of them remained in exile, and they enjoyed unparalleled success in France, Japan and the Netherlands after the world wars. While much of the public in America believed this style of music to be structure-less and ridiculous, many European listeners enjoyed the dissonant. Contrary to the reaction free jazz music received in the United States. The introduction of new, avant-garde style influenced many European jazz musicians like the German saxophonist Peter Brötzmann. The founders of European free jazz usually came from a jazz background. Brötzmann began playing jazz music in 1964 and he formed a quintet with Peter Kowald. The following year he toured Europe in a quintet led by Mike Mantler, saxophonist Peter Brötzmann is renowned for his high-strung, fast-paced playing, although the harmonies in his playing are often overlooked. His collaborator Peter Kowald interpreted free jazz on the double bass, trombonist Albert Mangelsdorff, although coming from a more classic background, had great influence.
He toured Asia, the United States and South America and was one finest trombonists in modern jazz, alexander von Schlippenbachs Globe Unity Orchestra created a big scandal at its debut in Berlin. In Germany some of the 2nd generation free jazz players came from a more European music background, like Georg Gräwe, in East Germany, trombonist Conny Bauer and drummer Günter Sommer spread free jazz in the Socialist block. Bauer formed Doppelmoppel, a quartet of two trombones and two guitars in 1982 and participated in the European Jazz Ensamble which celebrated its 20th Anniversary tour in 1996. In the UK the saxophonist Evan Parker who was influenced by John Coltrane took on the role of Brötzmann for Britain
A jam session is a relatively informal musical event, process, or activity where musicians, typically instrumentalists, play improvised solos and vamp on tunes and chord progressions. To jam is to music without extensive preparation or predefined arrangements. Original jam sessions, free flow sessions, are used by musicians to develop new material. Both styles can be used simply as a gathering and communal practice session. Jam sessions may be based upon existing songs or forms, may be based on an agreed chord progression or chart suggested by one participant. When Bing Crosby would attend these sessions, the musicians would say he was jammin the beat, since he would clap on the one, thus these sessions became known as jam sessions. The New York scene during World War II was famous for its after-hours jam sessions, one of the most famous was the regular after-hours jam at Mintons Playhouse in New York City that ran in the 1940s and early 1950s. The Mintons jams had competitive cutting contests, in which soloists would try to keep up with the house band and outdo each other in improvisational skill.
During the 1950s these descargas became the basis of a new genre of improvised jams based on the son montuno with notable jazz influences pioneered by the likes of Julio Gutiérrez and Cachao. During the 1960s, descargas played an important role in the development of salsa, they can be shorter on the recorded version. Some notable recorded jams and jam-inspired performances in the idiom, Led Zeppelin live shows almost always contained extended, improvised solos. Notable examples include Dazed and Confused from both The Song Remains the Same and How the West Was Won both include 3 way jamming for up to 20 minutes. As a result of this jam, guitarist Duane Allman was invited to join the Dominos after having recorded three songs, and he made a major contribution to the resulting LP. The soundtrack for Tonite Lets All Make Love in London features 2 improvised jams titled Interstellar Overdrive, the latter is complete improvisation around the beat of the drums provided by drummer Nick Mason. The farewell Last Waltz concerts led by The Band in 1976 included two late-night jam sessions featuring Neil Young, Ronnie Wood, Eric Clapton, Ringo Starr and others along with members of The Band.
These performances were not included in the film or original recordings of the officially released for the first time as part of a 2002 box set. The third disc of George Harrisons 1970 solo album All Things Must Pass, titled Apple Jam, the Velvet Undergrounds Sister Ray, Some Kinda Love and Foggy Notion, had extensive live versions. Nirvanas improvised hidden track Gallons of Rubbing Alcohol Flow Through the Strip from the album In Utero, bluesbreaker by Brian May and Friends recorded during the Star Fleet Project and featuring Eddie Van Halen, Phil Chen, Alan Gratzer and Fred Mandel
A writer is a person who uses written words in various styles and techniques to communicate their ideas. Writers texts are published across a range of media, skilled writers who are able to use language to express ideas well often contribute significantly to the cultural content of a society. The word is used elsewhere in the arts – such as songwriter – but as a standalone term. Some writers work from an oral tradition, Writers can produce material across a number of genres, fictional or non-fictional. Other writers use multiple media – for example, graphics or illustration – to enhance the communication of their ideas, some writers may use images or multimedia to augment their writing. In rare instances, creative writers are able to communicate their ideas via music as well as words, as well as producing their own written works, writers often write on how they write, why they write, and comment on the work of other writers. Writers work professionally or non-professionally, that is, for payment or without payment and may be either in advance.
Payment is only one of the motivations of writers and many are never paid for their work, Writers choose from a range of literary genres to express their ideas. Most writing can be adapted for use in another medium, for example, a writers work may be read privately or recited or performed in a play or film. Satire for example, may be written as a poem, an essay, a film, the writer of a letter may include elements of criticism, biography, or journalism. The genre sets the parameters but all kinds of creative adaptation have been attempted, novel to film, poem to play, Writers may begin their career in one genre and change to another. For example, historian William Dalrymple began in the genre of travel literature, many writers have produced both fiction and non-fiction works and others write in a genre that crosses the two. For example, writers of romances, such as Georgette Heyer, invent characters. In this genre, the accuracy of the history and the level of detail in the work both tend to be debated.
Some writers write both fiction and serious analysis, sometimes using different names to separate their work. Dorothy Sayers, for example, wrote crime fiction but was a playwright, translator, poets make maximum use of the language to achieve an emotional and sensory effect as well as a cognitive one. To create these effects, they use rhyme and rhythm and they exploit the properties of words with a range of techniques such as alliteration. A common theme is love and its vicissitudes, Shakespeares famous love story Romeo and Juliet, for example, written in a variety of poetic forms, has been performed in innumerable theatres and made into at least eight cinematic versions
The term jazz guitar may refer to either a type of guitar or to the variety of guitar playing styles used in the various genres which are commonly termed jazz. The jazz-type guitar was born as a result of using electric amplification to increase the volume of acoustic guitars. Conceived in the early 1930s, the guitar became a necessity as jazz musicians sought to amplify their sound to be heard over loud big bands. When guitarists in big bands only had acoustic guitars, all they could do was play chords, once guitarists switched from acoustic guitar to electric guitar and began using guitar amplifiers, it made the guitar much easier to hear, which enabled guitarists to play guitar solos. Arguably, no musical instrument had greater influence on how jazz evolved since the beginning of the twentieth century. Traditionally, jazz guitarists use an archtop with a relatively broad hollow sound-box, violin-style f-holes, a floating bridge. Solid body guitars, mass-produced since the early 1950s, are used, Jazz guitar playing styles include comping with jazz chord voicings and blowing over jazz chord progressions with jazz-style phrasing and ornaments.
Comping refers to playing chords underneath a melody or another musicians solo improvisations. When jazz guitar players improvise, they may use the scales, the stringed, chord-playing rhythm can be heard in groups which included military band-style instruments such as brass, saxes and drums, such as early jazz groups. As the acoustic guitar became a popular instrument in the early 20th century. The Gibson L5, an acoustic guitar which was first produced in 1923, was an early “jazz”-style guitar which was used by early jazz guitarists such as Eddie Lang. During the late 1930s and through the 1940s—the heyday of big band jazz, some guitarists, such as Freddie Green of Count Basie’s band, developed a guitar-specific style of accompaniment. Few of the big bands, featured amplified guitar solos, improved electric guitars such as Gibson’s ES-175, gave players a larger variety of tonal options. In the 1940s through the 1960s, players such as Wes Montgomery, Joe Pass, as jazz-rock fusion emerged in the early 1970s, many players switched to the more rock-oriented solid body guitars.
Other jazz guitarists, like Grant Green and Wes Montgomery, turned to applying their skills to pop-oriented styles that fused jazz with soul and R&B, younger jazz musicians rode the surge of electric popular genres such as blues and funk to reach new audiences. Fusion players such as John McLaughlin adopted the fluid, powerful sound of guitarists such as Clapton. McLaughlin was an innovator, incorporating hard jazz with the new sounds of Clapton, Beck. Guitarists such as Pat Martino, Al Di Meola, Larry Coryell, John Abercrombie, John Scofield, in addition, they simply turned up to full volume in order to create natural overdrive such as the blues rock players
The Azerbaijani jazz is a popular variety of jazz, widespread in Azerbaijan. It covers a range of styles and often features a blend with traditional Azeri music. Among modern famed Azeri jazz musicians are Aziza Mustafazadeh, who was influenced by Bill Evans and Keith Jarrett, Isfar Sarabski, Salman Gambarov, Jazz first appeared in Azerbaijan at the beginning of the 20th century. During the Soviet period, Baku was one of the three cities best known for jazz, along with Saint Petersburg and Riga, the Eastern Jazz Band, whose performances in Moscow were advertised in 1926, included Huseyngulu Sarabski as a soloist. In 1930s, Niyazi and Tofig Guliyev created the first local jazz band, jazz in the Soviet Union faced prohibition and censorship from 1920 and 1953. By the 1950s, jazz musicians from many Soviet cities, looking for a safe harbour, in the late 1960s, the Azerbaijani jazz music was boosted by such composers as Qara Qarayev and Rauf Hajiyev. In 1969, the first jazz festival was held in Baku, as of 2000s, the country saw increase in jazz festivals, the music festivals such as Baku International Jazz Festival and Gabala International Music Festival are held annually.
The Baku Jazz Center has been created for development and support of culture in Azerbaijan. Artists such as Aziza Mustafa Zadeh, Amina Figarova, Isfar Sarabski and Shahin Novrasli achieved worldwide success, the most known type of Azerbaijani jazz is Jazz mugham, which includes a sultry combination of Mugham and traditional American jazz. The style reached its full fame in the 1950s and 1960s under the influence of composer Rafig Babayev and his Gaya Quartet and jazz pianist, dizzy Gillespie, the legendary American jazz trumpeter, reportedly lauded Mustafazadeh for creating the music of the future. Sevda Alakbarzadeh Amina Figarova Aziza Mustafa Zadeh Tofig Ahmadov Rafig Babayev Salman Gambarov Rauf Hajiyev Vagif Mustafazadeh Shahin Novrasli Isfar Sarabski Rain Sultanov Gaya Quartet Rast Jazz. az
New York Post
New York Post is an American daily newspaper, primarily distributed in New York City and its surrounding area. It is the 13th-oldest and seventh-most-widely circulated newspaper in the United States, established in 1801 by federalist and Founding Father Alexander Hamilton, it became a respected broadsheet in the 19th century, under the name New York Evening Post. The modern version of the paper is published in tabloid format, in 1976, Rupert Murdoch bought Post for US$30.5 million. Since 1993, Post has been owned by News Corporation and its successor, News Corp and its editorial offices are located at 1211 Avenue of the Americas. New York Post, established on November 16,1801 as New-York Evening Post, the Hartford Courant, believed to be the oldest continuously published newspaper, was founded in 1764 as a semi-weekly paper, it did not begin publishing daily until 1836. The New Hampshire Gazette, which has trademarked its claim of being The Nations Oldest Newspaper, was founded in 1756, since the 1890s it has been published only for weekends.
Post was founded by Alexander Hamilton with about US$10,000 from a group of investors in the autumn of 1801 as New-York Evening Post, the meeting at which Hamilton first recruited investors for the new paper took place in the then-country weekend villa that is now Gracie Mansion. Hamilton chose William Coleman as his first editor, the most famous 19th-century New-York Evening Post editor was the poet and abolitionist William Cullen Bryant. So well respected was New-York Evening Post under Bryants editorship, it received praise from the English philosopher John Stuart Mill, in the summer of 1829, Bryant invited William Leggett, the Locofoco Democrat, to write for the paper. There, in addition to literary and drama reviews, Leggett began to write political editorials, leggetts classical liberal philosophy entailed a fierce opposition to central banking, a support for voluntary labor unions, and a dedication to laissez-faire economics. He was a member of the Equal Rights Party, Leggett became a co-owner and editor at Post in 1831, eventually working as sole editor of the newspaper while Bryant traveled in Europe in 1834 through 1835.
Another co-owner of the paper was John Bigelow, from 1849 to 1861, he was one of the editors and co-owners of New York Evening Post. In 1881 Henry Villard took control of New-York Evening Post, as well as The Nation, with this acquisition, the paper was managed by the triumvirate of Carl Schurz, Horace White, and Edwin L. Godkin. When Schurz left the paper in 1883, Godkin became editor-in-chief, White became editor-in-chief in 1899, and remained in that role until his retirement in 1903. Villard sold the paper in 1918, after allegations of pro-German sympathies during World War I hurt its circulation. The new owner was Thomas Lamont, a partner in the Wall Street firm of J. P. Morgan & Co. Conservative Cyrus H. K. Curtis—publisher of the Ladies Home Journal—purchased New-York Evening Post in 1924, in 1934, J. David Stern purchased the paper, changed its name to New York Post, and restored its broadsheet size and liberal perspective. In 1939, Dorothy Schiff purchased the paper and her husband, George Backer, was named editor and publisher
Alton Glenn Miller was an American big band musician, arranger and bandleader in the swing era. He was the recording artist from 1939 to 1943, leading one of the best known big bands. While he was traveling to entertain U. S. troops in France during World War II, Miller was born in Clarinda, the son of Mattie Lou and Lewis Elmer Miller. He attended grade school in North Platte in western Nebraska, in 1915, Millers family moved to Grant City, Missouri. Around this time, Miller had finally made enough money from milking cows to buy his first trombone, Miller played cornet and mandolin, but he switched to trombone by 1916. In 1918, the Miller family moved again, this time to Fort Morgan, Colorado, in the fall of 1919, he joined the high school football team, which won the Northern Colorado Football Conference in 1920. He was named the Best Left End in Colorado, during his senior year, Miller became very interested in a new style of music called dance band music. He was so taken with it that he formed his own band with some classmates, by the time Miller graduated from high school in 1921, he had decided to become a professional musician.
He dropped out of school after failing three out of five classes one semester, and decided to concentrate on making a career as a professional musician and he studied the Schillinger technique with Joseph Schillinger, under whose tutelage he composed what became his signature theme, Moonlight Serenade. In 1926, Miller toured with groups, eventually landing a good spot in Ben Pollacks group in Los Angeles. He played for Victor Young, allowing him to be mentored by other professional musicians, in the beginning, he was the main trombone soloist of the band. But when Jack Teagarden joined Pollacks band in 1928, Miller found that his solos were cut drastically, from then, he realized that, rather than being a trombonist, his future lay in arranging or writing music. He had a songbook published in Chicago in 1928 entitled Glenn Millers 125 Jazz Breaks for Trombone by the Melrose Brothers copyrighted in 1927, during his stint with Pollack, Miller wrote several musical arrangements of his own. He co-wrote his first composition, Room 1411, written with Benny Goodman and released as a Brunswick 78,4013, in 1928, when the band arrived in New York City, he sent for and married his college sweetheart, Helen Burger.
He was a member of Red Nicholss orchestra in 1930, and because of Nichols, during the late 1920s and early 1930s, Miller managed to earn a living working as a freelance trombonist in several bands. On a March 21,1928, Victor session, Miller played alongside Tommy Dorsey, Benny Goodman, and Joe Venuti in the All-Star Orchestra, directed by Nat Shilkret. On November 14,1929, an original vocalist named Red McKenzie hired Miller to play on two records that are now considered to be classics, Lola and If I Could Be With You One Hour Tonight. Beside Miller were clarinetist Pee Wee Russell, guitarist Eddie Condon, drummer Gene Krupa, Miller composed the songs Annies Cousin Fanny, Dese Dem Dose, Harlem Chapel Chimes, and Tomorrows Another Day for the Dorsey Brothers Band in 1934 and 1935
Forty-eight of the fifty states and the federal district are contiguous and located in North America between Canada and Mexico. The state of Alaska is in the northwest corner of North America, bordered by Canada to the east, the state of Hawaii is an archipelago in the mid-Pacific Ocean. The U. S. territories are scattered about the Pacific Ocean, the geography and wildlife of the country are extremely diverse. At 3.8 million square miles and with over 324 million people, the United States is the worlds third- or fourth-largest country by area, third-largest by land area. It is one of the worlds most ethnically diverse and multicultural nations, paleo-Indians migrated from Asia to the North American mainland at least 15,000 years ago. European colonization began in the 16th century, the United States emerged from 13 British colonies along the East Coast. Numerous disputes between Great Britain and the following the Seven Years War led to the American Revolution. On July 4,1776, during the course of the American Revolutionary War, the war ended in 1783 with recognition of the independence of the United States by Great Britain, representing the first successful war of independence against a European power.
The current constitution was adopted in 1788, after the Articles of Confederation, the first ten amendments, collectively named the Bill of Rights, were ratified in 1791 and designed to guarantee many fundamental civil liberties. During the second half of the 19th century, the American Civil War led to the end of slavery in the country. By the end of century, the United States extended into the Pacific Ocean. The Spanish–American War and World War I confirmed the status as a global military power. The end of the Cold War and the dissolution of the Soviet Union in 1991 left the United States as the sole superpower. The U. S. is a member of the United Nations, World Bank, International Monetary Fund, Organization of American States. The United States is a developed country, with the worlds largest economy by nominal GDP. It ranks highly in several measures of performance, including average wage, human development, per capita GDP. While the U. S. economy is considered post-industrial, characterized by the dominance of services and knowledge economy, the United States is a prominent political and cultural force internationally, and a leader in scientific research and technological innovations.
In 1507, the German cartographer Martin Waldseemüller produced a map on which he named the lands of the Western Hemisphere America after the Italian explorer and cartographer Amerigo Vespucci