Harbottle Castle is a ruined medieval castle situated at the west end of the village of Harbottle, England 9 miles west-north-west of Rothbury overlooking the River Coquet. It is a Scheduled Ancient Monument and a Grade I listed building It is thought that the mound on which the keep stands was a site used by the ancient Britons and that in Anglian times there was a stronghold on the site held by Mildred, son of Ackman; the present castle was built about 1160 by the Umfraville family at the request of King Henry II on land awarded to them following the Norman Conquest as a defence against the Scots. Not long after its erection, in 1174, it was taken by the Scots and was rebuilt more strongly. In 1296 it was besieged by Robert de Ros and some 40,000 men, but the siege by the supporters of John Balliol was withstood. In the 1310s Robert the Bruce captured the castle, it was restored in 1336, but in ruins again by 1351. It was repaired at the end of the 14th century and in about 1436 the castle passed into the hands of the Tailleboys.
It was for a long time the residence of the Warden of the Middle Marches and used as a prison. In 1515, Margaret Tudor, the widowed queen of King James IV of Scotland and sister of King Henry VIII of England, having been banished by the regent, John Stewart, Duke of Albany, came to the castle with her second husband, Archibald Douglas, 6th Earl of Angus. There, their daughter was born, called Margaret. Margaret Douglas was to become the mother of Lord Darnley, the second husband of Mary, Queen of Scots, grandmother of King James VI of Scotland and I of England. Further building work took place between 1541 and 1551 and more repairs were made in 1563. In 1605, King James I granted the castle and manor to George Home, 1st Earl of Dunbar, Lord Treasurer of Scotland, but thereafter, the castle fell into decay and much of its masonry was used in other buildings. A survey of 1715 reported the castle to be ruinous once more. Today, some standing masonry remains; the site is run by the Northumberland National Park Authority and entry to it is free.
Confusingly, following the abandonment of the castle as a residence, the name Harbottle Castle was reused:- Harbottle Castle is a 19th-century mansion house situated at the east end of Harbottle village. Stone from the derelict medieval castle was used in the building of a 17th-century manor house; the manor was acquired by Percival Clennell in 1796, in 1829, the house was replaced on the site with a two-storied five-bayed mansion designed by architect John Dobson for Fenwick Clennell. The house is protected with Grade II listed building status; the stable block was converted into a separate house in 1890. The Gatehouse Gazetteer, Harbottle Castle Images of Harbottle Castle Structures of the North East Listed Buildings in Harbottle Harbottle Castle 1 Harbottle Castle 2 Fry, Plantagenet Somerset, The David & Charles Book of Castles, David & Charles, 1980. ISBN 0-7153-7976-3 Photographs and Information from Strolling Guides
The public domain consists of all the creative works to which no exclusive intellectual property rights apply. Those rights may have been forfeited, expressly waived, or may be inapplicable; the works of William Shakespeare and Beethoven, most early silent films, are in the public domain either by virtue of their having been created before copyright existed, or by their copyright term having expired. Some works are not covered by copyright, are therefore in the public domain—among them the formulae of Newtonian physics, cooking recipes, all computer software created prior to 1974. Other works are dedicated by their authors to the public domain; the term public domain is not applied to situations where the creator of a work retains residual rights, in which case use of the work is referred to as "under license" or "with permission". As rights vary by country and jurisdiction, a work may be subject to rights in one country and be in the public domain in another; some rights depend on registrations on a country-by-country basis, the absence of registration in a particular country, if required, gives rise to public-domain status for a work in that country.
The term public domain may be interchangeably used with other imprecise or undefined terms such as the "public sphere" or "commons", including concepts such as the "commons of the mind", the "intellectual commons", the "information commons". Although the term "domain" did not come into use until the mid-18th century, the concept "can be traced back to the ancient Roman Law, as a preset system included in the property right system." The Romans had a large proprietary rights system where they defined "many things that cannot be owned" as res nullius, res communes, res publicae and res universitatis. The term res nullius was defined as things not yet appropriated; the term res communes was defined as "things that could be enjoyed by mankind, such as air and ocean." The term res publicae referred to things that were shared by all citizens, the term res universitatis meant things that were owned by the municipalities of Rome. When looking at it from a historical perspective, one could say the construction of the idea of "public domain" sprouted from the concepts of res communes, res publicae, res universitatis in early Roman law.
When the first early copyright law was first established in Britain with the Statute of Anne in 1710, public domain did not appear. However, similar concepts were developed by French jurists in the 18th century. Instead of "public domain", they used terms such as publici juris or propriété publique to describe works that were not covered by copyright law; the phrase "fall in the public domain" can be traced to mid-19th century France to describe the end of copyright term. The French poet Alfred de Vigny equated the expiration of copyright with a work falling "into the sink hole of public domain" and if the public domain receives any attention from intellectual property lawyers it is still treated as little more than that, left when intellectual property rights, such as copyright and trademarks, expire or are abandoned. In this historical context Paul Torremans describes copyright as a, "little coral reef of private right jutting up from the ocean of the public domain." Copyright law differs by country, the American legal scholar Pamela Samuelson has described the public domain as being "different sizes at different times in different countries".
Definitions of the boundaries of the public domain in relation to copyright, or intellectual property more regard the public domain as a negative space. According to James Boyle this definition underlines common usage of the term public domain and equates the public domain to public property and works in copyright to private property. However, the usage of the term public domain can be more granular, including for example uses of works in copyright permitted by copyright exceptions; such a definition regards work in copyright as private property subject to fair-use rights and limitation on ownership. A conceptual definition comes from Lange, who focused on what the public domain should be: "it should be a place of sanctuary for individual creative expression, a sanctuary conferring affirmative protection against the forces of private appropriation that threatened such expression". Patterson and Lindberg described the public domain not as a "territory", but rather as a concept: "here are certain materials – the air we breathe, rain, life, thoughts, ideas, numbers – not subject to private ownership.
The materials that compose our cultural heritage must be free for all living to use no less than matter necessary for biological survival." The term public domain may be interchangeably used with other imprecise or undefined terms such as the "public sphere" or "commons", including concepts such as the "commons of the mind", the "intellectual commons", the "information commons". A public-domain book is a book with no copyright, a book, created without a license, or a book where its copyrights expired or have been forfeited. In most countries the term of protection of copyright lasts until January first, 70 years after the death of the latest living author; the longest copyright term is in Mexico, which has life plus 100 years for all deaths since July 1928. A notable exception is the United States, where every book and tale published prior to 1924 is in the public domain.
Thomas Rupert Jones
Thomas Rupert Jones FRS was a British geologist and palaeontologist. Jones was born on 1 October 1819 in Cheapside, the son of John Jones, silk merchant, his wife Rhoda Jones of Coventry. While at a private school at Ilminster, his attention was attracted to geology by the fossils that are so abundant in the Lias quarries. In 1835 he was apprenticed to a surgeon at Taunton, he completed his apprenticeship in 1842 at Newbury in Berkshire, he was engaged in practice in London, until in 1849 he was appointed assistant secretary to the Geological Society of London. In 1862 he was made professor of geology at Sandhurst. Having devoted his especial attention to microfossils, he now became the highest authority in Britain on the Foraminifera and those Entomostraca that were regarded Ostracoda on, he edited the 2nd edition of Mantell's Medals of Creation, the 3rd edition of Mantell's Geological Excursions round the Isle of Wight, the 7th edition of Mantell's Wonders of Geology. Jones was elected a Fellow of the Royal Society in June 1872 and was awarded the Lyell Medal by the Geological Society in 1890.
For many years he was specially interested in the geology of South Africa. He was buried at Chesham Bois, Buckinghamshire, he had married twice: firstly to Mary, daughter of William Harris of Charing and secondly to Charlotte Ashburnham, daughter of Archibald Archer. His publications included: A Monograph of the Entomostraca of the Cretaceous Formation of England A Monograph of the Tertiary Entomostraca of England A Monograph of the Fossil Estheriae A Monograph of the Foraminifera of the Crag; this article incorporates text from a publication now in the public domain: Chisholm, Hugh, ed.. "Jones, Thomas Rupert". Encyclopædia Britannica. Cambridge University Press. Works written by or about Thomas Rupert Jones at Wikisource
Dunstanburgh Castle is a 14th-century fortification on the coast of Northumberland in northern England, between the villages of Craster and Embleton. The castle was built by Earl Thomas of Lancaster between 1313 and 1322, taking advantage of the site's natural defences and the existing earthworks of an Iron Age fort. Thomas was a leader of a baronial faction opposed to King Edward II, intended Dunstanburgh to act as a secure refuge, should the political situation in southern England deteriorate; the castle served as a statement of the earl's wealth and influence, would have invited comparisons with the neighbouring royal castle of Bamburgh. Thomas only visited his new castle once, before being captured at the Battle of Boroughbridge as he attempted to flee royal forces for the safety of Dunstanburgh. Thomas was executed, the castle became the property of the Crown before passing into the Duchy of Lancaster. Dunstanburgh's defences were expanded in the 1380s by John of Gaunt, the Duke of Lancaster, in the light of the threat from Scotland and the peasant uprisings of 1381.
The castle was maintained in the 15th century by the Crown, formed a strategic northern stronghold in the region during the Wars of the Roses, changing hands between the rival Lancastrian and Yorkist factions several times. The fortress never recovered from the sieges of these campaigns, by the 16th century the Warden of the Scottish Marches described it as having fallen into "wonderfull great decaye"; as the Scottish border became more stable, the military utility of the castle diminished, King James I sold the property off into private ownership in 1604. The Grey family owned it for several centuries; the Dunstanburgh Castle golf course was built near the property in 1900, expanded by the castle's owner, Sir Arthur Sutherland, in 1922. By the 1920s Sutherland could no longer afford to maintain the castle, he placed it into the guardianship of the state in 1930; when the Second World War broke out in 1939, measures were taken to defend the Northumberland coastline from a potential German invasion.
The castle was used as an observation post and the site was refortified with trenches, barbed wire, pill boxes and a mine field. In the 21st century the castle is run by English Heritage; the ruins are protected under UK law as a Grade I listed building, are part of a Site of Special Scientific Interest, forming an important natural environment for birds and amphibians. Dunstanburgh Castle was built in the centre of a designed medieval landscape, surrounded by three artificial lakes called meres covering a total of 4.25 hectares. The curtain walls enclose 9.96 acres. The most prominent part of the castle is the Great Gatehouse, a massive three-storey fortification, considered by historians Alastair Oswald and Jeremy Ashbee to be "one of the most imposing structures in any English castle". Multiple rectangular towers protect the walls, including the Lilburn Tower, which looks out towards Bamburgh Castle, the Egyncleugh Tower, positioned above Queen Margaret's Cove. Three internal complexes of buildings, now ruined, supported the earl's household, the castle constable's household and the running of the surrounding estates.
A harbour was built to the south-east of the castle. The site of Dunstanburgh Castle in north-east Northumberland was first occupied in prehistoric times. A promontory fort with earthwork defences was built on the same location at the end of the Iron Age being occupied from the 3rd century BC into the Roman period. By the 14th century, the defences had been long abandoned, the land was being used for arable crops. Dunstanburgh formed part of the barony of Embleton, a village that lies inland to the west, traditionally owned by the earls of Lancaster; the origins and the earliest appearance of the name "Dunstanburgh" are uncertain. Versions of the name, "Dunstanesburghe" and "Donstanburgh" were in use by the time of the castle's construction and Dunstanburgh may stem from a combination of the name of the local village of Dunstan, the Old English word "burh", meaning fortress. Dunstanburgh Castle was constructed by Thomas, the Earl of Lancaster, between 1313 and 1322. Thomas was an immensely powerful English baron, the second richest man in England after the King, with major land holdings across the kingdom.
He had a turbulent relationship with his cousin, King Edward II, had been a ringleader in the capture and killing of Edward's royal favourite, Piers Gaveston, in 1312. It is uncertain why Thomas decided to build Dunstanburgh. Although it was located on a strong defensive site, it was some distance from the local settlements and other strategic sites of value. Thomas held some lands in Northumberland, but they were insignificant in comparison to his other estates in the Midlands and Yorkshire, until 1313 he had paid them little attention. In the years following Gaveston's death, civil conflict in England seemed far away, it is believed that Thomas intended to create a secure retreat, a safe distance away from Edward's forces in the south, he probably hoped to erect a prominent status symbol, illustrating his wealth and authority, challenging that of the King. He may also have hoped to create a planned town alongside the castle intending to relocate the population of Embleton there. Building work on the castle had commenced by May 1313, with labourers beginning to excavate the moat and starting to construct the c
John Gilbert Baker
John Gilbert Baker FRS was an English botanist. His son was the botanist Edmund Gilbert Baker. Baker was died in Kew, he was educated at Quaker schools at Bootham School, York. He worked at the library and herbarium of Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew between 1866 and 1899, was keeper of the herbarium from 1890 to 1899, he wrote handbooks on many plant groups, including Amaryllidaceae, Iridaceae and ferns. His published works include Handbook of the Irideae, he married Hannah Unthank in 1860. Their son Edmund was one of twins, his twin brother died before 1887. John G. Baker was elected a Fellow of the Royal Society in 1878, he was awarded the Veitch Memorial Medal of the Royal Horticultural Society in 1907. Baker, J. G.. "Revision of the Genera and Species of Tulipeae". Botanical Journal of the Linnean Society. Xiv: 211–310. Doi:10.1111/j.1095-8339.1874.tb00314.x. Works written by or about John Gilbert Baker at Wikisource Handbook of the Irideae by J G Baker
National Library of Australia
The National Library of Australia is the largest reference library in Australia, responsible under the terms of the National Library Act for "maintaining and developing a national collection of library material, including a comprehensive collection of library material relating to Australia and the Australian people." In 2012–13, the National Library collection comprised 6,496,772 items, an additional 15,506 metres of manuscript material. It is located in Parkes, Canberra, ACT; the National Library of Australia, while formally established by the passage of the National Library Act 1960, had been functioning as a national library rather than a Parliamentary Library since its inception. In 1901, a Commonwealth Parliamentary Library was established to serve the newly formed Federal Parliament of Australia. From its inception the Commonwealth Parliamentary Library was driven to development of a national collection. In 1907 the Joint Parliamentary Library Committee under the Chairmanship of the Speaker, Sir Frederick William Holder defined the objective of the Commonwealth Parliamentary Library in the following words: The Library Committee is keeping before it the ideal of building up, for the time when Parliament shall be established in the Federal Capital, a great Public Library on the lines of the world-famed Library of Congress at Washington.
The present library building was opened on 15 August 1968 by Prime Minister John Gorton. The building was designed by the architectural firm of Bunning and Madden in the Late Twentieth Century Stripped Classical style; the foyer is decorated in marble, with stained-glass windows by Leonard French and three tapestries by Mathieu Matégot. The building was listed on the Australian Commonwealth Heritage List on 22 June 2004. In 2012–13 the Library collection comprised 6,496,772 items, with an estimated additional 2,325,900 items held in the manuscripts collection; the Library's collections of Australiana have developed into the nation's single most important resource of materials recording the Australian cultural heritage. Australian writers and illustrators are sought and well represented—whether published in Australia or overseas; the Library's collection includes all formats of material, from books, journals and manuscripts to pictures, maps, oral history recordings, manuscript papers and ephemera.
92.1% of the Library's collection has been catalogued and is discoverable through the online catalogue. The Library has digitized over 174,000 items from its collection and, where possible, delivers these directly across the Internet; the Library is a world leader in digital preservation techniques, maintains an Internet-accessible archive of selected Australian websites called the Pandora Archive. The Library collects material produced by Australians, for Australians or about the Australian experience in all formats—not just printed works—books, newspapers, posters and printed ephemera—but online publications and unpublished material such as manuscripts and oral histories. A core Australiana collection is that of John A. Ferguson; the Library has particular collection strengths in the performing arts, including dance. The Library's considerable collections of general overseas and rare book materials, as well as world-class Asian and Pacific collections which augment the Australiana collections.
The print collections are further supported by extensive microform holdings. The Library maintains the National Reserve Braille Collection; the Library houses the largest and most developing research resource on Asia in Australia, the largest Asian language collections in the Southern hemisphere, with over half a million volumes in the collection, as well as extensive online and electronic resources. The Library collects resources about all Asian countries in Western languages extensively, resources in the following Asian languages: Burmese, Persian, Japanese, Korean, Manchu, Thai and Vietnamese; the Library has acquired a number of important Western and Asian language scholarly collections from researchers and bibliophiles. These collections include: Australian Buddhist Library Collection Braga Collection Claasz Collection Coedes Collection London Missionary Society Collection Luce Collection McLaren-Human Collection Otley Beyer Collection Sakakibara Collection Sang Ye Collection Simon Collection Harold S. Williams Collection The Asian Collections are searchable via the National Library's catalogue.
The National Library holds an extensive collection of manuscripts. The manuscript collection contains about 26 million separate items, covering in excess of 10,492 meters of shelf space; the collection relates predominantly to Australia, but there are important holdings relating to Papua New Guinea, New Zealand and the Pacific. The collection holds a number of European and Asian manuscript collections or single items have been received as part of formed book collections; the Australian manuscript collections date from the period of maritime exploration and settlement in the 18th century until the present, with the greatest area of strength dating from the 1890s onwards. The collection includes a large number of outstanding single items, such as the 14th century Chertsey Cartulary, the journal of James Cook on the HM Bark Endeavour, inscribed on t