Virtual International Authority File
The Virtual International Authority File is an international authority file. It is a joint project of several national libraries and operated by the Online Computer Library Center. Discussion about having a common international authority started in the late 1990s. After a series of failed attempts to come up with a unique common authority file, the new idea was to link existing national authorities; this would present all the benefits of a common file without requiring a large investment of time and expense in the process. The project was initiated by the US Library of Congress, the German National Library and the OCLC on August 6, 2003; the Bibliothèque nationale de France joined the project on October 5, 2007. The project transitioned to being a service of the OCLC on April 4, 2012; the aim is to link the national authority files to a single virtual authority file. In this file, identical records from the different data sets are linked together. A VIAF record receives a standard data number, contains the primary "see" and "see also" records from the original records, refers to the original authority records.
The data are available for research and data exchange and sharing. Reciprocal updating uses the Open Archives Initiative Protocol for Metadata Harvesting protocol; the file numbers are being added to Wikipedia biographical articles and are incorporated into Wikidata. VIAF's clustering algorithm is run every month; as more data are added from participating libraries, clusters of authority records may coalesce or split, leading to some fluctuation in the VIAF identifier of certain authority records. Authority control Faceted Application of Subject Terminology Integrated Authority File International Standard Authority Data Number International Standard Name Identifier Wikipedia's authority control template for articles Official website VIAF at OCLC
East India Company
The East India Company known as the Honourable East India Company or the British East India Company and informally as John Company, Company Bahadur, or The Company, was an English and British joint-stock company. It was formed to trade in the Indian Ocean region with Mughal India and the East Indies, with Qing China; the company ended up seizing control over large parts of the Indian subcontinent, colonised parts of Southeast Asia, colonised Hong Kong after a war with Qing China. Chartered as the "Governor and Company of Merchants of London trading into the East Indies", the company rose to account for half of the world's trade in basic commodities including cotton, indigo dye, spices, saltpetre and opium; the company ruled the beginnings of the British Empire in India. In his speech to the House of Commons in July 1833, Lord Macaulay explained that since the beginning, the East India company had always been involved in both trade and politics, just as its French and Dutch counterparts had been.
The company received a Royal Charter from Queen Elizabeth I on 31 December 1600, coming late to trade in the Indies. Before them the Portuguese Estado da Índia had traded there for much of the 16th century and the first of half a dozen Dutch Companies sailed to trade there from 1595; these Dutch companies amalgamated in March 1602 into the United East Indies Company, which introduced the first permanent joint stock from 1612. By contrast, wealthy merchants and aristocrats owned the EIC's shares; the government owned no shares and had only indirect control until 1657 when permanent joint stock was established. During its first century of operation, the focus of the company was trade, not the building of an empire in India. Company interests turned from trade to territory during the 18th century as the Mughal Empire declined in power and the East India Company struggled with its French counterpart, the French East India Company during the Carnatic Wars of the 1740s and 1750s; the battles of Plassey and Buxar, in which the British defeated the Bengali powers, left the company in control of Bengal and a major military and political power in India.
In the following decades it increased the extent of the territories under its control, controlling the majority of the Indian subcontinent either directly or indirectly via local puppet rulers under the threat of force by its Presidency armies, much of which were composed of native Indian sepoys. By 1803, at the height of its rule in India, the British East India company had a private army of about 260,000—twice the size of the British Army, with Indian revenues of £13,464,561, expenses of £14,017,473; the company came to rule large areas of India with its private armies, exercising military power and assuming administrative functions. Company rule in India began in 1757 and lasted until 1858, following the Indian Rebellion of 1857, the Government of India Act 1858 led to the British Crown's assuming direct control of the Indian subcontinent in the form of the new British Raj. Despite frequent government intervention, the company had recurring problems with its finances, it was dissolved in 1874 as a result of the East India Stock Dividend Redemption Act passed one year earlier, as the Government of India Act had by rendered it vestigial and obsolete.
The official government machinery of British India assumed the East India Company's governmental functions and absorbed its navy and its armies in 1858. Soon after the defeat of the Spanish Armada in 1588, the captured Spanish and Portuguese ships with their cargoes enabled English voyagers to travel the globe in search of riches. London merchants presented a petition to Queen Elizabeth I for permission to sail to the Indian Ocean; the aim was to deliver a decisive blow to the Portuguese monopoly of Far Eastern Trade. Elizabeth granted her permission and on 10 April 1591 James Lancaster in the Bonaventure with two other ships sailed from Torbay around the Cape of Good Hope to the Arabian Sea on one of the earliest English overseas Indian expeditions. Having sailed around Cape Comorin to the Malay Peninsula, they preyed on Spanish and Portuguese ships there before returning to England in 1594; the biggest capture that galvanised English trade was the seizure of the large Portuguese Carrack, the Madre de Deus by Sir Walter Raleigh and the Earl of Cumberland at the Battle of Flores on 13 August 1592.
When she was brought in to Dartmouth she was the largest vessel, seen in England and her cargo consisted of chests filled with jewels, gold, silver coins, cloth, pepper, cinnamon, benjamin, red dye and ebony. Valuable was the ship's rutter containing vital information on the China and Japan trades; these riches aroused the English to engage in this opulent commerce. In 1596, three more English ships were all lost at sea. A year however saw the arrival of Ralph Fitch, an adventurer merchant who, along with his companions, had made a remarkable fifteen-year overland journey to Mesopotamia, the Persian Gulf, the Indian Ocean and Southeast Asia. Fitch was consulted on the Indian affairs and gave more valuable information to Lancaster. On 22 September 1599, a group of merchants met and stated their intention "to venture in the pretended voyage to the East Indies, the sums that they will adventure", committing £30
Sir Sidney Lee was an English biographer and critic. Lee was born Solomon Lazarus Lee in 1859 at 12 Keppel Street, London, he was educated at the City of London School and at Balliol College, where he graduated in modern history in 1882. In 1883, Lee became assistant-editor of the Dictionary of National Biography. In 1890 he became joint editor, on the retirement of Sir Leslie Stephen in 1891, succeeded him as editor. Lee wrote over 800 articles in the Dictionary on Elizabethan authors or statesmen, his sister Elizabeth Lee contributed. While still at Balliol, Lee had written two articles on Shakespearean questions, which were printed in The Gentleman's Magazine. In 1884, he published a book with illustrations by Edward Hull. Lee's article on Shakespeare in the 51st volume of the Dictionary of National Biography formed the basis of his Life of William Shakespeare, which reached its fifth edition in 1905. In 1902, Lee edited the Oxford facsimile edition of the first folio of Shakespeare's comedies and tragedies, followed in 1902 and 1904 by supplementary volumes giving details of extant copies, in 1906 by a complete edition of Shakespeare's works.
Lee received a knighthood in 1911. Between 1913 and 1924, he served as Professor of English Literature and Language at East London College. Besides the editions of English classics, Lee's works include: Life of Queen Victoria Great Englishmen of the Sixteenth century, based on his Lowell Institute lectures at Boston, Massachusetts, in 1903 Shakespeare and the Modern Stage Shakespeare's England: an account of the life & manners of his age King Edward VII, a Biography. There are personal letters from Lee, including those written during his final illness, in the T. F. Tout Collection of the John Rylands Library in Manchester. John Denham Parsons Oxford Dictionary of National Biography Chisholm, Hugh, ed.. "Lee, Sidney". Encyclopædia Britannica. Cambridge University Press. Sidney Lee Dictionary of National Biography: Index and Epitome Works by Sidney Lee at Project Gutenberg Works by or about Sidney Lee at Internet Archive Works by Sidney Lee at LibriVox Works by Sidney Lee at Open Library
John Hubbard, 1st Baron Addington
John Gellibrand Hubbard, 1st Baron Addington PC was a City of London financier and a Conservative Party politician. Hubbard was born at Stratford Grove, the son of John Hubbard and his wife Marianne Morgan, he was a merchant in Russian Merchants. He was by profession a banker, his family had a business in St Petersburg, not commercial, but had an operation in London, it was enough for him to become a director of Life Assurance Co.. In 1838 he joined the elite as a director of the Bank of England rising to become successively Deputy Governor and Governor. Convinced capital and income should be treated differently he lobbied parliament to recognise the legal treatment of income tax on earned income only, achieved in 1907, he was of Chairman of the Public Works and Exchequer Loan Committee between 1853 and 1875. Hubbard was interested in religion and the High Church in the Puseyite tradition, yet he rejected ritualism. In 1863 he built and endowed St Alban's Church, Holborn where he was churchwarden.
Father Mackonochie, an Irish priest, used a Catholic ritual not to his liking which prompted a stiff letter to the Bishop of London in 1868. Hubbard was the City of London. In his lifetime Hubbard was active in funding Canon Nathaniel Woodard's national network of Woodard Schools. Hubbard was elected as a Member of Parliament for Buckingham at the 1859 general election, he was re-elected in 1865 but when Buckingham's representation was reduced to one MP at the 1868 general election he was defeated. He returned to the House of Commons at the 1874 general election when he was elected as one of the four MPs for the City of London, held the seat until he was created 1st Baron Addington, of Addington, Buckinghamshire on 22 July 1887, he was invested as a Privy Counsellor in 1874. Hubbard died at Addington Manor, Buckinghamshire at the age of 84. Hubbard married Hon. Maria Margaret Napier, daughter of Captain William John Napier, 9th Lord Napier of Merchistoun and Eliza Cochrane-Johnstone, on 19 May 1837, they had the following children: Hon. Alice Eliza Hubbard Egerton Hubbard, 2nd Baron Addington Hon. Lucy Marian Hubbard Hon. Cecil John Hubbard Hon. Arthur Gellibrand Hubbard Hon. Rose Ellen Hubbard Hon. Evelyn Hubbard Hon.
Clemency Hubbard His three sons, Cecil John, Evelyn were educated at Radley College. Hubbard played a decisive role in rescuing the school's finances when they collapsed in 1860, he refounded the school using his acumen to raise the fees, boost numbers, fund the debts. In the same year that he was elevated to the peerage, the school paid the last installment. Baron Addington was a friend of Montagu Norman, a Governor of the Bank of England, who had a strong connection to the school. With Trevor, The Conscience Clause in 1866 Hansard 1803–2005: contributions in Parliament by John Hubbard Portraits of John Gellibrand Hubbard Addington, 1st Baron Addington at the National Portrait Gallery, London
Beeford is a village and civil parish in the East Riding of Yorkshire, England. It is situated at the junction of the A165 and the B1249, 10 miles north-east from Beverley and 8 miles south from Bridlington. According to the 2011 UK census, Beeford parish had a population of 1,078, an increase on the 2001 UK census figure of 955; the parish church of St Leonard is a Grade II* listed building. Beeford has a Church of England primary school and playing fields. Media related to Beeford at Wikimedia Commons Historic England. "St Leonard's Church". Images of England. Beeford in the Domesday Book
John Stuart Mill
John Stuart Mill cited as J. S. Mill, was a British philosopher, political economist, civil servant. One of the most influential thinkers in the history of classical liberalism, he contributed to social theory, political theory, political economy. Dubbed "the most influential English-speaking philosopher of the nineteenth century", Mill's conception of liberty justified the freedom of the individual in opposition to unlimited state and social control. Mill was a proponent of utilitarianism, an ethical theory developed by his predecessor Jeremy Bentham, he contributed to the investigation of scientific methodology, though his knowledge of the topic was based on the writings of others, notably William Whewell, John Herschel, Auguste Comte, research carried out for Mill by Alexander Bain. Mill engaged in written debate with Whewell. A member of the Liberal Party, he was the second Member of Parliament to call for women's suffrage after Henry Hunt in 1832. John Stuart Mill was born at 13 Rodney Street in Pentonville, the eldest son of the Scottish philosopher and economist James Mill, Harriet Barrow.
John Stuart was educated by his father, with the advice and assistance of Jeremy Bentham and Francis Place. He was given an rigorous upbringing, was deliberately shielded from association with children his own age other than his siblings, his father, a follower of Bentham and an adherent of associationism, had as his explicit aim to create a genius intellect that would carry on the cause of utilitarianism and its implementation after he and Bentham had died. Mill was a notably precocious child, he describes his education in his autobiography. At the age of three he was taught Greek. By the age of eight, he had read Aesop's Fables, Xenophon's Anabasis, the whole of Herodotus, was acquainted with Lucian, Diogenes Laërtius and six dialogues of Plato, he had read a great deal of history in English and had been taught arithmetic and astronomy. At the age of eight, Mill began studying Latin, the works of Euclid, algebra, was appointed schoolmaster to the younger children of the family, his main reading was still history, but he went through all the taught Latin and Greek authors and by the age of ten could read Plato and Demosthenes with ease.
His father thought that it was important for Mill to study and compose poetry. One of Mill's earliest poetic compositions was a continuation of the Iliad. In his spare time he enjoyed reading about natural sciences and popular novels, such as Don Quixote and Robinson Crusoe, his father's work, The History of British India was published in 1818. In the following year he was introduced to political economy and studied Adam Smith and David Ricardo with his father completing their classical economic view of factors of production. Mill's comptes rendus of his daily economy lessons helped his father in writing Elements of Political Economy in 1821, a textbook to promote the ideas of Ricardian economics. Ricardo, a close friend of his father, used to invite the young Mill to his house for a walk in order to talk about political economy. At the age of fourteen, Mill stayed a year in France with the family of Sir Samuel Bentham, brother of Jeremy Bentham; the mountain scenery he saw led to a lifelong taste for mountain landscapes.
The lively and friendly way of life of the French left a deep impression on him. In Montpellier, he attended the winter courses on chemistry, logic of the Faculté des Sciences, as well as taking a course in higher mathematics. While coming and going from France, he stayed in Paris for a few days in the house of the renowned economist Jean-Baptiste Say, a friend of Mill's father. There he met many leaders of the Liberal party, as well as other notable Parisians, including Henri Saint-Simon. Mill went through months of pondered suicide at twenty years of age. According to the opening paragraphs of Chapter V of his autobiography, he had asked himself whether the creation of a just society, his life's objective, would make him happy, his heart answered "no", unsurprisingly he lost the happiness of striving towards this objective. The poetry of William Wordsworth showed him that beauty generates compassion for others and stimulates joy. John Stuart Mill's Mental Breakdown, Victorian Unconversions, Romantic Poetry With renewed joy he continued to work towards a just society, but with more relish for the journey.
He considered this one of the most pivotal shifts in his thinking. In fact, many of the differences between him and his father stemmed from this expanded source of joy. Mill had been engaged in a pen-friendship with Auguste Comte, the founder of positivism and sociology, since Mill first contacted Comte in November 1841. Comte's sociologie was more an early philosophy of science than we know it today, the positive philosophy aided in Mill's broad rejection of Benthamism; as a nonconformist who refused to subscribe to the Thirty-Nine Articles of the Church of England, Mill was not eligible to study at the University of Oxford or the University of Cambridge. Instead he followed his father to work for the East India Company, attended University College, London, to hear the lectures of John Austin, the first Professor of Jurisprudence, he was elected a Foreign Honorary Member of the American Academy of Arts and Sciences in 1856. Mill's career as a colonial administrator at the British East India Company spanned from when he was 17 years old in 1823 until 1858, when the Compan
William Thomson (bishop)
William Thomson, was an English church leader, Archbishop of York from 1862 until his death. He was born the eldest son of John Thomson of Kelswick House, near Whitehaven and educated at Shrewsbury School and at The Queen's College, Oxford, of which he became a scholar, he took his B. A. degree in 1840, was soon afterwards made fellow of his college. He was ordained in 1842, worked as a curate at Cuddesdon. In 1847 he was made tutor of his college, in 1853 he delivered the Bampton lectures, his subject being The Atoning Work of Christ viewed in Relation to some Ancient Theories; these thoughtful and learned lectures established his reputation and did much to clear the ground for subsequent discussions on the subject. Thomson's activity was not confined to theology, he was made fellow of the Royal Geographical Society. He wrote a popular Outline of the Laws of Thought, he sided with the party at Oxford which favoured university reform, but this did not prevent him from being appointed provost of his college in 1855.
In 1858 he was made preacher at Lincoln's Inn and a volume of his sermons was published in 1861. In the same year he edited Aids to Faith, a volume written in opposition to Essays and Reviews, the progressive sentiments of which had stirred up controversy in the Church of England. In December 1861 he became Bishop of Gloucester and Bristol, within a year he was elevated to Archbishop of York. In this position his moderate orthodoxy led him to join Archbishop Archibald Campbell Tait in supporting the Public Worship Regulation Act, and, as president of the northern convocation, he came into sharp collision with the lower house of that body, but if he thus incurred the hostility of the High Church party among the clergy, he was admired by the laity for his strong sense, his clear and forcible reasoning, his wide knowledge, he remained to the last a power in the north of England. In his years he published an address read before the members of the Royal Society of Edinburgh, one on Design in Nature, for the Christian Evidence Society, which reached a fifth edition, various charges and pastoral addresses, he was one of the projectors of the Speaker's Commentary, for which he wrote the "Introduction to the Synoptic Gospels."See the Quarterly Review.
His parents were John Thomson and Isabella Thompson On 24 July 1855 in Oxford, Thomson married Zoë Skene daughter of James Henry Skene, British Consul at Aleppo. They had the following children: Ethel Zoë Thomson, who edited Thomson's Life and Letters. Wilfred Forbes Home Thomson Jocelyn Home Thomson Sir Basil Home Thomson, KCB, a British intelligence officer, police officer, prison governor, colonial administrator, writer. Zoë Jane Thomson Beatrice Mary Thomson Alexandra Thomson. Married Col. John Studholme Madeline Ita Mary Thomson Bernard Henry Home Thomson, his granddaughter is the author Rose Tremain, his great grandchildren are. "Thomson, William". In Lee, Sidney. Dictionary of National Biography. 56. London: Smith, Elder & Co. Carlyle, E. I.. Oxford Dictionary of National Biography. Oxford University Press. Doi:10.1093/ref:odnb/27330. Attribution: This article incorporates text from a publication now in the public domain: Chisholm, Hugh, ed.. "Thomson, William". Encyclopædia Britannica. 26. Cambridge University Press.
Media related to William Thomson at Wikimedia Commons