St Kilda Cemetery
St Kilda Cemetery is located in the Melbourne suburb of St Kilda East, Victoria. St Kilda Cemetery covers a large block bordered by Dandenong Road, Hotham Street, Alma Road and Alexandra Street, it contains many Victorian era graves. The cemetery is the resting place of Alfred Deakin, the second Prime Minister of Australia, five Premiers of Victoria, Albert Jacka VC, MC, barrister and Mayor of St Kilda. David Andrade, anarchist Tilly Aston, started the Braille Library in Melbourne Harold Breen, senior public servant Norman Brookes, tennis player Archibald Campbell, ornithologist Alfred Deakin, Prime Minister Caroline Hodgson, "Madame Brussels" Jessica Jacobs, actress Albert Jacka VC James Lorimer, shipping magnate, politician Christina Macpherson, composer Ferdinand von Mueller, botanist William Pitt, architect Premiers of Victoria William Haines Bryan O’Loghlen George Kerferd James Munro George Turner Hugh Ramsay, artist Robert Rede, Eureka Uprising identity, sheriff Frederick Sargood and senator John Shillinglaw, historian Monckton Synnot, merchant Gyles Turner, historian The cemetery contains the war graves of 20 Commonwealth service personnel, including 4 from World War I and 16 from World War II.
St Kilda Cemetery Friends of St Kilda Cemetery St Kilda Cemetery - Billion Graves
William Shiels was an Australian colonial-era politician, serving as the 16th Premier of Victoria. Shiels was born in a city in the west of Ulster in the north of Ireland, he was born into an Ulster-Scots Presbyterian family and arrived in Melbourne as a child in 1853. He was educated at Scotch College and the University of Melbourne, where he graduated in law and arts, gaining a master's degree in law in 1885, he was called to the Melbourne bar in 1872 and was active in public life, being a noted campaigner for divorce law reform. Shiels was elected to the Victorian Legislative Assembly for Normanby in 1880, as a moderate liberal, holding that seat throughout his career, he was Attorney-General and Minister for Railways in the government of James Munro from 1890 to 1892. During this time Shiels was one of the few politicians to warn against the excesses of the Land Boom which swept Victoria between 1887 and 1891; as a result, when Munro resigned in the face of imminent bankruptcy in February 1892, the liberals turned to Shiels as a "clean" new leader, he became Premier.
The Shiels government responded to the financial disaster of the 1892 crash in the orthodox fashion of the time, cutting spending and increasing taxation to balance the budget – measures which only made the situation worse. The conservatives who had supported the coalition governments of Duncan Gillies and Munro opposed increased taxation, during 1892 they deserted Shiels. In January 1893 the conservative leader James Patterson moved a successful no-confidence motion, Shiels resigned. Shiels kept his reputation for integrity, he was Treasurer under Minister for Railways. In 1904, his health broke down and he retired to rural South Australia shortly before his death, aged only 56. Shiels is buried at Struan House, located on the Dukes HWY 10 km out of Naracoorte in South Australia's South East. Notes BibliographyGeoff Browne, A Biographical Register of the Victorian Parliament, 1900–84, Government Printer, Melbourne, 1985 Don Garden, Victoria: A History, Thomas Nelson, Melbourne, 1984 Kathleen Thompson and Geoffrey Serle, A Biographical Register of the Victorian Parliament, 1856–1900, Australian National University Press, Canberra, 1972 Raymond Wright, A People's Counsel.
A History of the Parliament of Victoria, 1856–1990, Oxford University Press, Melbourne, 1992 Serle, Percival. "Shiels, William". Dictionary of Australian Biography. Sydney: Angus and Robertson
Order of St Michael and St George
The Most Distinguished Order of Saint Michael and Saint George is a British order of chivalry founded on 28 April 1818 by George, Prince Regent King George IV, while he was acting as regent for his father, King George III. It is named in honour of St Michael and St George; the Order of St Michael and St George was awarded to those holding commands or high position in the Mediterranean territories acquired in the Napoleonic Wars, was subsequently extended to holders of similar office or position in other territories of the British Empire. It is at present awarded to men and women who hold high office or who render extraordinary or important non-military service in a foreign country, can be conferred for important or loyal service in relation to foreign and Commonwealth affairs; the Order includes three classes, in descending order of seniority and rank: Knight Grand Cross or Dame Grand Cross Knight Commander or Dame Commander Companion It is used to honour individuals who have rendered important services in relation to Commonwealth or foreign nations.
People are appointed to the Order rather than awarded it. British Ambassadors to foreign nations are appointed as KCMGs or CMGs. For example, the former British Ambassador to the United States, Sir David Manning, was appointed a CMG when he worked for the British Foreign and Commonwealth Office, after his appointment as British Ambassador to the US, he was promoted to a Knight Commander, it is the traditional award for members of the FCO. The Order's motto is Auspicium melioris ævi, its patron saints, as the name suggests, are St. Michael the Archangel, St. George, patron saint of England. One of its primary symbols is that of St Michael subduing Satan in battle; the Order is the sixth-most senior in the British honours system, after The Most Noble Order of the Garter, The Most Ancient and Most Noble Order of the Thistle, The Most Illustrious Order of St Patrick, The Most Honourable Order of the Bath, The Most Exalted Order of the Star of India. The third of the aforementioned Orders—which relates to Ireland, no longer a part of the United Kingdom—still exists but is in disuse.
The last of the Orders on the list, related to India, has been in disuse since that country's independence in 1947. The Prince Regent founded the Order to commemorate the British amical protectorate over the Ionian Islands, which had come under British control in 1814 and had been granted their own constitution as the United States of the Ionian Islands in 1817, it was intended to reward "natives of the Ionian Islands and of the island of Malta and its dependencies, for such other subjects of His Majesty as may hold high and confidential situations in the Mediterranean". In 1864, the protectorate ended and the Ionian Islands became part of Greece. A revision of the basis of the Order in 1868, saw membership granted to those who "hold high and confidential offices within Her Majesty's colonial possessions, in reward for services rendered to the Crown in relation to the foreign affairs of the Empire". Accordingly, numerous Governors-General and Governors feature as recipients of awards in the order.
In 1965 the order was opened to women, with Evelyn Bark becoming the first female CMG in 1967. The British Sovereign appoints all other members of the Order; the next-most senior member is the Grand Master. The office was filled by the Lord High Commissioner of the Ionian Islands. Grand Masters include: 1818–1825: Sir Thomas Maitland 1825–1850: Prince Adolphus, Duke of Cambridge 1850–1904: Prince George, Duke of Cambridge 1904–1910: George, Prince of Wales 1910–1917: None 1917–1936: Edward, Prince of Wales 1936–1957: Alexander Cambridge, 1st Earl of Athlone 1957–1959: Edward Wood, 1st Earl of Halifax 1959–1967: Harold Alexander, 1st Earl Alexander of Tunis 1967–present: Prince Edward, Duke of KentThe Order included 15 Knights Grand Cross, 20 Knights Commanders, 25 Companions but has since been expanded and the current limits on membership are 125, 375, 1,750 respectively. Members of the Royal Family who are appointed to the Order do not count towards the limit, nor do foreign members appointed as "honorary members".
The Order has six officers. The Order's King of Arms is not a member of the College of Arms, like many other heraldic officers; the Usher of the Order is known as the Lady Usher of the Blue Rod. Blue Rod does not, unlike the usher of the Order of the Garter, perform any duties related to the House of Lords. Prelate – The Rt. Rev. David Urquhart Chancellor – Rt Hon. Lord Robertson of Port Ellen Secretary – Sir Simon McDonald Registrar – Sir David Manning King of Arms – Sir Jeremy Greenstock Lady Usher of the Blue Rod – Dame DeAnne Julius Members of the Order wear elaborate regalia on important occasions, which vary by rank: The mantle, worn only by Knights and Dames Grand Cross, is made of Saxon blue satin lined with crimson silk. On the left side is a representation of the star; the mantle is bound with two large tassels. The collar, worn only by Knights and Dames Grand Cross, is made of gold, it consists of depictions of crowned lions, Maltese Crosses, the cyphers "SM" and "SG", all alternately.
In the centre are two winged lions, each holding a book and seven arrows. At less important occasions, simpler insignia are used: The star is an insignia used only by Knights and Dames Grand Cross and Knights and Dames Commanders, it is worn pinned to the left breast. The Knight and
Treasurer of Australia
The Treasurer of Australia is the minister in the Government of Australia responsible for government expenditure and revenue raising. The Treasurer plays a key role in the economic policy of the government; the current holder of the position is Josh Frydenberg, whose term began on 24 August 2018. The Treasurer administers his functions through the Department of the Treasury and a range of other government agencies. According to constitutional convention, the Treasurer is always a member of the Parliament of Australia with a seat in the House of Representatives; the office is seen as equivalent to the Chancellor of the Exchequer in the United Kingdom or the Secretary of the Treasury in the United States or, in some other countries, the finance minister. The Treasurer is the minister in charge of government expenditure; the Treasurer oversees economic policy: fiscal policy is within the Treasurer's direct responsibility, while monetary policy is implemented by the politically independent Reserve Bank of Australia, the head of, appointed by the Treasurer.
The Treasurer oversees financial regulation. Each year in May, the Treasurer presents the Federal Budget to the Parliament; the Prime Minister and Treasurer are traditionally members of the House, but the Constitution does not have such a requirement. The Treasurer is a senior government post. Service as Treasurer is seen as an important qualification for serving as Prime Minister: to date, six Treasurers have gone on to be Prime Minister. Paul Keating and Wayne Swan are the only two to have been named "Euromoney Finance Minister of the Year" by Euromoney magazine. Along with the Treasurer, other ministers have responsibility for the Department of the Treasury; the Treasurer together with these other ministers are known as the "Treasury Ministers". At present, the Treasury Minister positions are: Treasurer Minister for Revenue and Financial Services Minister for Small BusinessThe work of the Department of Finance is related to the work of the Department of the Treasury; the ministers who have responsibility for the Department of Finance are: Minister for Finance Special Minister of State Eleven organisations nominally fall under the auspices of the Australian Treasurer.
The agencies undertake a range of activities aimed at achieving strong sustainable economic growth and the improved well-being of Australians. This entails the provision of policy advice to portfolio ministers who seek to promote a sound macroeconomic environment, it entails the effective implementation and administration of policies that fall within the portfolio ministers' responsibilities. The Department of the Treasury creates reports for four output groups; these groups are macroeconomic, fiscal and markets: Macroeconomic reports include: domestic economic policy advice and forecasting. Fiscal reports include: budget policy advice and coordination. Revenue reports include: income support policy advice. Markets reports include: foreign investment policy administration. In addition, the Royal Australian Mint is responsible for producing Australia's circulating currency; the Australian Bureau of Statistics is Australia's official statistical agency. Its reports are created for informed decision-making and discussion within governments and the community, based on the provision of a high quality and responsive national statistical service.
It principally relates to the production of economic and social statistics. The Australian Competition and Consumer Commission outputs are directed at enhanced social and economic welfare of the Australian community by fostering competitive, efficient and informed Australian markets, it strives for compliance with competition, fair trading and consumer protection laws and appropriate remedies when the law is not followed. The Australian Office of Financial Management manages the Commonwealth's net debt portfolio, its reports on debt management directed at ensuring that the Commonwealth net debt portfolio is managed at least cost, subject to the Government's policies and risk references. The Australian Prudential Regulation Authority is the financial supervisor responsible for prudentially regulating the banking, other deposit-taking and superannuation industries, it aims at enhanced public confidence in Australia's financial institutions through a framework of prudential regulation which balances financial safety and efficiency, competition and competitive neutrality.
The Australian Securities and Investments Commission is the independent government body that enforces and administers the Corporations Law and Consumer Protection Law for investments and general insurance and banking. Its outputs aim at a fair and efficient financial market characterised by integrity and transparency and supporting confident and informed participation of investors and consumers. Outputs include: policy and guidance about the laws administered by ASIC.
Australian Natives' Association
The Australian Natives' Association was a mutual society founded in Melbourne, Australia in April 1871 as the Victorian Natives' Association. Its membership was restricted to white men born in Australia. In 1872 it voted to extend membership to men born in the other Australian colonies and changed its name at the same time; the Association played a leading role in the movement for Australian federation in the last 20 years of the 19th century. In 1900 it had a membership of 17,000 in Victoria; the ANA provided sickness and funeral cover. Membership in the ANA was restricted to men born in Australia, at a time when Australian-born people of European descent were rising to power in place of an older generation born in Britain. In the 1890s, for the first time, they became the majority of the population; the ANA consisted of energetic middle-class men aged under 50 - a perfect base for a forward-looking, idealistic movement such as federation. In 1880 the ANA committed itself to the federation of the Australian colonies, provided much of the organisational and financial support for the Federation Leagues which led the campaign in Victoria.
It avoided party politics, but they soon adopted the rising liberal politician and ANA member Alfred Deakin as their candidate for leadership of the federal movement. In 1891, when the Victorian Parliament was considering the federation bill, it was the ANA which organised public meetings around the colony to rally support for the bill, many of them addressed by Deakin. After the failure of the 1891 bill, it was the ANA; when the movement revived after 1897, the ANA campaigned vigorously for the referendums to approve the proposed constitution. With federation achieved in 1901, the ANA withdrew from political activity, although it continued patriotic activity such as promoting the observance of Australia Day. Other nationalistic issues supported by the ANA included afforestation, an Australian-made goods policy, water conservation, Aboriginal welfare, the celebration of proper and meaningful citizenship ceremonies following the increased levels of migration after World War II, the adoption of the wattle as the national floral emblem in 1912.
With the Returned and Services League and many trade unions, the ANA was one of the last Australian pressure groups to support the White Australia Policy. While this policy was wound down in the decades after the Second World War and abolished by 1970, a few members continued to support it until the 1970s; the ANA continued to prosper, operating a private health fund, a building society, general insurance company and small-scale life insurance and fund management activities. In 1993, it merged these operations with Manchester Unity IOOF of Victoria to create Australian Unity the largest friendly society in Australia by number of members; as of 2007, only the WA branch exists, this is winding down, although Australian Unity attempts to maintain a modicum of activity in the Victoria-based ANA fraternal society. Michael Cavanagh Western Australian architect James Hume Cook, MP for Bourke Alfred Deakin, 2nd Prime Minister of Australia, 1st Attorney-General for Australia George Turner, 18th Premier of Victoria, 1st Treasurer of Australia Frank Forde, 15th Prime Minister of Australia William Charles Costin John Quick MP for Bendigo T. J. Ryan 19th Premier of Queensland, MP for West Sydney Albert Blakey Labor Senator for Victoria Bert Hoare Labor Senator for South Australia James Doland Member of the Western Australian Legislative Council George Wise MP for Gippsland Thomas Glass William Anderson William Watt, 24th Premier of Victoria Timothy Donovan Labor member of the Queensland Legislative Council Australian Unity Company History White natives fold their tent
Melbourne is the capital and most populous city of the Australian state of Victoria, the second most populous city in Australia and Oceania. Its name refers to an urban agglomeration of 9,992.5 km2, comprising a metropolitan area with 31 municipalities, is the common name for its city centre. The city occupies much of the coastline of Port Phillip bay and spreads into the hinterlands towards the Dandenong and Macedon ranges, Mornington Peninsula and Yarra Valley, it has a population of 4.9 million, its inhabitants are referred to as "Melburnians". The city was founded on 30 August 1835, in the then-British colony of New South Wales, by free settlers from the colony of Van Diemen’s Land, it was incorporated as a Crown settlement in 1837 and named in honour of the British Prime Minister, William Lamb, 2nd Viscount Melbourne. In 1851, four years after Queen Victoria declared it a city, Melbourne became the capital of the new colony of Victoria. In the wake of the 1850s Victorian gold rush, the city entered a lengthy boom period that, by the late 1880s, had transformed it into one of the world's largest and wealthiest metropolises.
After the federation of Australia in 1901, it served as interim seat of government of the new nation until Canberra became the permanent capital in 1927. Today, it is a leading financial centre in the Asia-Pacific region and ranks 15th in the Global Financial Centres Index; the city is home to many of the best-known cultural institutions in the nation, such as the Melbourne Cricket Ground, the National Gallery of Victoria and the World Heritage-listed Royal Exhibition Building. It is the birthplace of Australian impressionism, Australian rules football, the Australian film and television industries and Australian contemporary dance. More it has been recognised as a UNESCO City of Literature and a global centre for street art, live music and theatre, it is the host city of annual international events such as the Australian Grand Prix, the Australian Open and the Melbourne Cup, has hosted the 1956 Summer Olympics and the 2006 Commonwealth Games. Due to it rating in entertainment and sport, as well as education, health care and development, the EIU ranks it the second most liveable city in the world.
The main airport serving the city is Melbourne Airport, the second busiest in Australia, Australia's busiest seaport the Port of Melbourne. Its main metropolitan rail terminus is Flinders Street station and its main regional rail and road coach terminus is Southern Cross station, it has the most extensive freeway network in Australia and the largest urban tram network in the world. Indigenous Australians have lived in the Melbourne area for an estimated 31,000 to 40,000 years; when European settlers arrived in the 19th-century, under 2,000 hunter-gatherers from three regional tribes—the Wurundjeri and Wathaurong—inhabited the area. It was an important meeting place for the clans of the Kulin nation alliance and a vital source of food and water; the first British settlement in Victoria part of the penal colony of New South Wales, was established by Colonel David Collins in October 1803, at Sullivan Bay, near present-day Sorrento. The following year, due to a perceived lack of resources, these settlers relocated to Van Diemen's Land and founded the city of Hobart.
It would be 30 years. In May and June 1835, John Batman, a leading member of the Port Phillip Association in Van Diemen's Land, explored the Melbourne area, claimed to have negotiated a purchase of 600,000 acres with eight Wurundjeri elders. Batman selected a site on the northern bank of the Yarra River, declaring that "this will be the place for a village" before returning to Van Diemen's Land. In August 1835, another group of Vandemonian settlers arrived in the area and established a settlement at the site of the current Melbourne Immigration Museum. Batman and his group arrived the following month and the two groups agreed to share the settlement known by the native name of Dootigala. Batman's Treaty with the Aborigines was annulled by Richard Bourke, the Governor of New South Wales, with compensation paid to members of the association. In 1836, Bourke declared the city the administrative capital of the Port Phillip District of New South Wales, commissioned the first plan for its urban layout, the Hoddle Grid, in 1837.
Known as Batmania, the settlement was named Melbourne in 1837 after the British Prime Minister, William Lamb, 2nd Viscount Melbourne, whose seat was Melbourne Hall in the market town of Melbourne, Derbyshire. That year, the settlement's general post office opened with that name. Between 1836 and 1842, Victorian Aboriginal groups were dispossessed of their land by European settlers. By January 1844, there were said to be 675 Aborigines resident in squalid camps in Melbourne; the British Colonial Office appointed five Aboriginal Protectors for the Aborigines of Victoria, in 1839, however their work was nullified by a land policy that favoured squatters who took possession of Aboriginal lands. By 1845, fewer than 240 wealthy Europeans held all the pastoral licences issued in Victoria and became a powerful political and economic force in Victoria for generations to come. Letters patent of Queen Victoria, issued on 25 June 1847, declared Melbourne a city. On 1 July 1851, the Port Phillip District separated from New South Wales to become the Colony of Victoria, with Melbourne as its capital.
The discovery of gold in Victoria in mid-1851 sparked a
Nepean Highway runs south from the corner of Glen Huntly Road and Brighton Road in Victoria, Australia to Portsea, close to the eastern shore of Port Phillip. It is the primary road route to central Melbourne from Melbourne's southern suburbs. Known as Arthurs Seat Road it was built in the 1850s to provide a road from the farms south of Melbourne and link the city with its southern bay settlements and sea defences at Point Nepean. By the turn of the 20th century it had come to be known as Point Nepean Road and in 1948 was named Nepean Highway. Between the 1950s and about 1980, the road was progressively upgraded to a divided highway between the City and Mordialloc. From Mordialloc to Frankston, the highway is an undivided four lane road; the widening of the Mordialloc Bridge, the last section of less than four lanes, was completed in early 2009. The Nepean Highway has kept the Metro Route 3 signage throughout the suburbs but is designated B110 at the town of Mornington; the length of road starts as Swanston Street at the Melbourne General Cemetery and passes through the Melbourne CBD and over the Princes Bridge to the Melbourne Arts Precinct before becoming St Kilda Road, a leafy four lane boulevard shared with trams.
Metro Route 3 passes the Shrine of Remembrance. It passes through St Kilda Junction shortly after, at the intersection with Carlisle Street, the road changes name to Brighton Road, until its intersection with Glen Huntly Road, Elsternwick where it becomes Nepean Highway; the Route 67 Carnegie Tram runs down the middle of the highway. At Glen Huntly Road, the speed limit increases to 80 km/h and the road widens to become an eight-lane divided highway, it is reduced to six lanes at Moorabbin, passing through Cheltenham and Mentone, to the 60 km/h or 70 km/h four-lane single carriageway after the roundabouts at Mordialloc. The highway travels along the foreshore of Port Phillip Bay, to Frankston, with several stretches of dual carriageway, up Olivers Hill, from which there are good views across Frankston and the bay. In the late 1960s a bypass road was constructed in the town of Mount Eliza; the highway travelled through the main shopping village. After passing through Mount Martha, the highway joins with the Mornington Peninsula Freeway, before turning toward the town of Dromana.
Here the highway changes name again, to become Point Nepean Road –, the former name of the entire highway in the early years of settlement. From here, Arthurs Seat is accessible, which gives views across the bay, on a clear day, the skyscrapers of Melbourne are visible. Anthonys Nose is a point, or escarpment located on the southern shore of Port Phillip Bay, between Dromana and McCrae; the highway passes between "The Nose" and the shores of the bay. It was named by Charles La Trobe in 1839. In the 1920s "The Nose" was modified in order to combat the daily tides that blocked the highway. B110 leaves the highway at Sorrento to cross the bay to Queenscliff, via the ferry where it continues to Geelong, via Bellarine Highway, but the highway continues as a two lane road down to the seaside resort of Portsea; the end of the highway is the nondescript painted turning circle, before the gates of the former Commonwealth quarantine and defence station of Point Nepean, a humble ending to Melbourne's main southern highway.
Transurban, in their Response to the Eddington Report, July 2008, believe a north-south corridor from the Hume Freeway and Metropolitan Ring Road to the Nepean Highway south of Glen Huntly Road, Elsternwick via the Hoddle Highway corridor, deserves attention. This alignment would follow the original F2 Freeway corridor as proposed in the 1969 Melbourne Transportation Plan. Highways in Australia Highways in Victoria