Hayes Valley, San Francisco
Hayes Valley is a neighborhood in the Western Addition district of San Francisco, California. It is located between the historical districts of the Civic Center. Victorian, Queen Anne, Edwardian townhouses are mixed with high-end boutiques and public housing complexes. Although its boundaries are ill-defined, Hayes Valley is considered to be the area north and south of Hayes Street between Webster and Franklin Streets. Hayes Valley's commercial center comprises the section of Hayes Street running from Laguna Street in the west to Franklin Street in the east, with extensions on perpendicular Gough and Laguna Streets; as of April 2012, after changes to the district boundaries used by the Board of Supervisors, the Hayes Valley Neighborhood Association considers the neighborhood as a whole to be bound by Webster Street in the west, Van Ness Avenue in the east, Fulton Street in the north, Hermann Street and Market Street in the south, with extensions as far west as Fillmore, between Haight Street and Hermann Street, as far north as McAllister Street, between Franklin Street and Van Ness Avenue, as far south as Market Street, between Buchanan Street and Laguna Street.
The San Francisco Association of Realtors considers the Hayes Valley to be extending from McAllister Street in the north, to Market Street and Duboce Avenue in the south, Franklin Street in the east, Webster Street and Divisadero Street forming the western boundaries. Adjacent neighborhoods include the Lower Haight and small parts of the Duboce Triangle and SoMa in the south, Alamo Square in the west, Civic Center in the east, the Fillmore District to the north. Hayes Valley is served by several San Francisco Municipal Railway buses, including the #21, which runs through Hayes Valley on its east-west route between Golden Gate Park and the Ferry Building, the #5, the #22 and the #6 and #7, which both run east-west along Haight. Native people in many small bands, now referred to collectively as the Ohlone tribe, lived in San Francisco part of the year, gathering food in the Mission Creek area, which included seasonal Hayes Creek, other parts of today's city. Hayes Valley would have been thickly covered with wildflowers every spring.
When it was running in the winter, Hayes Creek cut diagonally through the current Hayes Valley. It is now underground year-round. In 1776, local people came under the control of the Spanish empire with the Juan Bautista de Anza expedition, which established Mission San Francisco de Asís south of Hayes Valley. After the 1849 California Gold Rush, Italian emigrants from around Genoa developed produce farms on the sandy soil of the Hayes Valley neighborhood; the Western Addition was developed in the 1850s to expand the city to the west of Van Ness Avenue. Michael Hayes, who, in 1856, was on the committee which named the streets of this development, may have been instrumental in naming Hayes Street for his brother, Thomas, a large landholder in the neighborhood, serving as county clerk. Hayes Valley was built out with many grand Victorian residences, as well as the smaller residences built to house the craftspeople at work on the mansions. Primary streets with big houses were named for influential local citizens and families, while streets with the smaller houses carry botanical names such as Lily, Ivy and Hickory.
Hayes Valley south of McAllister Street was spared the fires that followed the 1906 San Francisco earthquake. It was a multi-ethnic neighborhood, with the blossoming of the Fillmore district after World War II, an African-American neighborhood; as as the mid-1985, this neighborhood was considered one of the most dangerous places in the Bay Area. Since the turn of the century, city-wide trends in gentrification resulted in a reduction in the crime statistics for the district. Realtors market the neighborhood to affluent customers; the elevated Central Freeway section of U. S. Route 101 was built in the neighborhood during the 1950s. Damaged during the 1989 Loma Prieta earthquake, it was closed afterward and demolished after campaign by local activists called for the removal; the destruction of the Central Freeway has spurred gentrification which has revitalized the neighborhood, has made it one of the trendier sections of town with an eclectic mix of boutiques, high-end restaurants, hip stores on Hayes Street.
In 2005, a section of the freeway was rebuilt to end at Market Street, with the new, tree-lined Octavia Boulevard running north through the Hayes Valley along the previous path of Octavia Street to Fell Street. Between Fell and Hayes streets at 37°46′34.43″N 122°25′27.92″W, a neighborhood green terminates the boulevard, providing seating, green space, a play structure for children, a changing exhibition of public art. It is named Patricia's Green for Patricia Walkup, a local activist who volunteered her time for many years to fight neighborhood crime, co-led a campaign to tear down the remaining part of the Central Freeway that ran through Hayes Valley. In 2010, the city-owned lots between Fell and Oak, Laguna and Octavia, where the previous Central Freeway on- and off-ramps for Highway 101 were situated, were transformed into Hayes Valley Farm, an education and research project with a focus on urban permaculture and activating the urban commons; the project was founded on an interim use agreement between Hayes Valley Farm, the San Francisco Parks Alliance, the Mayor's Of
The underworld is the world of the dead in various religious traditions, located below the world of the living. Chthonic is the technical adjective for things of the underworld; the concept of an underworld is found in every civilization, "may be as old as humanity itself". Common features of underworld myths are accounts of living people making journeys to the underworld for some heroic purpose. Other myths reinforce traditions that entrance of souls to the underworld requires a proper observation of ceremony, such as the ancient Greek story of the dead Patroclus haunting Achilles until his body could be properly buried for this purpose. Persons having social status were equipped in order to better navigate the underworld. A number of mythologies incorporate the concept of the soul of the deceased making its own journey to the underworld, with the dead needing to be taken across a defining obstacle such as a lake or a river to reach this destination. Imagery of such journeys can be found in both modern art.
The descent to the underworld has been described as "the single most important myth for Modernist authors". This list includes underworlds in various mythology, with links to corresponding articles; this list includes rulers or guardians of the underworld in various mythologies, with links to corresponding articles. Afterlife Hollow Earth Otherworld World Tree–A tree that connects the heavens, the earth, the underworld in a number of spiritual belief systems
Parley P. Christensen
Parley Parker Christensen was an American politician and nominee of the Farmer–Labor Party for President of the United States in 1920. He was member of the Utah House of Representatives and of the Los Angeles, City Council, he was a city attorney and a county attorney in Utah and the chairman of the Illinois Progressive Party. Parley Parker Christensen was born on July 19, 1869, in Weston, the son of Peter and Sophia M. Christensen, both of Denmark. and he was taken to Newton, when he was a child. Mr. Christensen as a boy pioneered with his parents in Idaho and Utah where his father drove wagons of freight from the railway terminus in Utah up cross country into Idaho and the Dakotas; this background gave Mr. Christensen an insight into the struggle of those who labor and those who wrest their living from the soil, he graduated from the University of Utah Normal School in 1890 was a teacher and principal in Murray and Grantsville in that state. From 1892 to 1895 he was school superintendent in Toole County.
He graduated from the University of Deseret in 1890 and earned a bachelor of laws degree from Cornell University law school in 1897, returned to practice law in Salt Lake City. After 1920 Christensen traveled in Europe and Russia, met with Soviet leader Vladimir Lenin, he was an early active Esperantist, in 1920-22 travelled around the world using the language. He was the vice president of the Esperantista Asocio de Norda Ameriko 1931-32, taught Esperanto in Los Angeles and Pasadena. In 1923 he was living in Chicago, in 1926 he moved to California, where he became a Los Angeles City Council member in 1935. Christensen was known for being large, over six feet four inches and weighing 287 pounds, he was notable for wearing an array of all-white linen suits. He was a member of the Independent Order of Odd Fellows and the Benevolent and Protective Order of Elks, he was a Unitarian. In 1937 he was a registered Democrat, he moved to 1140 North California Street in Burbank. Christensen died in Los Angeles on February 10, 1954, at the age of 84, after "an illness of some months," leaving two sisters, Elenora Lamimam and Esther Conholm.
Cremation and inurnment were at Chapel of the Pines. In the late 1890s Christensen was city attorney of Grantsville, where he became active in Republican politics. In 1895 he was secretary of the Utah State Constitutional Convention, which opened in 1895, until he was elected Salt Lake County Attorney in 1900, "one of the youngest people to hold that office."Between 1900 and 1904 Christensen was a Republican state officer, including party chairman. In 1902 he was defeated for renomination as county attorney but was elected again to that office in 1904. Christensen unsuccessfully sought the Republican nomination for Congress in 1906, 1908 and 1910, against incumbent Joseph Howell. In 1906 he was cited to appear before a district court judge to show why he had not approved the issuance of a warrant for the arrest of Joseph F. Smith, president of The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints, "on a charge of sustaining unlawful relations with one of his five wives." It was understood that there would be no prosecution of the Mormon president, by direction of the city attorney.
Christensen charged that the filing of the complaint was an attempt on the part of the anti-Mormons to embarrass him in his candidacy for the Republican nomination for Congressman. Christensen was defeated in yesterday's convention by Congressman Howell, he was a member of the Utah House of Representatives from 1910 to 1912. In the latter year, Christensen joined Theodore Roosevelt's Progressive Party and ran as the Progressive candidate for the Utah House of Representatives, he lost, but two years he was elected to that office as a Progressive. He helped organize the Utah Labor Party in 1919, he was president of the Popular Government League, organized in 1916, which argued for adopting the initiative and referendum in Utah. In June 1920 Christensen was a delegate to the Chicago joint conventions of the Labor Party of the United States and the progressive Committee of Forty-Eight, whose leaders hoped to merge and to nominate a presidential ticket; the Farmer-Labor Party was the result, with Christensen chosen as presidential nominee.
Christensen campaigned for nationalization of railroads and utilities, an eight-hour working day, a federal Department of Education, an end to the Espionage and Sedition Acts. In the election he received 265,411 votes in nineteen states. Christensen did best in Washington State and in South Dakota, where he came close to out-polling the Democratic candidate, James M. Cox, he remained in Chicago after the convention and became chairman of the Illinois Progressive Party and its unsuccessful candidate for U. S. Senator in 1926. In the early 1930s Christensen moved to California, where he joined with the End Poverty in California crusade of Upton Sinclair, with the Utopian Society and with "other leftist groups in the state." See List of Los Angeles municipal election returns, 1935–1949 Christensen had the endorsement of the End Poverty in California movement when he ran for Los Angeles City Council District 9 seat in 1935 and took it away from George W. C. Baker, the incumbent, he held it for two years, but did not run for reelection in 1937.
Two years though, he was sent back to the council, he held the post until 194
Freemasonry or Masonry consists of fraternal organisations that trace their origins to the local fraternities of stonemasons, which from the end of the fourteenth century regulated the qualifications of stonemasons and their interaction with authorities and clients. The degrees of Freemasonry retain the three grades of medieval craft guilds, those of Apprentice, Journeyman or fellow, Master Mason; the candidate of these three degrees is progressively taught the meanings of the symbols of Freemasonry, entrusted with grips and words to signify to other members that he has been so initiated. The initiations are part allegorical morality part lecture; the three degrees are offered by Craft Freemasonry. Members of these organisations are known as Masons. There are additional degrees, which vary with locality and jurisdiction, are administered by their own bodies; the basic, local organisational unit of Freemasonry is the Lodge. The Lodges are supervised and governed at the regional level by a Grand Lodge or Grand Orient.
There is no worldwide Grand Lodge that supervises all of Freemasonry. Modern Freemasonry broadly consists of two main recognition groups. Regular Freemasonry insists that a volume of scripture is open in a working lodge, that every member profess belief in a Supreme Being, that no women are admitted, that the discussion of religion and politics is banned. Continental Freemasonry is now the general term for the jurisdictions which have removed some, or all, of these restrictions; the Masonic lodge is the basic organisational unit of Freemasonry. The Lodge meets to conduct the usual formal business of any small organisation. In addition to business, the meeting may perform a ceremony to confer a Masonic degree or receive a lecture, on some aspect of Masonic history or ritual. At the conclusion of the meeting, the Lodge might adjourn for a formal dinner, or festive board, sometimes involving toasting and song; the bulk of Masonic ritual consists of degree ceremonies. Candidates for Freemasonry are progressively initiated into Freemasonry, first in the degree of Entered Apprentice.
Some time in a separate ceremony, they will be passed to the degree of Fellowcraft, they will be raised to the degree of Master Mason. In all of these ceremonies, the candidate is entrusted with passwords and grips peculiar to his new rank. Another ceremony is officers of the Lodge. In some jurisdictions Installed Master is valued as a separate rank, with its own secrets to distinguish its members. In other jurisdictions, the grade is not recognised, no inner ceremony conveys new secrets during the installation of a new Master of the Lodge. Most Lodges have some sort of social calendar, allowing Masons and their partners to meet in a less ritualised environment. Coupled with these events is the obligation placed on every Mason to contribute to charity; this occurs at both Grand Lodge level. Masonic charities contribute to many fields, such as disaster relief; these private local Lodges form the backbone of Freemasonry, a Freemason will have been initiated into one of these. There exist specialist Lodges where Masons meet to celebrate events, such as sport or Masonic research.
The rank of Master Mason entitles a Freemason to explore Masonry further through other degrees, administered separately from the Craft, or "Blue Lodge" degrees described here, but having a similar format to their meetings. There is little consistency in Freemasonry; because each Masonic jurisdiction is independent, each sets its own procedures. The wording of the ritual, the number of officers present, the layout of the meeting room, etc. varies from jurisdiction to jurisdiction. The officers of the Lodge are appointed annually; every Masonic Lodge has two Wardens, a secretary and a treasurer. There is a Tyler, or outer guard, always present outside the door of a working Lodge. Other offices vary between jurisdictions; each Masonic Lodge exists and operates according to a set of ancient principles known as the Landmarks of Freemasonry. These principles have thus far eluded any universally accepted definition. Candidates for Freemasonry will have met most active members of the Lodge they are joining before they are initiated.
The process varies between jurisdictions, but the candidate will have been introduced by a friend at a Lodge social function, or at some form of open evening in the Lodge. In modern times, interested people track down a local Lodge through the Internet; the onus is on candidates to ask to join. Once the initial inquiry is made, an interview follows to determine the candidate's suitability. If the candidate decides to proceed from here, the Lodge ballots on the application before he can be accepted; the absolute minimum requirement of any body of Freemasons is that the candidate must be free, considered to be of good character. There is an age requirement, varying between Grand Lodges, capable of being overridden by a dispensation from the Grand Lodge; the underlying assumption is that the candidate should
San Gabriel, California
San Gabriel is a city in Los Angeles County, California. It is named after the Mission San Gabriel Arcángel, founded by Junípero Serra; the city grew outward from the mission and in 1852 became the original township of Los Angeles County. San Gabriel was incorporated in 1913; the city's motto is "A city with a Mission" and it is called the "Birthplace" of the Los Angeles metropolitan area. At the 2010 census, the population was 39,718. Prior to the arrival of the Spanish to Alta California, the area, now San Gabriel was inhabited by the Tongva Native Americans, whom the Spanish called the Gabrieleño; the Tongva name for the San Gabriel region has been reconstructed as Shevaa. Today a center for culture and art, the Mission San Gabriel Arcángel, founded by Father Junipero Serra, is the fourth of twenty-one California Missions, is known as the "Pride of the California Missions."The Mission San Gabriel Arcángel served a pivotal role in the colonial Spanish society, with many of the area's first Mexican settlers being baptized at the mission, including future governor Pio Pico, born in 1801 at the mission and baptized there the same year.
He was appointed as California's governor twice, serving in 1832 and again from 1845 through the Mexican–American War. In life, he was elected as a Los Angeles City councilman; the city of Pico Rivera was named to honor him as the last governor of California to be born in Mexico. In 1853, a company of Army Engineers, who included the geologist William P. Blake, passed by the mission in search of the best route for an intercontinental railroad. Blake observed. Fences were in disrepair, animals roamed through the property. But, the mission bells were ringing, the church was still in use. Blake predicted, "I believe that when the adaptation of that portion of California to the culture of the grape and the manufacture of wine becomes known and appreciated, the state will become celebrated not only for its gold and grain, but for its fruits and wines."In the first United States census made in California in 1860, 586 people lived in the San Gabriel township, an area encompassing the mission lands and several adjacent ranchos stretching north to what is now Pasadena.
By 1870, the population had shrunk to 436. By the time of General Law Incorporation on April 24, 1913, the city's population had grown to 1,500. San Gabriel is located at 34°5′39″N 118°5′54″W. According to the United States Census Bureau, the city has a total area of 4.1 square miles all of it land. The city is bordered on the north by San Marino, on the east by Temple City and Rosemead, to the south by Rosemead and to the west by Alhambra; this region experiences warm and dry summers, with no average monthly temperatures above 71.6 °F. According to the Köppen Climate Classification system, San Gabriel has a warm-summer Mediterranean climate, abbreviated "Csb" on climate maps; the 2010 United States Census reported that San Gabriel had a population of 39,718. The population density was 9,581.5 people per square mile. The racial makeup of San Gabriel was 24,091 Asian, 10,076 White, 388 African American, 220 Native American, 43 Pacific Islander, 3,762 from other races, 1,138 from two or more races.
Hispanic or Latino of any race were 10,189 persons. The Census reported that 39,266 people lived in households, 34 lived in non-institutionalized group quarters, 418 were institutionalized. There were 12,542 households, out of which 4,542 had children under the age of 18 living in them, 6,668 were opposite-sex married couples living together, 1,961 had a female householder with no husband present, 965 had a male householder with no wife present. There were 481 unmarried opposite-sex partnerships, 76 same-sex married couples or partnerships. 2,121 households were made up of individuals and 800 had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 3.13. There were 9,594 families; the population was spread out with 7,866 people under the age of 18, 3,555 people aged 18 to 24, 11,335 people aged 25 to 44, 11,388 people aged 45 to 64, 5,574 people who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 40.3 years. For every 100 females, there were 93.2 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 90.6 males.
There were 13,237 housing units at an average density of 3,193.3 per square mile, of which 6,168 were owner-occupied, 6,374 were occupied by renters. The homeowner vacancy rate was 1.0%. 19,974 people lived in owner-occupied housing units and 19,292 people lived in rental housing units. According to the 2010 United States Census, San Gabriel had a median household income of $56,388, with 13.3% of the population living below the federal poverty line. As of the census of 2000, there were 39,804 people, 12,587 households, 9,566 families residing in the city; the population density was 9,639.3 inhabitants per square mile. There were 12,909 housing units at an average density of 3,126.2 per square mile. The racial makeup of the city was 33.40% White, 1.06% African American, 0.83% Native American, 48.91% Asian, 0.10% Pacific Islander, 12.36% from other races, 3.34% from two or more races. Those identifying as Hispanic or Latino were 30.71% of th
Los Angeles City Council
The Los Angeles City Council is the governing body of the City of Los Angeles. The council is composed of fifteen members elected from single-member districts for four-year terms; the president of the council and the president pro tempore are chosen by the council at the first regular meeting of the term. An assistant president pro tempore is appointed by the President; as of 2015, council members receive an annual salary of $184,610 per year, among the highest city council salary in the nation. Regular council meetings are held in the City Hall on Tuesdays and Fridays at 10 am except on holidays or if decided by special resolution. A current annual schedule of all Council meetings, broken down by committee, is available as a.pdf download from the Office of the City Clerk. Officers: President of the Council: Herb Wesson President Pro Tempore: Nury Martinez Assistant President Pro Tempore: Joe Buscaino Los Angeles was governed by a seven-member Common Council under general state law from 1850 to 1889, when a city charter was put into effect.
Under the first charter of the city, granted by the Legislature in 1889, the city was divided into nine wards, with a councilman elected from each one by plurality vote. The first election under that system was held on February 21, 1889, the last on December 4, 1906. Two-year terms for the City Council began and ended in December, except for the first term, which started in February 1889 and ended in December 1890; the term of office was lengthened to three years effective with the municipal election of December 4, 1906, the last year this ward system was in use. Between 1909 and 1925, the council was composed of nine members elected at large in a first-past-the-post voting system. Council membership in those years was as follows: City population in 1910: 319,200 Election: December 7, 1909 / Term: December 10, 1909, to December 13, 1911 Election: December 5, 1911 / Term: December 13, 1911, to July 1, 1913 Election: June 3, 1913 / Term: July 1913 to July 1915 Election: June 1, 1915 / Term: July 1915 to July 1917 Election: June 5, 1917 / Term: July 1917 to July 1919 City population in 1920: 576,700 Election: June 3, 1919 / Term: July 7, 1919, to July 5, 1921 Election: June 7, 1921 / Term: July 1921 to July 1923 Election: June 5, 1923 / Term: July 1923 to July 1925 Regular terms begin on July 1 of odd-numbered years until 2017 and on the second Monday in December of even-numbered years starting with 2020.
Los Angeles Common Council List of Los Angeles municipal election returns Chronological Record of Los Angeles City Officials: 1850—1938, Compiled under Direction of Municipal Reference Library City Hall, Los Angeles March 1938 Official website Map of Los Angeles City Council districts
Eastside Los Angeles
The Eastside of Los Angeles County, California, is a geographic region that includes the neighborhoods of Boyle Heights, El Sereno and Lincoln Heights within the city of Los Angeles and East Los Angeles, California, an unincorporated area. East Los Angeles was founded in 1870 by John Strother Griffin, called "the father of East Los Angeles", he was said to have created the first suburb of the city of Los Angeles in Lincoln Heights after he purchased 2,000 acres of ranch land for $1,000 and in 1870, with his nephew, Hancock Johnson, erected houses on the site. That land was a rancho called La Rosa de Castilla, on the east side of the Los Angeles River, taking in the deserted hills between Los Angeles and Pasadena. In late 1874 the two men offered an additional thirty-five acres, divided into 65x165-foot lots, for $150 each, they planned the laying out of streets of the present community of East Los Angeles and gifted East Side Park to the city of Los Angeles. In 2000, a total of 286,222 people lived in the 20.66 square miles of the Eastside region, amounting to 13,852 people per square mile.
The neighborhood was "not diverse" ethnically, with a high percentage of Latinos. The ethnic breakdown was Latinos, 91.2%. Just 5.1% of residents aged 25 and older had a four-year college degree. More than two-thirds of the inhabitants lived in shared housing, 33.2% were homeowners. Boyle Heights East Los Angeles El Sereno Lincoln Heights University Hills Latino Walk of Fame - East Los Angeles Mariachi Plaza - Boyle Heights El Mercado de Los Angeles - Boyle Heights Calvary Cemetery - East Los Angeles Home of Peace Cemetery - East Los Angeles Evergreen Cemetery - Boyle Heights Estrada Courts Murals - Boyle Heights El Pino - East Los Angeles The Mapping L. A. project of the Los Angeles Times defines the Eastside as comprising Boyle Heights, El Sereno, Lincoln Heights, East Los Angeles. However, the boundaries are a matter of perennial discussion and debate among the residents of Los Angeles; the Mapping L. A. definition corresponds to the traditional boundaries, beginning in the early 21st century, residents of some of the gentrifying neighborhoods west of Downtown Los Angeles but on the eastern side of Central Los Angeles, such as Echo Park and Silver Lake, began to refer to their neighborhoods as part of the Eastside.
This debate has generated some friction, according to Ali Modarres, an expert on the geography of Los Angeles from the University of Washington Tacoma, is to be expected because neighborhood names are "full of meaning, history and political relationships". Eric Garcetti, the mayor of Los Angeles and a fourth generation resident, is a traditionalist, stating that "true east is east of downtown"; the trend led the Silver Lake Neighborhood Council to declare in February 2014 that Silver Lake is not part of the Eastside. The Sixth Street Viaduct known as the Sixth Street Bridge was demolished. Prior to the demolition, Los Angeles mayor Eric Garcetti recorded the rap song "101SlowJam", backed by musicians from Roosevelt High School, issued it via a video on his own YouTube channel; the public service announcement video advertised the closure of parts of the 101 Freeway to accommodate the demolition of the viaduct. My Family/Mi Familia, Motion Picture of life in East Los Angeles Born in East L. A. motion picture Chicano, ethnic term East LA Classic, football game Blood In Blood Out, motion picture City Times in Los Angeles Times suburban sections Zoot Suit Riots, 1943 Ten Latino neighborhoods in Los Angeles County Romo, Ricardo.
East Los Angeles: History of a Barrio. Austin, Texas: University of Texas Press. ISBN 0-292-72041-6; the Eastsider LA East Los Angeles travel guide from Wikivoyage East LA Guide