Seven Wonders of the Ancient World
The Seven Wonders of the World or the Seven Wonders of the Ancient World is a list of remarkable constructions of classical antiquity given by various authors in guidebooks or poems popular among ancient Hellenic tourists. Although the list, in its current form, did not stabilise until the Renaissance, the first such lists of seven wonders date from the 1st-2nd century BC; the original list inspired innumerable versions through the ages listing seven entries. Of the original Seven Wonders, only one—the Great Pyramid of Giza, the oldest of the ancient wonders—remains intact; the Colossus of Rhodes, the Lighthouse of Alexandria, the Mausoleum at Halicarnassus, the Temple of Artemis and the Statue of Zeus were all destroyed. The location and ultimate fate of the Hanging Gardens are unknown, there is speculation that they may not have existed at all; the Greek conquest of much of the known western world in the 4th century BC gave Hellenistic travellers access to the civilizations of the Egyptians and Babylonians.
Impressed and captivated by the landmarks and marvels of the various lands, these travellers began to list what they saw to remember them. Instead of "wonders", the ancient Greeks spoke of "theamata", which means "sights", in other words "things to be seen"; the word for "wonder" was used. Hence, the list was meant to be the Ancient World's counterpart of a travel guidebook; the first reference to a list of seven such monuments was given by Diodorus Siculus. The epigrammist Antipater of Sidon who lived around or before 100 BC, gave a list of seven such monuments, including six of the present list: I have gazed on the walls of impregnable Babylon along which chariots may race, on the Zeus by the banks of the Alpheus, I have seen the hanging gardens, the Colossus of the Helios, the great man-made mountains of the lofty pyramids, the gigantic tomb of Mausolus. – Greek Anthology IX.58 Another 2nd century BC observer, who claimed to be the mathematician Philo of Byzantium, wrote a short account entitled The Seven Sights of the World.
However, the incomplete surviving manuscript only covered six of the seven places, which agreed with Antipater's list. Earlier and lists by the historian Herodotus and the architect Callimachus of Cyrene, housed at the Museum of Alexandria, survived only as references; the Colossus of Rhodes was the last of the seven to be completed, after 280 BC, the first to be destroyed, by an earthquake in 226/225 BC. Hence, all seven existed at the same time for a period of less than 60 years; the list covered only the sculptural and architectural monuments of the Mediterranean and Middle Eastern regions, which comprised the known world for the Greeks. Hence, extant sites beyond this realm were not considered as part of contemporary accounts; the primary accounts, coming from Hellenistic writers heavily influenced the places included in the wonders list. Five of the seven entries are a celebration of Greek accomplishments in architecture; the seven wonders on Antipater's list won praises for their notable features, ranging from superlatives of the highest or largest of their types, to the artistry with which they were executed.
Their architectural and artistic features were imitated throughout the Hellenistic world and beyond. The Greek influence in Roman culture, the revival of Greco-Roman artistic styles during the Renaissance caught the imagination of European artists and travellers. Paintings and sculptures alluding to Antipater's list were made, while adventurers flocked to the actual sites to witness the wonders. Legends circulated to further complement the superlatives of the wonders. Of Antipater's wonders, the only one that has survived to the present day is the Great Pyramid of Giza, its brilliant white stone facing had survived intact until around 1300 AD, when local communities removed most of the stonework for building materials. The existence of the Hanging Gardens has not been proven. Records and archaeology confirm the existence of the other five wonders; the Temple of Artemis and the Statue of Zeus were destroyed by fire, while the Lighthouse of Alexandria and tomb of Mausolus were destroyed by earthquakes.
Among the artifacts to have survived are sculptures from the tomb of Mausolus and the Temple of Artemis in the British Museum in London. Still, the listing of seven of the most marvellous architectural and artistic human achievements continued beyond the Ancient Greek times to the Roman Empire, the Middle Ages, the Renaissance and to the modern age; the Roman poet Martial and the Christian bishop Gregory of Tours had their versions. Reflecting the rise of Christianity and the factor of time and the hand of man overcoming Antipater's seven wonders and Christian sites began to figure on the list, including the Colosseum, Noah's Ark and Solomon's Temple. In the 6th century, a list of seven wonders was compiled by St. Gregory of Tours: the list included the Temple of Solomon, the Pharos of Alexandria and Noah's Ark. Modern historians, working on the premise that the original Seven Ancient Wonders List was limited in its geographic scope had their versions to encompass sites beyond the Hellenistic realm—from the Seven Wonders of the Ancient World to the Seven Wonders o
Carrara marble is a type of white or blue-grey marble popular for use in sculpture and building decor. It is quarried in the city of Carrara located in the province of Massa and Carrara in the Lunigiana, the northernmost tip of modern-day Tuscany, Italy. Carrara marble has been used since the time of Ancient Rome and it was called the "Luni marble". In the 17th and 18th centuries, the marble quarries were monitored by the Cybo and Malaspina families who ruled over Massa and Carrara; the family created the "Office of Marble" in 1564 to regulate the marble mining industry. The city of Massa, in particular, saw much of its plan redesigned in order to make it worthy of an Italian country's capital. Following the extinction of the Cybo-Malaspina family, the state was ruled by the House of Austria and management of the mines rested with them; the Basilica of Massa is built of Carrara marble and the old Ducal Palace of Massa was used to showcase the precious stone. By the end of the 19th century, Carrara had become a cradle of anarchism in Italy, in particular among the quarry workers.
According to a New York Times article of 1894, workers in the marble quarries were among the most neglected labourers in Italy. Many of them were fugitives from justice; the work at the quarries was so tough and arduous that any aspirant worker with sufficient muscle and endurance was employed, regardless of their background. The quarry workers and stone carvers had radical beliefs. Anarchism and general radicalism became part of the heritage of the stone carvers. Many violent revolutionists, expelled from Belgium and Switzerland went to Carrara in 1885 and founded the first anarchist group in Italy. In Carrara, the anarchist Galileo Palla remarked, “even the stones are anarchists.” The quarry workers were the main actors of the Lunigiana revolt in January 1894. The marble from Carrara was used for some of the most remarkable buildings in Ancient Rome: Temple of Proserpina - reused in many building in Valletta The Pantheon Trajan's Column Column of Marcus AureliusIt was used in many sculptures of the Renaissance including Michelangelo's David whilst the statue to Robert Burns, which commands a central position in Dumfries, was carved in Carrara by Italian craftsmen working to Amelia Paton Hill's model.
It was unveiled by future UK Prime Minister Archibald Primrose, 5th Earl of Rosebery on 6 April 1882. Other notable occurrences include: Marble Arch, London Victoria Memorial, London Some sections of the Palace of the Marqués de Dos Aguas, Spain Prem Mandir, Uttar Pradesh, India Duomo di Siena, Italy Sarcophagus of St. Hedwig, Queen of Poland, Poland Manila Cathedral, Philippines First Canadian Place, Ontario, Canada Sheikh Zayed Mosque, Abu Dhabi, UAE Harvard Medical School buildings, Massachusetts, US Oslo Opera House, Norway Normandy American Cemetery and Memorial, France Peace Monument, Washington, DC, US King Edward VII Memorial, Birmingham, UK Akshardham, India Aon Center Chicago, Illinois, US Milwaukee Art Museum, Wisconsin, US Robba Fountain, Slovenia Finlandia Hall, Finland Devon Tower, Oklahoma City, Oklahoma, US The Rotunda, Virginia, US Palacio Legislativo, the seat of the Uruguayan Parliament Far Eastern University, Philippines—Administration Building The Rome Italy Temple of the Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints Glasgow City Chambers, ScotlandCarrara marble has been designated by the International Union of Geological Sciences as a Global Heritage Stone Resource.
The Apuan Alps above Carrara show evidence of at least 650 quarry sites, with about half of them abandoned or worked out. The Carrara quarries have produced more marble than any other place on earth. Working the quarries has been dangerous and continues so to this day. In September 1911, a collapsing cliff face at the Bettogli Quarry crushed 10 workers who were on lunch break under a precipice. A 2014 video made at a Carrara quarry shows workers with missing fingers, workers performing hazardous, painfully noisy work who are not wearing protective gear of any kind; the prize yield from Carrara quarries through millennia has been a pure white marble. However, by the end of the 20th century, the known deposits of Statuario near Carrara are played out; the quarries continue to remove and ship up to a million tons/year of less-esteemed marble for export. Bianco Carrara classified in C and CD variations as well as Bianco Venatino and Statuarietto are by far the most common types with more expensive exotic variations such as Calacatta Gold, Calacatta Borghini, Arabescato Cervaiole and Arabescato Vagli quarried throughout the Carrara area.
Calcite, obtained from an 80 kg sample of Carrara marble, is used as the IAEA-603 isotopic standard in mass spectrometry for the calibration of δ18O and δ13C. The black yeast Micrococcus halobius can colonize Carrara marble by forming a biofilm and producing gluconic, lactic and succinic acids from glucose, as seen in the Dionysos Theater of the Acropolis in Athens. List of types of marble Lizza di Piastreta Marmifera di Carrara railway Lardo, a culinary specialty of the Carrara region cured in Carrara marble basins Goldthwaite, Richard A.. The Economy of Renaissance Florence. JHU Press. ISBN 0801889820. Newman, Cathy. "Carrara Marble: Touchstone of Eternity". National Geographic. Vol. 162 no. 1. Pp. 42–59. ISSN 0027-9358. OCLC 6434834
Battle of Brandywine
The Battle of Brandywine known as the Battle of Brandywine Creek, was fought between the American Continental Army of General George Washington and the British Army of General Sir William Howe on September 11, 1777. The "Redcoats" of the British Army defeated the American rebels in the Patriots' forces and forced them to withdraw northeast toward the American capital and largest city of Philadelphia where the Second Continental Congress had been meeting since 1775; the engagement occurred near Chadds Ford, Pennsylvania during Howe's campaign to take Philadelphia, part of the American Revolutionary War. More troops fought at Brandywine than any other battle of the American Revolution, it was the longest single-day battle of the war, with continuous fighting for 11 hours. Howe's army departed from Sandy Hook, New Jersey across New York Bay from the occupied town of New York City on the southern tip of Manhattan Island, on July 23, 1777, landed near present-day Elkton, Maryland, at the point of the "Head of Elk" by the Elk River at the northern end of the Chesapeake Bay, at the southern mouth of the Susquehanna River.
Marching north, the British Army brushed aside American light forces in a few skirmishes. General Washington offered battle with his army posted behind Brandywine Creek - off the Christina River. While part of his army demonstrated in front of Chadds Ford, Howe took the bulk of his troops on a long march that crossed the Brandywine far beyond Washington's right flank. Due to poor scouting, the Americans did not detect Howe's column until it reached a position in rear of their right flank. Belatedly, three divisions were shifted to block the British flanking force at Birmingham Friends Meetinghouse and School, a Quaker meeting house. After a stiff fight, Howe's wing broke through the newly formed American right wing, deployed on several hills. At this point Lieutenant General Wilhelm von Knyphausen attacked Chadds Ford and crumpled the American left wing; as Washington's army streamed away in retreat, he brought up elements of General Nathanael Greene's division which held off Howe's column long enough for his army to escape to the northeast.
Polish General Casimir Pulaski defended Washington's rear assisting in his escape. The defeat and subsequent maneuvers left Philadelphia vulnerable; the British captured the city two weeks on September 26, beginning an occupation that would last nine months until June 1778. In late August 1777, after a distressing 34-day journey from Sandy Hook on the coast of New Jersey, a Royal Navy fleet of more than 260 ships carrying some 17,000 British troops under the command of British General Sir William Howe landed at the head of the Elk River, on the northern end of the Chesapeake Bay near present-day Elkton, Maryland 40–50 miles southwest of Philadelphia. Unloading the ships proved to be a logistical problem because the narrow river neck was shallow and muddy. General George Washington had situated the American forces, about 20,300-strong, between Head of Elk and Philadelphia, his forces were able to reconnoiter the British landing from Iron Hill near Newark, about 9 miles to the northeast. Because of the delay disembarking from the ships, Howe did not set up a typical camp but moved forward with the troops.
As a result, Washington was not able to gauge the strength of the opposing forces. After a skirmish at Cooch's Bridge south of Newark, the British troops moved north and Washington abandoned a defensive encampment along the Red Clay Creek near Newport, Delaware to deploy against the British at Chadds Ford; this site was important as it was the most direct passage across the Brandywine River on the road from Baltimore to Philadelphia. On September 9, Washington positioned detachments to guard other fords above and below Chadds Ford, hoping to force the battle there. Washington employed General John Armstrong, commanding about 1,000 Pennsylvania militia, to cover Pyle's Ford, 5.8 miles south of Chadds Ford, covered by Major Generals Anthony Wayne's and Nathanael Greene's divisions. Major General John Sullivan's division extended northward along the Brandywine's east banks, covering the high ground north of Chadds Ford along with Major General Adam Stephen's division and Major General Lord Stirling's divisions.
Further upstream was a brigade under Colonel Moses Hazen covering Buffington's Ford and Wistar's Ford. Washington was confident; the British grouped forces at nearby Kennett Square. Howe, who had better information about the area than Washington, had no intention of mounting a full-scale frontal attack against the prepared American defenses, he instead employed a flanking maneuver. About 6,800 men under the command of Wilhelm von Knyphausen advanced to meet Washington's troops at Chadds Ford; the remainder of Howe's troops, about 9,000 men, under the command of Charles, Lord Cornwallis, marched north to Trimble's Ford across the West Branch of the Brandywine Creek east to Jefferies Ford across the East Branch, south to flank the American forces. September 11 began with a heavy fog. Washington received contradictory reports about the British troop movements and continued to believe that the main force was moving to attack at Chadds Ford. Knyphausen's Column At 5:30 a.m. the British and Hessian troops began marching east along the "Great Road" from Kennett Square, advancing on the American troops positioned where the road crossed Brandywine Creek.
The first shots of the battle took place about 4 miles west of Chadds Ford, at Welch's Tavern. Elements of Maxwell's continental light infantry skirmished with
The Continental Army was formed by the Second Continental Congress after the outbreak of the American Revolutionary War by the ex-British colonies that became the United States of America. Established by a resolution of the Congress on June 14, 1775, it was created to coordinate the military efforts of the Thirteen Colonies in their revolt against the rule of Great Britain; the Continental Army was supplemented by local militias and volunteer troops that remained under control of the individual states or were otherwise independent. General George Washington was the commander-in-chief of the army throughout the war. Most of the Continental Army was disbanded in 1783; the 1st and 2nd Regiments went on to form the nucleus of the Legion of the United States in 1792 under General Anthony Wayne. This became the foundation of the United States Army in 1796; the Continental Army consisted of soldiers from all 13 colonies and, after 1776, from all 13 states. When the American Revolutionary War began at the Battles of Lexington and Concord on April 19, 1775, the colonial revolutionaries did not have an army.
Each colony had relied upon the militia, made up of part-time citizen-soldiers, for local defense, or the raising of temporary "provincial regiments" during specific crises such as the French and Indian War of 1754–63. As tensions with Great Britain increased in the years leading to the war, colonists began to reform their militias in preparation for the perceived potential conflict. Training of militiamen increased after the passage of the Intolerable Acts in 1774. Colonists such as Richard Henry Lee proposed forming a national militia force, but the First Continental Congress rejected the idea. On April 23, 1775, the Massachusetts Provincial Congress authorized the raising of a colonial army consisting of 26 company regiments. New Hampshire, Rhode Island, Connecticut soon raised similar but smaller forces. On June 14, 1775, the Second Continental Congress decided to proceed with the establishment of a Continental Army for purposes of common defense, adopting the forces in place outside Boston and New York.
It raised the first ten companies of Continental troops on a one-year enlistment, riflemen from Pennsylvania, Maryland and Virginia to be used as light infantry, who became the 1st Continental Regiment in 1776. On June 15, 1775, the Congress elected by unanimous vote George Washington as Commander-in-Chief, who accepted and served throughout the war without any compensation except for reimbursement of expenses. On July 18, 1775, the Congress requested all colonies form militia companies from "all able bodied effective men, between sixteen and fifty years of age." It was not uncommon for men younger than sixteen to enlist as most colonies had no requirement of parental consent for those under twenty-one. Four major-generals and eight brigadier-generals were appointed by the Second Continental Congress in the course of a few days. After Pomeroy did not accept, John Thomas was appointed in his place; as the Continental Congress adopted the responsibilities and posture of a legislature for a sovereign state, the role of the Continental Army became the subject of considerable debate.
Some Americans had a general aversion to maintaining a standing army. As a result, the army went through several distinct phases, characterized by official dissolution and reorganization of units. Soldiers in the Continental Army were citizens who had volunteered to serve in the army, at various times during the war, standard enlistment periods lasted from one to three years. Early in the war the enlistment periods were short, as the Continental Congress feared the possibility of the Continental Army evolving into a permanent army; the army never numbered more than 17,000 men. Turnover proved a constant problem in the winter of 1776–77, longer enlistments were approved. Broadly speaking, Continental forces consisted of several successive armies, or establishments: The Continental Army of 1775, comprising the initial New England Army, organized by Washington into three divisions, six brigades, 38 regiments. Major General Philip Schuyler's ten regiments in New York were sent to invade Canada; the Continental Army of 1776, reorganized after the initial enlistment period of the soldiers in the 1775 army had expired.
Washington had submitted recommendations to the Continental Congress immediately after he had accepted the position of Commander-in-Chief, but the Congress took time to consider and implement these. Despite attempts to broaden the recruiting base beyond New England, the 1776 army remained skewed toward the Northeast both in terms of its composition and of its geographical focus; this army consisted of 36 regiments, most standardized to a single battalion of 768 men strong and formed into eight companies, with a rank-and-file strength of 640. The Continental Army of 1777–80 evolved out of several critical reforms and political decisions that came about when it became apparent that the British were sending massive forces to put an end to the American Revolution; the Continental Congress passed the "Eighty-eight Battalion Resolve", ordering each state to contribute one-battalion regiments in proportion to their population, Washington subsequently received authority to raise an additional 16 battalions.
Enlistment terms extended to three years or to "the length of the war" to avoid the year-end crises that deplet
National Museum of American History
The National Museum of American History: Kenneth E. Behring Center collects and displays the heritage of the United States in the areas of social, cultural and military history. Among the items on display is the original Star-Spangled Banner; the museum is part of the Smithsonian Institution and located on the National Mall at 14th Street and Constitution Avenue NW in Washington, D. C; the museum opened in 1964 as the Museum of Technology. It was one of the last structures designed by the renowned architectural firm McKim White. In 1980, the museum was renamed the National Museum of American History to represent its mission of the collection, care and interpretation of objects that reflect the experience of the American people. In May 2012, John Gray became the new director, he retired from the post in May 2018 and was succeeded by Anthea M. Hartig, chief executive of the California Historical Society; the museum underwent an $85 million renovation from September 5, 2006 to November 21, 2008, during which time it was closed.
Skidmore and Merrill provided the architecture and interior design services for the renovation, led by Gary Haney. Major changes made during the renovation include: A new, five-story sky-lit atrium, surrounded by displays of artifacts that showcase the breadth of the museum's collection. A new, grand staircase that links the museum's second floors. A new welcome center, the addition of six landmark objects to orient visitors. New galleries, such as the Jerome and Dorothy Lemelson Hall of Invention. An environmentally controlled chamber to protect the original Star-Spangled Banner flag. In 2012, the museum began a $37 million renovation of the west wing to add new exhibition spaces, public plazas and an education center; the renovation will include panoramic windows overlooking the National Mall on all three floors and new interactive features to the exhibits. The first floor of the west wing reopened on July 1, 2015 with the second and third floors of the west wing reopening in 2016 and 2017, respectively.
Each wing of the museum's three exhibition floors is anchored by a landmark object to highlight the theme of that wing. These include the John Bull locomotive, the Greensboro, North Carolina lunch counter, a one of a kind draft wheel. Landmarks from pre-existing exhibits include the 1865 Vassar Telescope, a George Washington Statue, a Red Cross ambulance, a car from Disneyland's Dumbo Flying Elephant ride. Artifact walls, 275 feet of glass-fronted cases, line the second floor center core; the artifact walls are organized around themes including arts. The lower level of the museum displays Taking America to Lunch, which celebrates the history of American lunch boxes; the museum's food court, the Stars and Stripes Café, ride simulators are located here. The first floor's East Wing has exhibits that feature technology; the John Bull locomotive is the signature artifact. The exhibits in the West Wing address innovation, they include Science in American Life featuring Robots on the Road and Bon Appétit!
Julia Child's Kitchen. Spark! Lab is a hands-on exhibit of the Lemelson Center for the Study of Innovation; the Vassar Telescope is the signature artifact. A café and the main museum store are located on the first floor; the first floor contains the Constitution Avenue lobby, as well as a space for a temporary exhibit. The exhibitions in 2 East, the east wing of the second floor, consider American ideals and include the Albert Small Documents Gallery featuring rotating exhibitions. From November 21, 2008 through January 4, 2009 an original copy of the Gettysburg Address, on loan from the White House, was on display; the Greensboro lunch counter is the signature artifact for this section of the museum. Located in the center of the second floor is the original Star Spangled Banner Flag which inspired Francis Scott Key's poem; the newly conserved flag, the centerpiece of the renovated museum, is displayed in a climate-controlled room at the heart of the museum. An interactive display by Potion Design, just across the room from the flag, features a full-size, digital reproduction of the flag that allows patrons to learn more about it by touching different areas on the flag.
The George Washington statue, created in 1840 for the centennial of Washington's birthday, is the signature artifact for 2 West, the west wing of the second floor of the museum. The second floor houses the museum's new welcome center and a store; the second floor lobby leads out to the National Mall. Exhibits in the east wing of the third floor, 3 East, are focused on the United States at war; the Clara Barton Red Cross ambulance is the signature artifact. The center of the third floor, 3 Center, presents The American Presidency: A Glorious Burden, which explores the personal and public lives of the men who have held that office, it features the popular permanent exhibit of First Ladies of America, which features their contributions, changing roles, displays dresses as a mark of changing times. The third-floor west wing, 3 West, has exhibits that feature entertainment and music; these include Thanks for the Memories: Music and Entertainment History, the Hall of Musical Instruments, The Dolls' House.
A car from Disneyland's Dumbo the Flying Elephant ride is t
United States Capitol
The United States Capitol called the Capitol Building, is the home of the United States Congress and the seat of the legislative branch of the U. S. federal government. It is located on Capitol Hill at the eastern end of the National Mall in Washington, D. C. Though no longer at the geographic center of the Federal District, the Capitol forms the origin point for the District's street-numbering system and the District's four quadrants; the original building was completed in 1800 and was subsequently expanded with the addition of the massive dome, expanded chambers for the bicameral legislature, the House of Representatives in the south wing and the Senate in the north wing. Like the principal buildings of the executive and judicial branches, the Capitol is built in a distinctive neoclassical style and has a white exterior. Both its east and west elevations are formally referred to as fronts, though only the east front was intended for the reception of visitors and dignitaries. Prior to establishing the nation's capital in Washington, D.
C. the United States Congress and its predecessors had met in Philadelphia, New York City, a number of other locations. In September 1774, the First Continental Congress brought together delegates from the colonies in Philadelphia, followed by the Second Continental Congress, which met from May 1775 to March 1781. After adopting the Articles of Confederation in York, the Congress of the Confederation was formed and convened in Philadelphia from March 1781 until June 1783, when a mob of angry soldiers converged upon Independence Hall, demanding payment for their service during the American Revolutionary War. Congress requested that John Dickinson, the Governor of Pennsylvania, call up the militia to defend Congress from attacks by the protesters. In what became known as the Pennsylvania Mutiny of 1783, Dickinson sympathized with the protesters and refused to remove them from Philadelphia; as a result, Congress was forced to flee to Princeton, New Jersey, on June 21, 1783, met in Annapolis and Trenton, New Jersey, before ending up in New York City.
The United States Congress was established upon ratification of the United States Constitution and formally began on March 4, 1789. New York City remained home to Congress until July 1790, when the Residence Act was passed to pave the way for a permanent capital; the decision of where to locate the capital was contentious, but Alexander Hamilton helped broker a compromise in which the federal government would take on war debt incurred during the American Revolutionary War, in exchange for support from northern states for locating the capital along the Potomac River. As part of the legislation, Philadelphia was chosen as a temporary capital for ten years, until the nation's capital in Washington, D. C. would be ready. Pierre Charles L'Enfant was given the task of creating the city plan for the new capital city. L'Enfant chose Jenkin's Hill as the site for the "Congress House", with a "grand avenue" connecting it with the President's House, a public space containing a broader "grand avenue" stretching westward to the Potomac River.
In reviewing L'Enfant's plan, Thomas Jefferson insisted the legislative building be called the "Capitol" rather than "Congress House". The word "Capitol" comes from Latin and is associated with the Temple of Jupiter Optimus Maximus on Capitoline Hill, one of the seven hills of Rome; the connection between the two is not, crystal clear. In addition to coming up with a city plan, L'Enfant had been tasked with designing the Capitol and President's House; the word "capitol" has since been adopted, following the example of the United States Capitol, in many jurisdictions for other government buildings, for instance the "capitols" in the individual capitals of the states of the United States. This, in turn, has led to frequent misspellings of "capitol" and "capital"; the former refers to a building. In spring 1792, United States Secretary of State Thomas Jefferson proposed a design competition to solicit designs for the Capitol and the "President's House", set a four-month deadline; the prize for the competition was a lot in the Federal City.
At least ten individuals submitted designs for the Capitol. The most promising of the submissions was by a trained French architect. However, Hallet's designs were overly fancy, with too much French influence, were deemed too costly. A late entry by amateur architect William Thornton was submitted on January 31, 1793, to much praise for its "Grandeur and Beauty" by Washington, along with praise from Thomas Jefferson. Thornton was inspired by the east front of the Louvre, as well as the Paris Pantheon for the center portion of the design. Thornton's design was approved in a letter dated April 5, 1793, from Washington, Thornton served as the first Architect of the Capitol. In an effort to console Hallet, the commissioners appointed him to review Thornton's plans, develop cost estimates, serve as superintendent of construction. Hallet proceeded to pick apart and make drastic changes