A Queen's Counsel, or King's Counsel during the reign of a king, is an eminent lawyer, appointed by the monarch to be one of "Her Majesty's Counsel learned in the law." The term is recognised as an honorific. The position exists in some Commonwealth jurisdictions around the world, but other Commonwealth countries have either abolished the position, or re-named it to eliminate monarchical connotations, such as "Senior Counsel" or "Senior Advocate". Queen's Counsel is an office, conferred by the Crown, recognised by courts. Members have the privilege of sitting within the bar of court; as members wear silk gowns of a particular design, appointment as Queen's Counsel is known informally as taking silk, hence QCs are colloquially called silks. Appointments are made from within the legal profession on the basis of merit rather than a particular level of experience. However, successful applicants tend to be barristers, or advocates with 15 years of experience or more; the Attorney General, Solicitor-General and King's Serjeants were King's Counsel in Ordinary in the Kingdom of England.
The first Queen's Counsel Extraordinary was Sir Francis Bacon, given a patent giving him precedence at the Bar in 1597, formally styled King's Counsel in 1603. The new rank of King's Counsel contributed to the gradual obsolescence of the more senior serjeant-at-law by superseding it; the Attorney-General and Solicitor-General had succeeded the King's Serjeants as leaders of the Bar in Tudor times, though not technically senior until 1623 and 1813, respectively. But the King's Counsel emerged into eminence only in the early 1830s, prior to when they were few in number, it became the standard means to recognise a barrister as a senior member of the profession, the numbers multiplied accordingly. It became of greater professional importance to become a KC, the serjeants declined; the KCs inherited the prestige of their priority before the courts. The earliest English law list, published in 1775, lists 165 members of the Bar, of whom 14 were King's Counsel, a proportion of about 8.5%. As of 2010 the same proportion existed, though the number of barristers had increased to about 12,250 in independent practice.
In 1839 the number of Queen's Counsel was seventy. In 1882, the number of Queen's Counsel was 187; the list of Queen's Counsel in the Law List of 1897 gave the names of 238, of whom hardly one third appeared to be in actual practice. In 1959, the number of practising Queen's Counsel was 181. In each of the five years up to 1970, the number of practising Queen's Counsel was 208, 209, 221, 236 and 262, respectively. In each of the years 1973 to 1978, the number of practising Queen's Counsel was 329, 345, 370, 372, 384 and 404, respectively. In 1989, the number of practising Queen's Counsel was 601. In each of the years 1991 to 2000, the number of practising Queen's Counsel was 736, 760, 797, 845, 891, 925, 974, 1006, 1043, 1072, respectively; the title traditionally depends on the sex of the sovereign. The current Queen, Elizabeth II has had a long reign, few if any people appointed as King's Counsel survive, it can be assumed that, should the Queen die and the reign pass to a descendant, holders of the title will again become KC, as the next three in line to the throne are male heirs.
Queen's Counsel and serjeants were prohibited, at least from the mid-nineteenth century onward, from drafting pleadings alone. They were not permitted to appear in court without a junior barrister, they had to have chambers in London. From the beginning, they were not allowed to appear against the Crown without a special licence, but this was given as a formality; this stipulation was important in criminal cases, which are brought in the name of the Crown. The result was that, until 1920 in England and Wales, King's and Queen's Counsel had to have a licence to appear in criminal cases for the defence; these restrictions had a number of consequences: they made the taking of "silk" something of a professional risk, because the appointment abolished at a stroke some of the staple work of the junior barrister. By the end of the twentieth century, all of these rules had been abolished one by one. Appointment as QC is now a matter of prestige only, with no formal disadvantages. Queen's Counsel were traditionally selected from barristers, rather than from lawyers in general, because they were counsel appointed to conduct court work on behalf of the Crown.
Although the limitations on private instruction were relaxed, QCs continued to be selected from barristers, who had the sole right of audience in the higher courts. The first woman appointed King's Counsel was Helen Kinnear in Canada in 1934; the first women to be appointed as King's Counsel in the United Kingdom were Helena Normanton and Rose Heilbron in 1949. In 1994 solicitors of England and Wales became entitled to gain rights of audience in the higher courts, some 275 were so entitled in 1995. In 1995, these solicitors alone became entitled to apply for appointment as Queen's Counsel, the first two solicitors were appointed on 27 March 1997, out of 68 new QCs; these were Arthur Marriott, partner of the London office of the American law firm of Wilmer Cutler and Pickering based in Washington, D. C. and Law
Legislative Assembly of Ontario
The Legislative Assembly of Ontario is one of two components of the Legislature of Ontario, the other being the Lieutenant Governor of Ontario. The Legislative Assembly is the second largest Canadian provincial deliberative assembly by number of members after the National Assembly of Quebec; the Assembly meets at the Ontario Legislative Building at Queen's Park in the provincial capital of Toronto. As at the federal level in Canada, Ontario uses a Westminster-style parliamentary government, in which members are elected to the Legislative Assembly through general elections, from which the Premier of Ontario and Executive Council of Ontario are appointed based on majority support; the premier is Ontario's head of government, while the Lieutenant Governor, as representative of the Queen, acts as head of state. The largest party not forming the government is known as the Official Opposition, its leader being recognized as Leader of the Opposition by the Speaker; the Ontario Legislature is sometimes referred to as the "Ontario Provincial Parliament".
Members of the assembly refer to themselves as "Members of the Provincial Parliament" as opposed to "Members of the Legislative Assembly" as in many other provinces. Ontario is the only province to do so, in accordance with a resolution passed in the Assembly on April 7, 1938. However, the Legislative Assembly Act refers only to "members of the Assembly"; the current assembly was elected on June 2018, as part of the 42nd Parliament of Ontario. Owing to the location of the Legislative Building on the grounds of Queen's Park, the metonym "Queen's Park" is used to refer to both the Government of Ontario and the Legislative Assembly. In accordance with the traditions of the Westminster system, most laws originate with the cabinet, are passed by the legislature after stages of debate and decision-making. Ordinary Members of the Legislature may introduce play an integral role in scrutinizing bills in debate and committee and amending bills presented to the legislature by cabinet. Members are expected to be loyal to both their parliamentary party and to the interests of their constituents.
In the event of conflict, duty to the parliamentary party takes precedence. Party loyalty is enforced by the chief government whip. In the Ontario legislature this confrontation provides much of the material for Oral Questions and Members' Statements. Legislative scrutiny of the executive is at the heart of much of the work carried out by the Legislature's Standing Committees, which are made up of ordinary backbenchers. A Member's day will be divided among participating in the business of the House, attending caucus and committee meetings, speaking in various debates, or returning to his or her constituency to address the concerns and grievances of constituents. Depending on personal inclination and political circumstances, some Members concentrate most of their attention on House matters while others focus on constituency problems, taking on something of an ombudsman's role in the process, it is the task of the legislature to provide the personnel of the executive. As noted, under responsible government, ministers of the Crown are expected to be Members of the Assembly.
When a political party comes to power it will place its more experienced parliamentarians into the key cabinet positions, where their parliamentary experience may be the best preparation for the rough and tumble of political life in government. The Legislative Assembly of Ontario is the first and the only legislature in Canada to have a Coat of Arms separate from the provincial coat of arms. Green and gold are the principal colours in the shield of arms of the province; the Mace is the traditional symbol of the authority of the Speaker. Shown on the left is the current Mace. On the right is the original Mace from the time of the first parliament in 1792; the crossed Maces are joined by the shield of arms of Ontario. The crown on the wreath represents provincial loyalties; the griffin, an ancient symbol of justice and equity, holds a calumet, which symbolizes the meeting of spirit and discussion that Ontario's First Nations believe accompanies the use of the pipe. The deer represent the natural riches of the province.
The Loyalist coronets at their necks honour the original British settlers in Ontario who brought with them the British parliamentary form of government. The Royal Crowns, left 1992, right 1792, recognize the parliamentary bicentennial and represent Ontario's heritage as a constitutional monarchy, they were granted as a special honour by Her Majesty Queen Elizabeth II on the recommendation of the Governor General. In the base, the maple leaves are for Canada, the trilliums for Ontario and the roses for York, the provincial capital. Proceedings of the Legislative Assembly are broadcast to Ontario cable television subscribers by the Ontario Parliament Network. A late-night rebroadcast of Question Period is aired on the provincial public broadcaster TVOntario; the 1st Parliament of Ontario was in session from September 3, 1867, until February 25, 1871, just prior to the 1871 general election. This was the first session of the Legislature after Confederation succeeding the Legislative Assembly of the Province of Canada.
The 1867 general election produced a tie between the Conservative Party led by John Sandfield Macdonald and the Liberal Party led by Archibald McKellar. Macdonald led a coalition government with the support of moderate Liberals; the Legislative Assembly was established by the British North Am
Hamilton is a port city in the Canadian province of Ontario. An industrialized city in the Golden Horseshoe at the west end of Lake Ontario, Hamilton has a population of 536,917, a metropolitan population of 747,545; the city is located about 60 km southwest of Toronto, with which the Greater Toronto and Hamilton Area is formed. On January 1, 2001, the current boundaries of Hamilton was created through the amalgamation of the original city with other municipalities of the Regional Municipality of Hamilton-Wentworth. Residents of the city are known as Hamiltonians. Since 1981, the metropolitan area has been listed as the ninth largest in Canada and the third largest in Ontario. Hamilton is home to the Royal Botanical Gardens, the Canadian Warplane Heritage Museum, the Bruce Trail, McMaster University, Redeemer University College and Mohawk College. McMaster University is ranked 4th in Canada and 77th in the world by Times Higher Education Rankings 2018–19 and has a well-known medical school. In pre-colonial times, the Neutral First Nation used much of the land but were driven out by the Five Nations who were allied with the British against the Huron and their French allies.
A member of the Iroquois Confederacy provided the route and name for Mohawk Road, which included King Street in the lower city. Following the United States gaining independence after their American Revolutionary War, in 1784, about 10,000 United Empire Loyalists settled in Upper Canada, chiefly in Niagara, around the Bay of Quinte, along the St. Lawrence River between Lake Ontario and Montreal; the Crown granted them land in these areas in order to develop Upper Canada and to compensate them for losses in the United States. With former First Nations lands available for purchase, these new settlers were soon followed by many more Americans, attracted by the availability of inexpensive, arable land. At the same time, large numbers of Iroquois, allied with Britain arrived from the United States and were settled on reserves west of Lake Ontario as compensation for lands they lost in what was now the United States. During the War of 1812, British regulars and Canadian militia defeated invading American troops at the Battle of Stoney Creek, fought in what is now a park in eastern Hamilton.
The town of Hamilton was conceived by George Hamilton, when he purchased farm holdings of James Durand, the local Member of the British Legislative Assembly, shortly after the War of 1812. Nathaniel Hughson, a property owner to the north, cooperated with George Hamilton to prepare a proposal for a courthouse and jail on Hamilton's property. Hamilton offered the land to the crown for the future site. Durand was empowered by Hughson and Hamilton to sell property holdings which became the site of the town; as he had been instructed, Durand circulated the offers at York during a session of the Legislative Assembly, which established a new Gore District, of which the Hamilton townsite was a member. This town was not the most important centre of the Gore District. An early indication of Hamilton's sudden prosperity was marked by the fact that in 1816 it was chosen over Ancaster, Ontario that year to be the administrative center for the new Gore District. Another dramatic economic turnabout for Hamilton occurred in 1832 when a canal was cut through the outer sand bar that enabled Hamilton to become a major port.
A permanent jail was not constructed until 1832, when a cut-stone design was completed on Prince's Square, one of the two squares created in 1816. Subsequently, the first police board and the town limits were defined by statute on February 13, 1833. Official city status was achieved on June 9, 1846, by an act of Parliament, 9 Victoria Chapter 73. By 1845, the population was 6,475. In 1846, there were useful roads to many communities as well as stage coaches and steamboats to Toronto and Niagara. Eleven cargo schooners were owned in Hamilton. Eleven churches were in operation. A reading room provided access to newspapers from other cities and from England and the U. S. In addition to stores of all types, four banks, tradesmen of various types, sixty-five taverns, industry in the community included three breweries, ten importers of dry goods and groceries, five importers of hardware, two tanneries, three coachmakers, a marble and a stone works; as the city grew, several prominent buildings were constructed in the late 19th century, including the Grand Lodge of Canada in 1855, West Flamboro Methodist Church in 1879, a public library in 1890, the Right House department store in 1893.
The first commercial telephone service in Canada, the first telephone exchange in the British Empire, the second telephone exchange in all of North America were each established in the city between 1877–78. The city had several interurban electric street railways and two inclines, all powered by the Cataract Power Co. Though suffering through the Hamilton Street Railway strike of 1906, with industrial businesses expanding, Hamilton's population doubled between 1900 and 1914. Two steel manufacturing companies and Dofasco, were formed in 1910 and 1912, respectively. Procter & Gamble and the Beech-Nut Packing Company opened manufacturing plants in 1914 and 1922 their first outside the US. Population and economic growth continued until the 1960s. In 1929 the city's first high-rise building, the Pigott Building, was constructed.
Premier of Ontario
The Premier of Ontario is the first minister of the Crown for the Canadian province of Ontario and the province’s head of government. The position was styled "Prime Minister of Ontario" until the ministry of Bill Davis formally changed the title to premier; the 26th and current Premier of Ontario is Doug Ford of the Progressive Conservative Party of Ontario, sworn in on June 29, 2018. Ontario's first premier was John Sandfield Macdonald, in office from 1867 to 1871; the longest serving premier in Ontario history was Sir Oliver Mowat, in office from 1872 to 1896. The premier is appointed as the province's head of government by the Lieutenant Governor of Ontario and presides over the Executive Council, or Cabinet; the Executive Council Act stipulates that the leader of the government party is known as the "Premier and President of the Council". The Office of the Premier of Ontario includes a number of committees: Priorities and Planning Committee Cabinet Committee on Emergency Management Treasury Board/Management Board of Cabinet Legislation and Regulations Committee Health and Social Policy Committee Jobs and Economic Policy Committee Shafiq Qaadri 2014–2018 Stephen Lecce 2018-present List of premiers of Ontario Premier Deputy Premier of Ontario Leader of the Opposition Premier of Ontario Official Site
George W. Taylor (general)
George William Taylor was a general in the Union Army during the American Civil War. He commanded a brigade in the Army of the Potomac before being mortally wounded at the Battle of Manassas Station in Northern Virginia; the poem "The General's Death" by Joseph O'Connor was based on George W. Taylor's death. Taylor was born at "Solitude," the family's mansion near High Bridge, New Jersey, the home to five generations of the Taylor family, he was the son of a prominent local businessman. Taylor graduated from a private military academy in Connecticut. George W. Taylor joined his father's company as an ironworker with Taylor Iron Works. Taylor Iron Works/Taylor Wharton is the oldest foundry in US History and the 13th longest continually operating company in the world history In 1827, Taylor joined the United States Navy as a midshipman, serving aboard the USS Fairfield during her Mediterranean deployment from 1828-1831; when the ship returned to the U. S. he entered his family's mercantile business.
With the outbreak of the war with Mexico in 1846, he became a captain in the 10th U. S. Infantry under Zachary Taylor the followin year. While in Mexico, he developed a reputation for order among his men, he cultivated a strong friendship with Philip Kearny, a fellow future Civil War general. After receiving his honorable discharge with the end of the hostilities, Taylor joined the California Gold Rush and spent three years mining at Corte Madera, before returning to New Jersey, where he engaged in the manufacturing of iron until the Civil War erupted in early 1861. Taylor helped recruit and organize what became the 3rd New Jersey Volunteer Infantry in May 1861 and was appointed by Governor Olden as the new regiment's first colonel, his son, Archibald II, served as his aide-de-camp. Taylor was involved in the fighting at the First Battle of Bull Run, his 3rd New Jersey was brigaded with the 1st, 2nd, 4th New Jersey Volunteer Infantry to make up what became famed as the "First New Jersey Brigade".
Taylor's regiment served in the 1st Brigade, 1st Division of the VI Corps, in numerous battles in the Seven Days Battles during the end of the Peninsula Campaign. When his mentor and friend Kearny was elevated to division command in June 1862, Taylor was promoted to brigadier general of the 1st New Jersey Brigade, leading it in the Seven Days Battles. During the Northern Virginia Campaign, his brigade was sent down from Washington to scout out Confederate troop movements. On August 27, the brigade stumbled into Stonewall Jackson's entire corps and was routed. Taylor suffered a severe leg wound from an artillery shell and died in a Washington hospital four days later, his body was transported to Clinton, New Jersey, via train, where hundreds of people turned out for his funeral. He was buried there in Riverside Cemetery. A year his nephew was killed at the Battle of Chancellorsville and buried beside him. List of American Civil War generals Eicher, John H. and Eicher, David J. Civil War High Commands, Stanford University Press, 2001, ISBN 0-8047-3641-3.
U. S. War Department, The War of the Rebellion: a Compilation of the Official Records of the Union and Confederate Armies, U. S. Government Printing Office, 1880–1901. "George W. Taylor". Find a Grave. Retrieved 2009-04-16. Civilwarpoetry.org Media related to George W. Taylor at Wikimedia Commons
Osgoode Hall Law School
Osgoode Hall Law School shortened to Osgoode, is the law school of York University in Toronto, Canada. The school was founded by the Law Society of Upper Canada, named for William Osgoode, an Oxford University graduate and barrister of Lincoln's Inn, the first to serve as the Chief Justice of Upper Canada; the school signed an agreement of affiliation with York University in 1965 following a decision by the provincial government requiring all law schools to be affiliated with a university. It was located at Osgoode Hall in downtown Toronto, which houses the headquarters of the Law Society, relocated to York University's Keele Campus in 1969; the law school is home to the Law Commission of the Osgoode Hall Law Journal. Osgoode hosts Professional Development Programs which are located in downtown Toronto at 1 Dundas St. near the original Osgoode Hall building. A variety of LL. M. and Ph. D. degrees in law are available. Its alumni include three Canadian Prime Ministers and ten Justices of the Supreme Court of Canada, four of whom were Chief Justices.
The current dean of the law school is Mary Condon. QS world university rankings 2018 places Osgoode Hall Law School in the bracket of 51st to 100th top law schools in the world. Maclean's magazine has ranked Osgoode second amongst Canadian law schools in 2011, 2012 and 2013. In the 2008 rankings published by Canadian Lawyer Magazine, Osgoode was ranked first in Canada, was awarded high marks for the quality of its professors, flexible curriculum, the diversity and relevance of course offerings. For its first eight decades, Osgoode Hall Law School was located at Osgoode Hall at the corner of Queen Street and University Avenue; the structures at Queen and University are still known as Osgoode Hall. They remain the headquarters of the Law Society of Upper Canada and house the Court of Appeal for Ontario; the law school is located on the Keele Campus of York University, in the Toronto suburb of North York. In May 2007, Dean Monahan announced plans for an extensive renovation and extension of Osgoode Hall Law School involving a renovation of the existing building, the addition of an additional wing.
The building was designed by architect Jack Diamond with the construction of the renovated building beginning in the summer of 2009. The project had been majorly funded by a $2.5 million gift by Ignat Kaneff, the building has been renamed in his honor. The law school is referred to by York as its faculty of law. Osgoode's Professional Development offices and classrooms are based at 1 Dundas Street West in Downtown Toronto, overlooking Yonge-Dundas Square; the Legal & Literary Society, Osgoode Hall Law School's official student society, coordinates student activities both on and off campus. The organization funds over fifty student clubs, as well as the student newspaper, Obiter Dicta. John Robert Cartwright, former Chief Justice Peter Cory, former Puisne Judge and former Chancellor of York University Sir Lyman Duff, former Chief Justice Frank Joseph Hughes, former Puisne Judge Wilfred Judson, former Puisne Judge Andromache Karakatsanis, current Puisne Judge Patrick Kerwin, former Chief Justice Bora Laskin, former Chief Justice Malcolm Rowe, current Puisne Judge Wishart Spence, former Puisne Judge John Arnup, Moderator for United Church of Canada, Justice at Ontario Court of Appeal George Ethelbert Carter Kim Carter, Chief Military Judge of the Canadian Forces Marcel Crête, jurist and Chief Justice of Quebec Bud Cullen, Judge at Federal Court of Canada Charles Dubin, former Chief Justice of Ontario Daniel Dumais, Emeritus Lawyer distinction from Barreau du Quebec, Puisne Judge of Superior Court of Quebec Asher Grunis, President of the Supreme Court of Israel Sydney Harris, activist lawyer and judge, President of the Canadian Jewish Congress Bill Hastings, Chief Censor of New Zealand, District Court Judge of New Zealand Russell G. Juriansz, first South Asian appointed to Ontario Court of Appeal Harry S. Laforme, Justice at Ontario Court of Appeal Patrick LeSage, Chief Justice of Ontario Superior Court of Justice Malcolm Archibald Macdonald, Chief Justice of British Columbia Mark MacGuigan, Attorney General of Canada, Justice of the Federal Court of Appeal Goldwyn Arthur Martin, QC, Justice at Ontario Court of Appeal Roy McMurtry, Chief Justice of Ontario, Attorney General of Ontario, Canadian High Commissioner to the United Kingdom James Chalmers McRuer, Ontario Court of Appeal, Chief Justice at High Court of Justice of Ontario Charles Terrence Murphy, Judge at Ontario Superior Court, President of North Atlantic Assembly Dennis O'Connor, Associate Chief Justice of Ontario James O'Reilly, Federal Court Judge Coulter Osborne, Associate Chief Justice of Ontario John Richard, NAFTA Adjudicator, Chief Justice of the Federal Court of Appeal Charles Stuart, Justice of the Supreme Court of Alberta Michael Tulloch, Justice at the Ontario Court of Appeal Karen M. Weiler, past Judge Court Martial Appeal Court of Canada, Justice at Ontario Court of Appeal Sharon A. Williams, Judge ad litem at the International Criminal Tribunal for the Former Yugoslavia Warren Winkler, Chief Justice of Ontario Willy Mutunga, former Chief Justice of Kenya Sir John A. Macdonald William Lyon Mackenzie King Arthur Meighen Bill Davis, 18th Premier of Ontario George Drew, 14th Premier of Ontario Ernie Eves, 23rd Premier of Ontario Howard Ferguson, 9th Premier of Ontario Leslie Frost, 16th Premier of Ontario William Howard Hearst, 7th Premier of Ontario Rachel Notley, 17th Premier of Alberta John Robarts, 17th Premier of Ontario John Black Aird, former Lieutenant Governor of Ontario, Canadian Senator and founding partner of Aird & Berlis LLP Lincoln Alexander, 24
McMaster University is a public research university in Hamilton, Canada. The main McMaster campus is on 121 hectares of land near the residential neighbourhoods of Ainslie Wood and Westdale, adjacent to the Royal Botanical Gardens, it operates six academic faculties: the DeGroote School of Business, Health Sciences, Social Science, Science. It is a member of a group of research-intensive universities in Canada; the university bears the name of William McMaster, a prominent Canadian senator and banker who bequeathed C$900,000 to its founding. It was incorporated under the terms of an act of the Legislative Assembly of Ontario in 1887, merging the Toronto Baptist College with Woodstock College, it opened in Toronto in 1890. Inadequate facilities and the gift of land in Hamilton prompted its relocation in 1930; the Baptist Convention of Ontario and Quebec controlled the university until it became a chartered, publicly funded non-denominational institution in 1957. McMaster University is co-educational, has over 25,000 undergraduate and over 4,000 post-graduate students.
Alumni and former students reside in 139 countries. Its athletic teams are known as the Marauders, are members of U Sports. Notable alumni include government officials, business leaders, Rhodes Scholars, Gates Cambridge Scholars, Nobel laureates. McMaster University resulted from the outgrowth of educational initiatives undertaken by Baptists as early as the 1830s, it was founded in 1881 as Toronto Baptist College. Canadian Senator William McMaster, the first president of the Canadian Bank of Commerce, bequeathed funds to endow a university, incorporated through a merger of Toronto Baptist College and Woodstock College, Ontario. In 1887 the Act to unite Toronto Baptist College and Woodstock College was granted royal assent, McMaster University was incorporated. Woodstock College and Moulton Ladies' College, were maintained in close connection; the new university, housed in McMaster Hall in Toronto, was sponsored by the Baptist Convention of Ontario and Quebec as a sectarian undergraduate institution for its clergy and adherents.
The first courses—initially limited to arts and theology leading to a BA degree—were taught in 1890, the first degrees were conferred in 1894. As the university grew, McMaster Hall started to become overcrowded; the suggestion to move the university to Hamilton was first brought up by a student and Hamilton native in 1909, although the proposal was not considered by the university until two years later. By the 1920s, after previous proposals between various university staff, the Hamilton Chamber of Commerce launched a campaign to bring McMaster University to Hamilton; as the issue of space at McMaster Hall became more acute, the university administration debated the future of the university. The university nearly became federated with the University of Toronto, as had been the case with Trinity College and Victoria College. Instead, in 1927, the university administration decided to move the university to Hamilton; the Baptist Convention of Ontario and Quebec secured $1.5 million, while the citizens of Hamilton raised an additional $500,000 to help finance the move.
The lands for the university and new buildings were secured through gifts from graduates. Lands were transferred from Royal Botanical Gardens to establish the campus area; the first academic session on the new Hamilton campus began in 1930. McMaster's property in Toronto was sold to the University of Toronto when McMaster moved to Hamilton in 1930. McMaster Hall is now home to the Royal Conservatory of Music. Professional programs during the interwar period were limited to nursing. By the 1940s the McMaster administration was under pressure to modernize and expand the university's programs. During the Second World War and post-war periods the demand for technological expertise in the sciences, increased; this problem placed a strain on the finances of. In particular, the institution could no longer secure sufficient funds from denominational sources alone to sustain science research. Since denominational institutions could not receive public funds, the Baptist Convention of Ontario and Quebec decided to reorganize the university, creating two federated colleges.
The arts and divinity programs were reconstituted as University College and science was reorganized under the newly incorporated Hamilton College as a separate division capable of receiving provincial grants. Hamilton College was incorporated in 1948 by letters patent under The Companies Act, although it remained only affiliated with the university; the university traditionally focused on undergraduate studies, did not offer a PhD program until 1949. Through the 1950s increased funding advanced the place of sciences within the institution. In 1950, the university had completed the construction of three academic buildings for the sciences, all designed by local architect William Russell Souter. Public funding was necessary to ensure the humanities and social sciences were given an equal place. Thus, in 1957 the university reorganized once again under The McMaster University Act, 1957, dissolving the two colleges, its property was vested to McMaster and the university became a nondenominational institution eligible for public funding.
The historic Baptist connection was continued through McMaster Divinity College, a separately chartered affiliated college of the university. In 1957, PhD programs were consolidated in a new Faculty of Graduate Studies. Construction of the McMaster Nuclear Reactor began in 1957, was the first university-based research react