Pisidia was a region of ancient Asia Minor located north of Lycia, bordering Caria, Lydia and Pamphylia, corresponding to the modern-day province of Antalya in Turkey. Among Pisidia's settlements were Antioch, Cremna, Etenna, Selge, Laodiceia Katakekaumene and Philomelium. Although Pisidia is close to the Mediterranean Sea, the warm climate of the south cannot pass the height of the Taurus Mountains; the climate is too dry for timberland, but crop plants grow in areas provided with water from the mountains, whose annual average rainfall is c. 1000 mm on the peaks and 500 mm on the slopes. This water feeds the plateau; the Pisidian cities founded on the slopes, benefited from this fertility. The irrigated soil is suitable for growing fruit and for husbandry; the area of Pisidia has been inhabited since the Paleolithic age, with some settlements known from historical times ranging in age from the eighth to third millennium BC. The ancestors of the classical Pisidians were present in the region before the 14th century BC, when Hittite records refer to a mountain site of Salawassa, identified with the site of Sagalassos.
At that time, Pisidia appears to have been part of the region. The Pisidian language is poorly known, but is assumed to be a member of the Anatolian branch of Indo-European languages. Herodotus mentioned the Pisidic people in the text which they were called "Lakuna" but this was one of the names given to Pisidic tribes, which occupied a little mountainous region north to the Antalya Bay. Pisidians are known to be among the nations. There can be little doubt that the Pisidians and Pamphylians were the same people, but a distinction between the two seems to have been established at an early period. Herodotus, who does not mention the Pisidians, enumerates the Pamphylians among the nations of Asia Minor, while Ephorus mentions them both including the one among the nations on the interior, the other among those of the coast. Pamphylia early received colonies from Greece and other lands, from this cause, combined with the greater fertility of their territory, became more civilized than its neighbor in the interior.
Pisidia remained a wild, mountainous region, one of the most difficult for outside powers to rule. As far back as the Hittite period, Pisidia was host to independent communities not under the Hittite yoke. Known for its warlike factions, it remained independent of the Lydians, the Persians, who conquered Anatolia in the 6th century BC, divided the area into satrapies for greater control, were unable to cope with constant uprisings and turmoil. Alexander the Great had a somewhat better fortune, conquering Sagalassos on his way to Persia, though the city of Termessos defied him. After Alexander died, the region became part of territories of Antigonus Monophthalmus, Lysimachus of Thrace, after which Seleucus I Nicator, founder of the Seleucid Dynasty of Syria, took control of Pisidia. Under the Seleucids, Greek colonies were founded at strategically important places and the local people Hellenised. So, the Hellenistic kings were never in complete control, in part because Anatolia was contested between the Seleucids, the Attalids of Pergamon, the Galatians, invading Celts from Europe.
The cities in Pisidia were among the last in western Anatolia to adopt Greek culture and to coin their own money. Pisidia passed from the Seleucids to the Attalids as a result of the Treaty of Apamea, forced on Antiochos III of Syria by the Romans in 188 BC. After Attalos III, the last king of Pergamon, bequeathed his kingdom to Rome in 133 BC as the province of Asia, Pisidia was given to the Kingdom of Cappadocia, which proved unable to govern it; the Pisidians cast their lot with pirate-dominated Cilicia and Pamphylia until the Roman rule was restored in 102 BC. In 39 BC Marcus Antonius entrusted Pisidia to the Galatian client king Amyntas and charged him with suppressing a people of the Taurus Mountains known as the Homonadesians, who sometimes controlled the roads connecting Pisidia to Pamphylia. After king Amyntas of Galatia was killed in the struggle in 25 BC, Rome made Pisidia part of the new province of Galatia; the Homonadesians were wiped out in 3 BC. During the Roman period Pisidia was colonized with veterans of its legions to maintain control.
For the colonists, who came from poorer parts of Italy, agriculture must have been the area’s main attraction. Under Augustus, eight such colonies were established in Pisidia, Antioch and Sagalassos became the most important cities; the province was Latinised. Latin remained the formal language of the area until the end of the 3rd century. Pisidia became an important early Christian centre. Paul the Apostle preached in Antioch on his first journey, he visited the area in his second and third journeys. After the Emperor Constantine's legalization of Christianity in 311, Antioch in Pisidia played an important role as the Christian metropolitan see as well as being the capital of the civil province of Pisidia. Most Pisidian cities were fortified at that time due to civil wars and foreign invasions; the area was devastated by an earthquake in 518, a plague around 541–543, another earthquake and Arab raids in the middle of the 7th century. After the Muslim conquest of Syria disrupted the trade routes, the area declined in importance.
In the 8th century the raids increased. In the 11th century the Seljuk Turks captured the area and founded the Seljuk Sultanate in Central Anatolia. Pisidia changed hands between the Byzantine Emp
The term Hexameron refers either to the genre of theological treatise that describes God's work on the six days of creation or to the six days of creation themselves. Most these theological works take the form of commentaries on Genesis I; as a genre, hexameral literature was popular in medieval periods. The word derives its name from the Greek roots hexa-, meaning "six", hemer-, meaning "day". Using the Genesis account as a template, the days of creation are claimed as follows: Light The firmament of Heaven Separation of water and land, created plant life; the seventh day is reserved for rest, so is not counted. Based on this framework and Jewish authors have written treatises that cover a wide variety of topics, including cosmology, theology, theological anthropology, God's nature. Saint Basil wrote an early and influential series of homilies around 370 AD which figure as the earliest extant Hexameron. Basil performed the work as a series of sermons, collected them into a written work, influential among early church leaders.
Among the Latin Fathers and Augustine wrote some of the earliest extant hexameral literature. Ambrose's Hexameron is influenced by Basil's work of the same name. In contrast, Augustine of Hippo wrote several works that serve as commentaries on the Genesis narrative, including the final section of The Confessions and The Literal Meaning of Genesis. One of the more influential elements of Augustine's writings is his argument that God created the world all at once. At the same time, this instantaneous creation included a progression of events. Thus, creation happened in one single event. Following these figures, medieval writers such as Thomas Aquinas and Robert Grosseteste wrote hexameral literature. Hexameral literature is the medieval Christian literature based on the creation narratives found in the first two chapters of the Book of Genesis, it was commentary or elaboration, sometimes taking on encyclopedic scope, regarding the cosmological and theological implications of the world or universe created in six days.
It was didactic in nature. The approach continued in an important literary role until the seventeenth century; the Oxford English Dictionary recognizes a difference between ‘hexaemeric’, pertaining to a ‘hexaemeron’ or six-day creation. This distinction is slurred. Not every ‘Hexameron’ or ‘Hexaemeron’ is part of the genre, since Genesis commentaries can have various themes. Hexameral historical theories, of six or seven eras, date back at least to the City of God of Augustine of Hippo; this literary genre was founded by the Hexaemeron of Basil of Caesarea. Examples include: Ambrose, Hexaemeron, in Latin and the most influential Augustine of Hippo, De Genesi ad litteram, 401-415, influenced by Plato and Greek biology The Venerable Bede, In Genesim. Anastasius Sinaita, Hexaemeron Henry of Langenstein, Lecturae super Genesim John the Exarch, Hexameron, 9th century, BulgariaIt extended into early modern times with the Sepmaines of Du Bartas, Paradise Lost by John Milton. According to Alban Forcione the late sixteenth and early seventeenth century saw ‘hexameral theatre’, in particular the visionary holism represented by the De la creación del mundo of Alonso de Acevedo.
There is a cusp between Du Bartas influential in his time, Milton: Milton's different approach marks the effective literary end of the genre. Allegorical interpretations of Genesis Commentary on the Hexameron Framework interpretation Genesis creation narrative Numerology for the implications of the number 6 in other mysticism Six Ages of the World Frank Egleston Robbins, The Hexaemeral Literature Mary Irma Corcoran, Milton's Paradise with Reference to the Hexameral Background Freibergs, Gunar. "The Medieval Latin Hexameron from Bede to Grosseteste," Ph. D. dissertation, University of Southern California, 1981. E. Grant. Science and Religion, 400 BC-AD 1550: From Aristotle to Copernicus. Baltimore: Johns Hopkins University Press, 2004. C. Kuehn and J. Baggarly, eds. and trans. Anastasius of Sinai: Hexaemeron. Rome: Pontificio Istituto Orientale, 2007. F. E. Robbins; the Hexaemeral Literature: A Study of the Greek and Latin Commentaries on Genesis. Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1912. Rudolph, Conrad, "In the Beginning: Theories and Images of Creation in Northern Europe in the Twelfth Century," Art History 22 3-55 Williams, Arnold.
The Common Expositor: An Account of the Commentaries on Genesis, 1527-1633, The University of North Carolina Press, 1948. Basil of Caesarea, London, 2013. Limovia.net ISBN 9781783362110 Hexameron Hexaimeron.ro - How to read Genesis - Hieromonk Serafim Rose Many writings of Basil, including his treatise on Hexameron The Hexaemeron by Anastasius Sinaita The Hexaemeron public domain audiobook at LibriVox
Hagia Sophia is the former Greek Orthodox Christian patriarchal cathedral an Ottoman imperial mosque and now a museum in Istanbul, Turkey. Built in 537 AD at the beginning of the Middle Ages, it was famous in particular for its massive dome, it was an engineering marvel of its time. It is considered the epitome of Byzantine architecture and is said to have "changed the history of architecture"; the Hagia Sophia construction consists of masonry. The structure is composed of mortar joints that are 1.5 times the width of the bricks. The mortar joints are composed of a combination of sand and minute ceramic pieces displaced evenly throughout the mortar joints; this combination of sand and ceramic pieces could be considered to be the equivalent of modern concrete at the time. From the date of its construction's completion in 537 until 1453, it served as an Eastern Orthodox cathedral and the seat of the Ecumenical Patriarch of Constantinople, except between 1204 and 1261, when it was converted by the Fourth Crusaders to a Roman Catholic cathedral under the Latin Empire.
The building was converted into an Ottoman mosque from 29 May 1453 until 1931. It was secularized and opened as a museum on 1 February 1935, it remained the world's largest cathedral for nearly a thousand years, until Seville Cathedral was completed in 1520. The current building was constructed as a church between 532 and 537 on the orders of the Byzantine Emperor Justinian I and was the third Church of the Holy Wisdom to occupy the site, the prior one having been destroyed by rioters in the Nika Revolt, it was designed by the Greek geometers Isidore of Anthemius of Tralles. The church was dedicated to the Wisdom of God, the Logos, the second person of the Trinity, its patronal feast taking place on 25 December, the commemoration of the birth of the incarnation of the Logos in Christ. Although sometimes referred to as Sancta Sophia, sophia being the phonetic spelling in Latin of the Greek word for wisdom, its full name in Greek is Ναός της Αγίας του Θεού Σοφίας, Naos tēs Hagias tou Theou Sophias, "Shrine of the Holy Wisdom of God".
The church contained a large collection of relics and featured, among other things, a 15-metre silver iconostasis. The focal point of the Eastern Orthodox Church for nearly one thousand years, the building witnessed the excommunication of Patriarch Michael I Cerularius communicated by Humbert of Silva Candida, the papal envoy of Pope Leo IX in 1054, an act, considered the start of the East–West Schism. In 1453, Constantinople was conquered by the Ottoman Empire under Mehmed the Conqueror, who ordered this main church of Orthodox Christianity converted into a mosque. Although some parts of the city of Constantinople were falling into disrepair, the cathedral was maintained with an amount of money set aside for this purpose; the Christian cathedral made a strong impression on the new Ottoman rulers and they decided to convert it into a mosque. The bells, altar and other relics were destroyed and the mosaics depicting Jesus, his Mother Mary, Christian saints, angels were destroyed or plastered over.
Islamic features – such as the mihrab and four minarets – were added. It remained a mosque until 1931, it was re-opened in 1935 as a museum by the Republic of Turkey. Hagia Sophia was, as of 2014, the second-most visited museum in Turkey, attracting 3.3 million visitors annually. According to data released by the Turkish Culture and Tourism Ministry, Hagia Sophia was Turkey's most visited tourist attraction in 2015. From its initial conversion until the construction of the nearby Sultan Ahmed Mosque in 1616, it was the principal mosque of Istanbul; the Byzantine architecture of the Hagia Sophia served as inspiration for many other Ottoman mosques, such as the aforementioned mosque, the Şehzade Mosque, the Süleymaniye Mosque, the Rüstem Pasha Mosque and the Kılıç Ali Pasha Complex. On 24 March 2019, the President of Turkey Recep Tayyip Erdoğan said that the Hagia Sophia is to be reverted to a mosque; the first church on the site was known as the Μεγάλη Ἐκκλησία, or in Latin Magna Ecclesia, because of its larger dimensions in comparison to the contemporary churches in the City.
Inaugurated on 15 February 360 by the Arian bishop Eudoxius of Antioch, it was built next to the area where the imperial palace was being developed. The nearby Hagia Eirene church was completed earlier and served as cathedral until the Great Church was completed. Both churches acted together as the principal churches of the Byzantine Empire. Writing in 440, Socrates of Constantinople claimed that the church was built by Constantius II, working on it in 346. A tradition, not older than the 7th or 8th century, reports that the edifice was built by Constantine the Great. Zonaras reconciles the two opinions, writing that Constantius had repaired the edifice consecrated by Eusebius of Nicomedia, after it had collapsed. Since Eusebius was bishop of Constantinople from 339 to 341, Constantine died in 337, it seems possible that the first church was erected by the latter; the edifice was built as a traditional Latin colonnaded basilica with a wooden roof. It was preceded by an atrium, it was claimed to be one of the world's most outstanding monuments at the time.
The Patriarch of Constantinople John
Encyclopædia Britannica, Eleventh Edition
The Encyclopædia Britannica, Eleventh Edition is a 29-volume reference work, an edition of the Encyclopædia Britannica. It was developed during the encyclopaedia's transition from a British to an American publication; some of its articles were written by the best-known scholars of the time. This edition of the encyclopedia, containing 40,000 entries, is now in the public domain, many of its articles have been used as a basis for articles in Wikipedia. However, the outdated nature of some of its content makes its use as a source for modern scholarship problematic; some articles have special value and interest to modern scholars as cultural artifacts of the 19th and early 20th centuries. The 1911 eleventh edition was assembled with the management of American publisher Horace Everett Hooper. Hugh Chisholm, who had edited the previous edition, was appointed editor in chief, with Walter Alison Phillips as his principal assistant editor. Hooper bought the rights to the 25-volume 9th edition and persuaded the British newspaper The Times to issue its reprint, with eleven additional volumes as the tenth edition, published in 1902.
Hooper's association with The Times ceased in 1909, he negotiated with the Cambridge University Press to publish the 29-volume eleventh edition. Though it is perceived as a quintessentially British work, the eleventh edition had substantial American influences, not only in the increased amount of American and Canadian content, but in the efforts made to make it more popular. American marketing methods assisted sales; some 14% of the contributors were from North America, a New York office was established to coordinate their work. The initials of the encyclopedia's contributors appear at the end of selected articles or at the end of a section in the case of longer articles, such as that on China, a key is given in each volume to these initials; some articles were written by the best-known scholars of the time, such as Edmund Gosse, J. B. Bury, Algernon Charles Swinburne, John Muir, Peter Kropotkin, T. H. Huxley, James Hopwood Jeans and William Michael Rossetti. Among the lesser-known contributors were some who would become distinguished, such as Ernest Rutherford and Bertrand Russell.
Many articles were carried over from some with minimal updating. Some of the book-length articles were divided into smaller parts for easier reference, yet others much abridged; the best-known authors contributed only a single article or part of an article. Most of the work was done by British Museum scholars and other scholars; the 1911 edition was the first edition of the encyclopædia to include more than just a handful of female contributors, with 34 women contributing articles to the edition. The eleventh edition introduced a number of changes of the format of the Britannica, it was the first to be published complete, instead of the previous method of volumes being released as they were ready. The print type was subject to continual updating until publication, it was the first edition of Britannica to be issued with a comprehensive index volume in, added a categorical index, where like topics were listed. It was the first not to include long treatise-length articles. Though the overall length of the work was about the same as that of its predecessor, the number of articles had increased from 17,000 to 40,000.
It was the first edition of Britannica to include biographies of living people. Sixteen maps of the famous 9th edition of Stielers Handatlas were translated to English, converted to Imperial units, printed in Gotha, Germany by Justus Perthes and became part this edition. Editions only included Perthes' great maps as low quality reproductions. According to Coleman and Simmons, the content of the encyclopedia was distributed as follows: Hooper sold the rights to Sears Roebuck of Chicago in 1920, completing the Britannica's transition to becoming a American publication. In 1922, an additional three volumes, were published, covering the events of the intervening years, including World War I. These, together with a reprint of the eleventh edition, formed the twelfth edition of the work. A similar thirteenth edition, consisting of three volumes plus a reprint of the twelfth edition, was published in 1926, so the twelfth and thirteenth editions were related to the eleventh edition and shared much of the same content.
However, it became apparent that a more thorough update of the work was required. The fourteenth edition, published in 1929, was revised, with much text eliminated or abridged to make room for new topics; the eleventh edition was the basis of every version of the Encyclopædia Britannica until the new fifteenth edition was published in 1974, using modern information presentation. The eleventh edition's articles are still of value and interest to modern readers and scholars as a cultural artifact: the British Empire was at its maximum, imperialism was unchallenged, much of the world was still ruled by monarchs, the tragedy of the modern world wars was still in the future, they are an invaluable resource for topics omitted from modern encyclopedias for biography and the history of science and technology. As a literary text, the encyclopedia has value as an example of early 20th-century prose. For example, it employs literary devices, such as pathetic fallacy, which are not as common in modern reference texts.
In 1917, using the pseudonym of S. S. Van Dine, the US art critic and author Willard Huntington Wright published Misinforming a Nation, a 200+
An Akathist Hymn is a type of hymn recited by Eastern Orthodox or Eastern Catholic Christians, dedicated to a saint, holy event, or one of the persons of the Holy Trinity. The name derives from the fact that during the chanting of the hymn, or sometimes the whole service, the congregation is expected to remain standing in reverence, without sitting down, except for the aged or infirm. During Eastern Catholic and Orthodox Christian religious services in general, standing and the making of prostrations are set by an intricate set of rules, as well as individual discretion. Only during readings of the Gospel and the singing of Akathists is standing considered mandatory for all; the akathist par excellence is. This kontakion was traditionally attributed to Romanos the Melodist, though recent scholarship tends to reject this authorship, it is used as part of the service of the Salutations to the Theotokos. It is known by its Greek or Arabic names and Madayeh, respectively; this Akathist is known by the first three words of its prooimion, Te upermacho stratego.
The writing of akathists continues today as part of the general composition of an akolouthia in the Slavic tradition, although not all are known nor translated beyond the original language. Reader Isaac E. Lambertsen has done a large amount of translation work, including many different akathists. Most of the newer akathists are pastiche, that is, a generic form imitating the original 6th-century akathist to the Theotokos into which a particular saint's name is inserted. In the Greek and Russian Old Rite traditions, the only akathist permitted in formal liturgical use is the original akathist; the origin of the feast is assigned by the Synaxarion to the year 626, when Constantinople, in the reign of Heraclius, was attacked by the Persians and Avars but saved through the intervention of the Most Holy Theotokos. A sudden hurricane dispersed the fleet of the enemy, casting the vessels on the shore near the Great church of the Theotokos at Blachernae, a quarter of Constantinople inside the Golden Horn.
The people says the account, thanking her for the unexpected deliverance. "From that time, the Church, in memory of so great and so divine a miracle, desired this day to be a feast in honour of the Mother of God... and called it Acathistus". This origin is disputed by Sophocles on the ground that the hymn could not have been composed in one day, while on the other hand its twenty-four oikoi contain no allusion to such an event and therefore could scarcely have been composed to commemorate it; the kontakion, which might seem to be allusive, was composed for the celebration on the night of the victory. However the feast may have originated, the Synaxarion commemorates two other victories, under Leo III the Isaurian, Constantine Pogonatus ascribed to the intervention of the Theotokos. No certain ascription of its authorship can be made, it has been attributed to Patriarch Sergius I of Constantinople, whose pious activities the Synaxarion commemorates in great detail. Quercius assigns it to George Pisida, deacon and sacristan of Hagia Sophia whose poems find an echo both in style and in theme in the Akathist.
His position as sacristan would suggest such a tribute to the Theotokos, as the hymn only gives more elaborately the sentiments condensed into two epigrams of Pisida found in her church at Blachernae. Quercius argues that words and sentences of the hymn are to be found in the poetry of Pisida. Leclercq finds nothing demonstrative in such a comparison and offers a suggestion which may help to a solution of the problem; when an akathist is chanted by itself, the Usual beginning, a series of prayers which include the Trisagion is said as a prelude to the akathist hymn. The akathist may be included as a part of another service, such as Matins or a Molieben; the hymn itself is divided into thirteen parts, each of, composed of a kontakion and an oikos. The kontakion ends with the exclamation: Alleluia, repeated by a choir in full settings or chanted by the reader in simple settings. Within the latter part of the oikos comes an anaphoric entreaty, such as Come or Rejoice. For example, the Akathist to the Theotokos: Kontakion One Queen of the Heavenly Host, Defender of our souls, we thy servants offer to thee songs of victory and thanksgiving, for thou, O Mother of God, hast delivered us from dangers.
But as thou hast invincible power, free us from conflicts of all kinds that we may cry to thee:Rejoice, unwedded Bride! Oikos One An Archangel was sent from Heaven to say to the Mother of God: Rejoice! And seeing Thee, O Lord, taking bodily form, he was amazed and with his bodiless voice he stood crying to her such things as these:Rejoice, thou through whom joy will flash forth! Rejoice, thou through whom the curse will cease! Rejoice, revival of fallen Adam! Rejoice, redemption of the tears of Eve! Rejoice, height hard to climb for human
Khosrow II, entitled "Aparvēz" Khusraw Parvēz, was the last great king of the Sasanian Empire, reigning from 590 to 628. He was the son of Hormizd IV and the grandson of Khosrow I. Khosrow II was the last king of Persia to have a lengthy reign before the Muslim conquest of Iran, which began five years after his death by execution, he lost his throne recovered it with Roman help, and, a decade went on to emulate the feats of the Achaemenids, conquering the rich Roman provinces of the Middle East. During the climactic Byzantine–Sasanian War of 602–628, Khosrow expanded deep into western Asia Minor besieging the Byzantine capital of Constantinople in 626 alongside Avar and Slavic allies. Following the failure of the siege, Heraclius started a counterattack, undoing all territorial gains by Khosrow in the Levant, most of Anatolia, the western Caucasus, Egypt marching into the Sassanian capital of Ctesiphon; the Byzantines regained the True Cross, which Khosrow had captured following his conquest of the Levant during the same 602–628 war.
In works of Persian literature such as the Shahnameh and Khosrow and Shirin, a famous tragic romance by Nizami Ganjavi, a elaborated fictional version of Khosrow's life made him one of the greatest heroes of the culture, as much as a lover as a king. Khosrow and Shirin tells the story of his love for the Aramean or Roman princess Shirin, who becomes his queen after a lengthy courtship strewn with mishaps and difficulties. Khosrow II was born around 570. Khosrow is first mentioned in the 580s, when was at the capital of Caucasian Albania. During his stay there, he served as the governor of the kingdom, managed to put an end to the Kingdom of Iberia and make it into a Sasanian province. Furthermore, Khosrow II served as the governor of Arbela around this period. Historian Muhammad ibn Jarir al-Tabari describes him as: Excelling most of the other Persian kings in bravery and forethought, none matching him in military might and triumph, hoarding of treasures and good fortunes, hence the epithet Parviz, meaning victorious.
According to a legend, Khosrow had a shabestan in which over 3,000 concubines resided. Khosrow was raised to the throne by his two uncles Vistahm and Vinduyih, who were the leaders of a palace coup that deposed and killed Hormizd IV. However, at the same time, the Mihranid spahbed Bahram Chobin, was marching towards the Sasanian capital of Ctesiphon, battle shortly ensued near the city on 28 February, which ended in Khosrow's defeat and his flight to Byzantine territory along with his two uncles. In order to get the attention of the Byzantine emperor Maurice, Khosrow II went to Syria, sent a message to the Sasanian occupied city of Martyropolis to stop their resistance against the Byzantines, but with no avail, he sent a message to Maurice, requested his help to regain the Sasanian throne, which the Byzantine emperor agreed with. Furthermore, Persia was required to cease intervening in the affairs of Iberia and Armenia ceding control of Lazistan to the Byzantines. In 591, Khosrow moved to Constantia, prepared to invade the Sasanian controlled part of Mesopotamia, while Vistahm and Vinduyih were raising an army in Adurbadagan under the observation of the Byzantine commander John Mystacon, raising an army in Armenia.
After some time, Khosrow along with the Byzantine commander of the south, invaded Mesopotamia. During this invasion and Martyropolis defected to them, Bahram's commander Zatsparham was defeated and killed. During the same period, feeling disrespected by Comentiolus, convinced Maurice to replace the latter with Narses as the commander of the south. Khosrow and Narses penetrated deeper into Bahram's territory, seizing Dara and Mardin on February, where Khosrow was re-proclaimed king. Shortly after this, Khosrow sent one of his Iranian supporters, Mahbod, to capture Ctesiphon, which he managed to accomplish. Meanwhile, Khosrow's two uncles and John Mystacon, conquered northern Adurbadagan, went further south in the region, where they defeated Bahram at Blarathon, who fled the Turks of Ferghana. However, Khosrow managed to deal with him by either having him assassinated or convince the Turks to execute him. Peace with the Byzantines was officially concluded. For his aid, Maurice received much of Persian Armenia and western Georgia, received the abolition of the subsidies, paid to the Sasanians.
After his victory, Khosrow rewarded his uncles with high positions: Vinduyih became treasurer and first minister and Vistahm received the post of spahbed of the East, encompassing Tabaristan and Khorasan, the traditional homeland of the Ispahbudhan. Soon, Khosrow changed his intentions: trying to disassociate himself from his father's murder, he decided to execute his uncles; the Sasanian monarchs' traditional mistrust of over-powerful magnates and Khosrow's personal resentment of Vinduyih's patronising manner contributed to this decision. Vinduyih was soon put to death, according to a Syriac source captured while trying to flee to his brother in the East. At the news of his b
Virtual International Authority File
The Virtual International Authority File is an international authority file. It is a joint project of several national libraries and operated by the Online Computer Library Center. Discussion about having a common international authority started in the late 1990s. After a series of failed attempts to come up with a unique common authority file, the new idea was to link existing national authorities; this would present all the benefits of a common file without requiring a large investment of time and expense in the process. The project was initiated by the US Library of Congress, the German National Library and the OCLC on August 6, 2003; the Bibliothèque nationale de France joined the project on October 5, 2007. The project transitioned to being a service of the OCLC on April 4, 2012; the aim is to link the national authority files to a single virtual authority file. In this file, identical records from the different data sets are linked together. A VIAF record receives a standard data number, contains the primary "see" and "see also" records from the original records, refers to the original authority records.
The data are available for research and data exchange and sharing. Reciprocal updating uses the Open Archives Initiative Protocol for Metadata Harvesting protocol; the file numbers are being added to Wikipedia biographical articles and are incorporated into Wikidata. VIAF's clustering algorithm is run every month; as more data are added from participating libraries, clusters of authority records may coalesce or split, leading to some fluctuation in the VIAF identifier of certain authority records. Authority control Faceted Application of Subject Terminology Integrated Authority File International Standard Authority Data Number International Standard Name Identifier Wikipedia's authority control template for articles Official website VIAF at OCLC