German Peasants' War
The German Peasants' War, Great Peasants' War or Great Peasants' Revolt was a widespread popular revolt in some German-speaking areas in Central Europe from 1524 to 1525. It failed because of the intense opposition by the aristocracy, who slaughtered up to 100,000 of the 300,000 poorly armed peasants and farmers; the survivors were achieved few, if any, of their goals. The war consisted, like the preceding Bundschuh movement and the Hussite Wars, of a series of both economic and religious revolts in which peasants and farmers supported by Anabaptist clergy, took the lead; the German Peasants' War was Europe's largest and most widespread popular uprising prior to the French Revolution of 1789. The fighting was at its height in the middle of 1525; the war began with separate insurrections, beginning in the southwestern part of what is now Germany and Alsace, spread in subsequent insurrections to the central and eastern areas of Germany and present-day Austria. After the uprising in Germany was suppressed, it flared in several Swiss Cantons.
In mounting their insurrection, peasants faced insurmountable obstacles. The democratic nature of their movement left them without a command structure and they lacked artillery and cavalry. Most of them had little, military experience. In combat they turned and fled, were massacred by their pursuers; the opposition had experienced military leaders, well-equipped and disciplined armies, ample funding. The revolt incorporated some principles and rhetoric from the emerging Protestant Reformation, through which the peasants sought influence and freedom. Radical Reformers and Anabaptists, most famously Thomas Müntzer and supported the revolt. In contrast, Martin Luther and other Magisterial Reformers condemned it and sided with the nobles. In Against the Murderous, Thieving Hordes of Peasants, Luther condemned the violence as the devil's work and called for the nobles to put down the rebels like mad dogs. Historians have interpreted the economic aspects of the German Peasants' War differently, social and cultural historians continue to disagree on its causes and nature.
In the sixteenth century, many parts of Europe had common political links within the Holy Roman Empire, a decentralized entity in which the Holy Roman Emperor himself had little authority outside of his own dynastic lands, which covered only a small fraction of the whole. At the time of the Peasants' War, Charles V, King of Spain, held the position of Holy Roman Emperor. Aristocratic dynasties ruled hundreds of independent territories within the framework of the empire, several dozen others operated as semi-independent city-states; the princes of these dynasties were taxed by the Roman Catholic church. The princes stood to gain economically if they broke away from the Roman church and established a German church under their own control, which would not be able to tax them as the Roman church did. Most German princes broke with Rome using the nationalistic slogan of "German money for a German church". Princes attempted to force their freer peasants into serfdom by increasing taxes and introducing Roman civil law.
Roman civil law advantaged princes who sought to consolidate their power because it brought all land into their personal ownership and eliminated the feudal concept of the land as a trust between lord and peasant that conferred rights as well as obligations on the latter. By maintaining the remnants of the ancient law which legitimized their own rule, they not only elevated their wealth and position in the empire through the confiscation of all property and revenues, but increased their power over their peasant subjects. During the Knights' Revolt the "knights", the lesser landholders of the Rhineland in western Germany, rose up in rebellion in 1522–1523, their rhetoric was religious, several leaders expressed Luther's ideas on the split with Rome and the new German church. However, the Knights' Revolt was not fundamentally religious, it sought to preserve the feudal order. The knights revolted against the new money order, squeezing them out of existence. Martin Luther, the dominant leader of the Reformation in Germany, took a middle course in the Peasants' War.
He criticized both the injustices imposed on the peasants, the rashness of the peasants in fighting back. He tended to support the centralization and urbanization of the economy; this position shored up his position with the burghers. Luther argued, he could not support the Peasant War because it broke the peace, an evil he thought greater than the evils the peasants were rebelling against. Therefore, he encouraged the nobility to violently eliminate the rebelling peasants. Luther criticized the ruling classes for their merciless suppression of the insurrection. Luther has been criticized for his position. Thomas Müntzer was the most prominent radical reforming preacher who supported the demands of the peasantry, including political and legal rights. Müntzer’s theology had been developed against a background of social upheaval and widespread religious doubt, his call for a new world order fused with the political and social demands of the peasantry. In the final weeks of 1524 and the beginning of 1525, Müntzer travelled into south-west Germany, where the peasant armies were gathering.
He spent several weeks in the Klettgau area, there is some e
Bad Herrenalb is a municipality in the district of Calw, in Baden-Württemberg, Germany. It is situated in the northern Black Forest, 15 km east of Baden-Baden, 22 km southwest of Pforzheim; the town is connected to the city of Karlsruhe by the Albtalbahn, an electric railway that forms part of the Karlsruhe Stadtbahn. Bad Herrenalb is the terminus of one of the branches of the Albtalbahn, which operates as line S1; the town grew up around Alba Dominorum, a Cistercian monastery founded in 1148. The monastery was dissolved during the Reformation; as early as 1841 Dr. J. Weiss established a cold water sanitarium, transformed into a water therapy institute with a sanitarium for nervous disorders; the sanitarium was further developed under the leadership of Councilor Dr. Mermagen. Since 1954 Herrenalb is known as a “health resort.” In 1971 a 600 meter deep well was drilled into a mineral rich water source. With the exploitation of this source, Herrenalb appended the word “Bad” to its name on July 26, 1971.
On January 1 and February 1, 1972 the Rotensol and Neusatz were incorporated into Bad Herrenalb. And on January 1, 1975 Bernbach was incorporated into the municipality. 1962–1996: Robert Traub 1996–2004: Manfred Renz, since 2004: Norbert Mai Bad Herrenalb: pictures
Martin Luther, was a German professor of theology, priest, a seminal figure in the Protestant Reformation. Luther was ordained to the priesthood in 1507, he came to reject several practices of the Roman Catholic Church. Luther proposed an academic discussion of the practice and efficacy of indulgences in his Ninety-five Theses of 1517, his refusal to renounce all of his writings at the demand of Pope Leo X in 1520 and the Holy Roman Emperor Charles V at the Diet of Worms in 1521 resulted in his excommunication by the pope and condemnation as an outlaw by the Holy Roman Emperor. Luther taught that salvation and eternal life are not earned by good deeds but are received only as the free gift of God's grace through the believer's faith in Jesus Christ as redeemer from sin, his theology challenged the authority and office of the Pope by teaching that the Bible is the only source of divinely revealed knowledge, opposed sacerdotalism by considering all baptized Christians to be a holy priesthood. Those who identify with these, all of Luther's wider teachings, are called Lutherans, though Luther insisted on Christian or Evangelical as the only acceptable names for individuals who professed Christ.
His translation of the Bible into the German vernacular made it more accessible to the laity, an event that had a tremendous impact on both the church and German culture. It fostered the development of a standard version of the German language, added several principles to the art of translation, influenced the writing of an English translation, the Tyndale Bible, his hymns influenced the development of singing in Protestant churches. His marriage to Katharina von Bora, a former nun, set a model for the practice of clerical marriage, allowing Protestant clergy to marry. In two of his works, Luther expressed antagonistic views towards Jews, his rhetoric was not directed at Jews alone, but towards Roman Catholics and nontrinitarian Christians. Luther died with his decree of excommunication by Pope Leo X still effective. Martin Luther was born to Hans Luder and his wife Margarethe on 10 November 1483 in Eisleben, County of Mansfeld in the Holy Roman Empire. Luther was baptized the next morning on the feast day of St. Martin of Tours.
His family moved to Mansfeld in 1484, where his father was a leaseholder of copper mines and smelters and served as one of four citizen representatives on the local council. The religious scholar Martin Marty describes Luther's mother as a hard-working woman of "trading-class stock and middling means" and notes that Luther's enemies wrongly described her as a whore and bath attendant, he had several brothers and sisters, is known to have been close to one of them, Jacob. Hans Luther was ambitious for himself and his family, he was determined to see Martin, his eldest son, become a lawyer, he sent Martin to Latin schools in Mansfeld Magdeburg in 1497, where he attended a school operated by a lay group called the Brethren of the Common Life, Eisenach in 1498. The three schools focused on the so-called "trivium": grammar and logic. Luther compared his education there to purgatory and hell. In 1501, at the age of 17, he entered the University of Erfurt, which he described as a beerhouse and whorehouse.
He was made to wake at four every morning for what has been described as "a day of rote learning and wearying spiritual exercises." He received his master's degree in 1505. In accordance with his father's wishes, he enrolled in law but dropped out immediately, believing that law represented uncertainty. Luther sought assurances about life and was drawn to theology and philosophy, expressing particular interest in Aristotle, William of Ockham, Gabriel Biel, he was influenced by two tutors, Bartholomaeus Arnoldi von Usingen and Jodocus Trutfetter, who taught him to be suspicious of the greatest thinkers and to test everything himself by experience. Philosophy proved to be unsatisfying, offering assurance about the use of reason but none about loving God, which to Luther was more important. Reason could not lead men to God, he felt, he thereafter developed a love-hate relationship with Aristotle over the latter's emphasis on reason. For Luther, reason could be used to question institutions, but not God.
Human beings could learn about God only through divine revelation, he believed, Scripture therefore became important to him. On 2 July 1505, while returning to university on horseback after a trip home, a lightning bolt struck near Luther during a thunderstorm. Telling his father he was terrified of death and divine judgment, he cried out, "Help! Saint Anna, I will become a monk!" He came to view his cry for help as a vow. He left university, sold his books, entered St. Augustine's Monastery in Erfurt on 17 July 1505. One friend blamed the decision on Luther's sadness over the deaths of two friends. Luther himself seemed saddened by the move; those who attended a farewell supper walked him to the door of the Black Cloister. "This day you see me, not again," he said. His father was furious over. Luther dedicated himself to the Augustinian order, devoting himself to fasting, long hours in prayer and frequent confession. Luther described this period of his life as one of deep spiritual despair, he said, "I lost touch with Christ the Savior and Comforter, made of him the jailer and hangman of my poor soul."
Johann von Staupitz, his superior, pointed
Allgemeine Deutsche Biographie
Allgemeine Deutsche Biographie is one of the most important and most comprehensive biographical reference works in the German language. It was published by the Historical Commission of the Bavarian Academy of Sciences between 1875 and 1912 in 56 volumes, printed in Leipzig by Duncker & Humblot; the ADB contains biographies of about 26,500 people who died before 1900 and lived in the German language Sprachraum of their time, including people from the Netherlands before 1648. Its successor, the Neue Deutsche Biographie, was started in 1953 and is planned to be ready in 2019. Reinert, Schrott, Ebneth, Rehbein, Team Deutsche Biographie et al. From Biographies to Data Curation - The Making of www.deutsche-biographie.de, in: BD2015. Biographical Data in a Digital World. Proceedings of the First Conference on Biographical Data in a Digital World 2015. Amsterdam, The Netherlands, April 9, 2015, ed. by. Serge ter Braake, Antske Fokkens, Ronald Sluijter, Thierry Declerck, Eveline Wandl-Vogt, CEUR Workshop Proceedings Vol-1399.
P. 13-19. Ebneth, Neue Deutsche Biographie, Historische Kommission bei der Bayerischen Akademie der Wissenschaften Allgemeine Deutsche Biographie - full-text articles at German Wikisource. German Biography - complete full-text articles and further information
Integrated Authority File
The Integrated Authority File or GND is an international authority file for the organisation of personal names, subject headings and corporate bodies from catalogues. It is used for documentation in libraries and also by archives and museums; the GND is managed by the German National Library in cooperation with various regional library networks in German-speaking Europe and other partners. The GND falls under the Creative Commons Zero licence; the GND specification provides a hierarchy of high-level entities and sub-classes, useful in library classification, an approach to unambiguous identification of single elements. It comprises an ontology intended for knowledge representation in the semantic web, available in the RDF format; the Integrated Authority File became operational in April 2012 and integrates the content of the following authority files, which have since been discontinued: Name Authority File Corporate Bodies Authority File Subject Headings Authority File Uniform Title File of the Deutsches Musikarchiv At the time of its introduction on 5 April 2012, the GND held 9,493,860 files, including 2,650,000 personalised names.
There are seven main types of GND entities: LIBRIS Virtual International Authority File Information pages about the GND from the German National Library Search via OGND Bereitstellung des ersten GND-Grundbestandes DNB, 19 April 2012 From Authority Control to Linked Authority Data Presentation given by Reinhold Heuvelmann to the ALA MARC Formats Interest Group, June 2012
Philippsburg is a town in Germany, in the district of Karlsruhe in Baden-Württemberg. Before 1632, Philippsburg was known as "Udenheim"; the city was a possession of the Bishop of Speyer from 1371–1718. The town is named after Philipp Christoph von Sötern, bishop from 1610–1652, it was ruled by France between 1644 and 1676 and again between 1688 and 1697. The city became part of the Grand Duchy of Baden in 1803. Possession of the town was disputed between Germany and France. There was a fortress located at the town, whose location was mentioned by Carl von Clausewitz. In Book VI of On War, he suggested that "If a fortress cannot be located directly on a river, it is better not to place it in the immediate vicinity, but some fifty to sixty miles away, he mentions in a footnote "Philippsburg was a perfect example of how not to site a fortress. Its location was that of an idiot standing with his nose against the wall.". The fortress was besieged in 1688 and 1734; the town is the site of the Philippsburg Nuclear Power Plant and a Goodyear Tire and Rubber Company plant.
"Philippsburg". Encyclopædia Britannica. 21. 1911. P. 400. Official website http://www.clausewitz.com/CWZHOME/VomKriege2/BK6ch11.html - Note that this is a link to the free, outdated 1873 translation of On War Translation of German Wikipedia article, much more complete
Roman Catholic Diocese of Trier
The Roman Catholic diocese of Trier, in English traditionally known by its French name of Treves, is a diocese of the Latin Rite of the Roman Catholic church in Germany. When it was the archbishopric and Electorate of Trier, it was one of the most important states of the Holy Roman Empire, both as an ecclesiastical principality and as a diocese of the church. Unlike the other Rhenish dioceses — Mainz and Cologne, Trier was the former Roman provincial capital of Augusta Treverorum. Given its status, Trier has always been the seat of a bishop since Roman times, one of the oldest dioceses in all of Germany; the diocese was elevated to an Archdiocese in the time of Charlemagne and was the metropolitan for the dioceses of Metz and Verdun. After the victory of Napoleon Bonaparte of France, the archdiocese was lowered to a diocese and is now a suffragan of the Archdiocese of Cologne; the diocesan cathedral is the Cathedral of Saint Peter. The bishops of Trier were virtually independent territorial magnates in Merovingian times.
In 772 Charlemagne granted Bishop Wiomad complete immunity from the jurisdiction of the ruling count for all the churches and monasteries, as well as villages and castles that belonged to the Church of St. Peter at Trier. In his will he elevated the diocese to the Archdiocese of Trier, with suffragans on both sides of the Rhine; this arrangement lasted over a thousand years. In Early Modern times, the archdiocese of Trier still encompassed territory along the Moselle River between Trier, near the French border, Koblenz on the Rhine; the Archbishop of Trier, as holder of an imperial office was traditionally an Imperial Elector of the German king. The purely honorary office of Archchancellor of Gaul arose in the 13th century. In this context, taken to mean the Kingdom of Arles, or Burgundy, technically from 1242 and permanently from 1263, nominally until 1803. Arles along with Italy was one of the three component kingdoms of the Empire; the last elector removed to Koblenz in 1786. From 1795, the territories of the Archbishopric on the left bank of the Rhine —, to say all of them — were under French occupation, were annexed in 1801 and a separate bishopric established.
In 1803, what was left of the Archbishopric was secularized and annexed by the Princes of Nassau. Auspicius of Trier c. 130, uncertain Eucharius c. 250 Valerius c. 250 Maternus c. 300 Agricius 327–335 Maximinus II 335–352 Paulinus 353–358 Bonosus of Trier 359–365 Veteranius of Trier 365–384 Britto of Trier Felix II 384–398 Mauritius II of Trier 398–407 Leontius of Trier 407–409 Auctor II 409–427 Severus of Trier 428–455 Cyrillus of Trier 455–457 Iamblichus of Trier 457–458 Evemerus 458–461 Marcus II 461–465 Volusianus of Trier 465–469 Miletius 469–476 Modestus 476–479 Maximianus of Trier 479–499 Fibicius 500–526 Aprunculus 526–527 Nicetius 527–566 Rusticus II 566–573 Magnerich 573–596 Gunderich 596–600 Sibald 600–626 Modoald 626–645 Numerianus 645–665 Hildulf 665–671, d. 707 Basinus 671–697 d. 706? Leudwinus 697–718 Milo 718–758 Wermad 758–791 Richbod 791–804, first archbishop Waso 804–809 Amalhar 809–814 Hetto 814–847 Dietgold 847–868 Bartholf von Wetterau 869–883 Radbod 883–915 Rudgar 915–930 Rotbert 930–956 Henry I 956–964 Dietrich I 965–977 Egbert 977–993 Ludolf 994–1008 Megingod 1008–1015 Poppo von Babenberg 1016–1047 Eberhard 1047–1066 Kuno I von Wetterau 1066–1066 Udo of Nellenburg 1066–1078 Egilbert of Rothenburg, 1079–1101 Bruno 1101–1124 Gottfrid 1124–1127 Meginher 1127–1130 Albero de Montreuil 1131–1152 Hillin of Falmagne 1152–1169 Arnold I of Vaucourt 1169–1183 Folmar of Karden 1183–1189 Rudolf of Wied 1183–1189 John I 1189–1212 Theodoric II 1212–42 Arnold II von Isenburg 1242–59 Heinrich I von Finstingen 1260–86 Bohemond I von Warnesberg 1286–99 Diether von Nassau 1300–07 Heinrich II von Virneburg 1300–06 Baldwin von Luxemburg 1307–54 Bohemond II von Saarbrücken 1354–61 Kuno II von Falkenstein 1362–88 Werner von Falkenstein 1388–1418 Otto von Ziegenhain 1418–30 Rhaban von Helmstadt 1430–38 Jakob von Sierck † Johann Markgraf von Baden † Jakob Markgraf von Baden † Richard von Greiffenclau zu Vollrads † Johann von Metzenhausen † Johann Ludwig von Hagen † Johann von Isenburg † Johann von der Leyen † Jakob von Eltz † Johann von Schönenberg † Lothar von Metternich † Philipp Christoph Reichsritter von Sötern † Karl Kaspar Reichsfreiherr von Leyen-Hohengeroldseck † Johann Hugo von Orsbeck † Karl Joseph Ignaz Herzog von Lothringen † Franz Ludwig Pfalzgraf am Rhein zu Neuburg † Franz Georg Reichsfgraf von Schönborn † Johann Philipp Reichsgraf von Waldendorff † Klemens Wenzeslaus Herzog von Sachsen † Charles Mannay † Josef von Hommer † Wilhelm Arnoldi † Leopold Pelldram † Matthias Eberhard † Michael Felix Korum