Znamensk, Kaliningrad Oblast
Znamensk is a rural locality in Gvardeysky District of Kaliningrad Oblast, located on the right bank of the Pregolya River at its confluence with the Lava River 50 kilometers east of Kaliningrad. Population: 4,036 ; the site of today's Znamensk was an Old Prussian fort, with a settlement named Velowe nearby. The site featured an unusually large oak tree, considered sacred by the local Prussians, it survived at least until 1595. Around 1255 the locality was fortified, but the castle was surrendered to the Teutonic Knights by its mayor, Tirslo; the Teutons continued to use the castle and began to colonize the region with Germans, giving the settlement the name Wehlau. It received its civic charter in 1335 and in 1339 and became a centre for horse stables and horse trade; until the late 19th century the town was allowed to organise a six-day linen fair, a three-day horse fair and two additional horse and cattle fairs every year. In 1349 Grand Master of the Teutonic Order Heinrich Dusemer founded a Franciscan Monastery there to commemorate his victory over the Prussians in the battle of Streba River.
In 1380 the St. Jacob's church was erected. In 1454, during the Thirteen Years' War, the castle and the city joined the Kingdom of Poland. However, in 1460 the Teutonic Order besieged the town and retook it. In 1490 Grand Master Johann von Tiefen restored another Franciscan monastery in the town. However, it was destroyed in 1519 in the course of Protestant Reformation, when the burghers converted to Protestantism and decided that such a small town is not able to bear the burden of sustaining two monasteries. In 1540 the town was destroyed by a large fire and only the St. Jacob's church was left standing. Wehlau was rebuilt, although natural disasters struck it notably in 1542 and 1593; the town recovered and by the end of 16th century Margrave Georg Friedrich considered moving the University of Königsberg to Wehlau, which however never materialised. In the Treaty of Wehlau signed in the town in 1657, Frederick William, Elector of Brandenburg, received sovereignty over the Duchy of Prussia. In 1818, it became the seat of Landkreis Wehlau in East Prussia within the Kingdom of Prussia.
In 1871 Wehlau joined the German Empire. By the end of the 19th century the town had 4000 inhabitants German Lutherans; the town had a station of the Prussian Eastern Railway connecting Königsberg and Berlin to the Saint Petersburg – Warsaw Railway, as well as a Lutheran church, a regional courthouse and a school. Near the end of World War II, in 23 January 1945, the town was overrun by the Soviet Red Army; the old town center was completely destroyed, the German population fled during the evacuation of East Prussia or expelled. It became part of the Kaliningrad Oblast and was renamed Znamensk, losing its civic rights in the process, it was demoted to a rural settlement in 2006. George von Kunheim married Margaretha Luther, grandchild of Martin Luther in 1555. Johann Christoph Strodtmann a German author, writing on theology, classical studies, history of law and history of scholarship Ernst Vanhöffen, zoologist David Hilbert, mathematician Walter Schütz, politician Herbert Pilch, linguist Filip Sulimierski.
"Iława nad Preglem". Geographical Dictionary of the Kingdom of Poland. III. Warsaw: Filip Sulimierski & Władysław Walewski. P. 960. Yasnaya Polyana, Kaliningrad Oblast
Prussia was a prominent German state that originated in 1525 with a duchy centred on the region of Prussia on the southeast coast of the Baltic Sea. It was de facto dissolved by an emergency decree transferring powers of the Prussian government to German Chancellor Franz von Papen in 1932 and de jure by an Allied decree in 1947. For centuries, the House of Hohenzollern ruled Prussia expanding its size by way of an unusually well-organised and effective army. Prussia, with its capital in Königsberg and from 1701 in Berlin, decisively shaped the history of Germany. In 1871, German states united to create the German Empire under Prussian leadership. In November 1918, the monarchies were abolished and the nobility lost its political power during the German Revolution of 1918–19; the Kingdom of Prussia was thus abolished in favour of a republic—the Free State of Prussia, a state of Germany from 1918 until 1933. From 1933, Prussia lost its independence as a result of the Prussian coup, when the Nazi regime was establishing its Gleichschaltung laws in pursuit of a unitary state.
With the end of the Nazi regime, in 1945, the division of Germany into allied-occupation zones and the separation of its territories east of the Oder–Neisse line, which were incorporated into Poland and the Soviet Union, the State of Prussia ceased to exist de facto. Prussia existed de jure until its formal abolition by the Allied Control Council Enactment No. 46 of 25 February 1947. The name Prussia derives from the Old Prussians. In 1308, the Teutonic Knights conquered the region of Pomerelia with Gdańsk, their monastic state was Germanised through immigration from central and western Germany, and, in the south, it was Polonised by settlers from Masovia. The Second Peace of Thorn split Prussia into the western Royal Prussia, a province of Poland, the eastern part, from 1525 called the Duchy of Prussia, a fief of the Crown of Poland up to 1657; the union of Brandenburg and the Duchy of Prussia in 1618 led to the proclamation of the Kingdom of Prussia in 1701. Prussia entered the ranks of the great powers shortly after becoming a kingdom, exercised most influence in the 18th and 19th centuries.
During the 18th century it had a major say in many international affairs under the reign of Frederick the Great. During the 19th century, Chancellor Otto von Bismarck united the German principalities into a "Lesser Germany", which excluded the Austrian Empire. At the Congress of Vienna, which redrew the map of Europe following Napoleon's defeat, Prussia acquired rich new territories, including the coal-rich Ruhr; the country grew in influence economically and politically, became the core of the North German Confederation in 1867, of the German Empire in 1871. The Kingdom of Prussia was now so large and so dominant in the new Germany that Junkers and other Prussian élites identified more and more as Germans and less as Prussians; the Kingdom ended in 1918 along with other German monarchies that collapsed as a result of the German Revolution. In the Weimar Republic, the Free State of Prussia lost nearly all of its legal and political importance following the 1932 coup led by Franz von Papen. Subsequently, it was dismantled into Nazi German Gaue in 1935.
Some Prussian ministries were kept and Hermann Göring remained in his role as Minister President of Prussia until the end of World War II. Former eastern territories of Germany that made up a significant part of Prussia lost the majority of their German population after 1945 as the People's Republic of Poland and the Soviet Union both absorbed these territories and had most of its German inhabitants expelled by 1950. Prussia, deemed a bearer of militarism and reaction by the Allies, was abolished by an Allied declaration in 1947; the international status of the former eastern territories of Germany was disputed until the Treaty on the Final Settlement with Respect to Germany in 1990, while its return to Germany remains a topic among far right politicians, the Federation of Expellees and various political revisionists. The term Prussian has been used outside Germany, to emphasise professionalism, aggressiveness and conservatism of the Junker class of landed aristocrats in the East who dominated first Prussia and the German Empire.
The main coat of arms of Prussia, as well as the flag of Prussia, depicted a black eagle on a white background. The black and white national colours were used by the Teutonic Knights and by the Hohenzollern dynasty; the Teutonic Order wore a white coat embroidered with a black cross with gold insert and black imperial eagle. The combination of the black and white colours with the white and red Hanseatic colours of the free cities Bremen, Hamburg and Lübeck, as well as of Brandenburg, resulted in the black-white-red commercial flag of the North German Confederation, which became the flag of the German Empire in 1871. Suum cuique, the motto of the Order of the Black Eagle created by King Frederick I in 1701, was associated with the whole of Prussia; the Iron Cross, a military decoration created by King Frederick William III in 1813, was commonly associated with the country. The region populated by Baltic Old Prussians who were Christianised, became a favoured location for immigration by Germans, as well as Poles and Lithuanians along the border regions.
Before its abolition, the territory of the Kingdom of Prussia included the provinces of West Prussia.
Gvardeyskoye, Kaliningrad Oblast
Gvardeyskoye is a rural locality in Bagrationovsky District of Kaliningrad Oblast, located 10 kilometers north of Bagrationovsk, the administrative center of the district, 25 kilometers south of Kaliningrad, the administrative center of the oblast. It was known in German as Mühlhausen, it was founded by the Teutonic Knights in the Old Prussian region of Natangia as a location of a mill and a church, first mentioned in 1372. IT was given as a pawn by the Order to Daniel von Kunheim in 1474; the laird Georg von Kunheim, a student at Wittenberg, married Martin Luther's youngest daughter Margarethe Luther in 1555. Two paintings of Luther and his wife Katharina von Bora by Lucas Cranach existed at the church up to 1945, as well as the original summons of Martin Luther by Emperor Charles V to the Diet of Worms and an original letter, written by Luther. After the secularization of the Teutonic Knights in 1525, Mühlhausen became a part of the Duchy of Prussia, the Kingdom of Prussia in 1701. In 1643, Mühlhausen came into the property of the von Kalckstein family until 1826 as advowson of the Church.
Conquered by the Red Army during World War II, Mühlhausen was transferred from Germany to the Soviet Union according to the 1945 Potsdam Conference and had its German population expelled. It was given its present name by the Soviets; the ruined church was rebuilt after 1994. 1820: 353 1846: 454 1871: 670 1895: 662 1930: 576 1939: 939 Caspar Hennenberger, Lutheran pastor Albrecht von Kalckstein, Prussian count Christian Ludwig von Kalckstein Christoph Wilhelm von Kalckstein, educator of Frederick the Great Ludwig Karl von Kalckstein, Prussian count and field marshal Karl Georg Otto Willibald von Kalckstein, politician Johann Friedrich Schultz, German philosopher Horst Schulz, Der Kreis Pr. Eylau, Verden/Aller 1983 The Church in 2002 color picture of the church in 1943
Martin Luther, was a German professor of theology, priest, a seminal figure in the Protestant Reformation. Luther was ordained to the priesthood in 1507, he came to reject several practices of the Roman Catholic Church. Luther proposed an academic discussion of the practice and efficacy of indulgences in his Ninety-five Theses of 1517, his refusal to renounce all of his writings at the demand of Pope Leo X in 1520 and the Holy Roman Emperor Charles V at the Diet of Worms in 1521 resulted in his excommunication by the pope and condemnation as an outlaw by the Holy Roman Emperor. Luther taught that salvation and eternal life are not earned by good deeds but are received only as the free gift of God's grace through the believer's faith in Jesus Christ as redeemer from sin, his theology challenged the authority and office of the Pope by teaching that the Bible is the only source of divinely revealed knowledge, opposed sacerdotalism by considering all baptized Christians to be a holy priesthood. Those who identify with these, all of Luther's wider teachings, are called Lutherans, though Luther insisted on Christian or Evangelical as the only acceptable names for individuals who professed Christ.
His translation of the Bible into the German vernacular made it more accessible to the laity, an event that had a tremendous impact on both the church and German culture. It fostered the development of a standard version of the German language, added several principles to the art of translation, influenced the writing of an English translation, the Tyndale Bible, his hymns influenced the development of singing in Protestant churches. His marriage to Katharina von Bora, a former nun, set a model for the practice of clerical marriage, allowing Protestant clergy to marry. In two of his works, Luther expressed antagonistic views towards Jews, his rhetoric was not directed at Jews alone, but towards Roman Catholics and nontrinitarian Christians. Luther died with his decree of excommunication by Pope Leo X still effective. Martin Luther was born to Hans Luder and his wife Margarethe on 10 November 1483 in Eisleben, County of Mansfeld in the Holy Roman Empire. Luther was baptized the next morning on the feast day of St. Martin of Tours.
His family moved to Mansfeld in 1484, where his father was a leaseholder of copper mines and smelters and served as one of four citizen representatives on the local council. The religious scholar Martin Marty describes Luther's mother as a hard-working woman of "trading-class stock and middling means" and notes that Luther's enemies wrongly described her as a whore and bath attendant, he had several brothers and sisters, is known to have been close to one of them, Jacob. Hans Luther was ambitious for himself and his family, he was determined to see Martin, his eldest son, become a lawyer, he sent Martin to Latin schools in Mansfeld Magdeburg in 1497, where he attended a school operated by a lay group called the Brethren of the Common Life, Eisenach in 1498. The three schools focused on the so-called "trivium": grammar and logic. Luther compared his education there to purgatory and hell. In 1501, at the age of 17, he entered the University of Erfurt, which he described as a beerhouse and whorehouse.
He was made to wake at four every morning for what has been described as "a day of rote learning and wearying spiritual exercises." He received his master's degree in 1505. In accordance with his father's wishes, he enrolled in law but dropped out immediately, believing that law represented uncertainty. Luther sought assurances about life and was drawn to theology and philosophy, expressing particular interest in Aristotle, William of Ockham, Gabriel Biel, he was influenced by two tutors, Bartholomaeus Arnoldi von Usingen and Jodocus Trutfetter, who taught him to be suspicious of the greatest thinkers and to test everything himself by experience. Philosophy proved to be unsatisfying, offering assurance about the use of reason but none about loving God, which to Luther was more important. Reason could not lead men to God, he felt, he thereafter developed a love-hate relationship with Aristotle over the latter's emphasis on reason. For Luther, reason could be used to question institutions, but not God.
Human beings could learn about God only through divine revelation, he believed, Scripture therefore became important to him. On 2 July 1505, while returning to university on horseback after a trip home, a lightning bolt struck near Luther during a thunderstorm. Telling his father he was terrified of death and divine judgment, he cried out, "Help! Saint Anna, I will become a monk!" He came to view his cry for help as a vow. He left university, sold his books, entered St. Augustine's Monastery in Erfurt on 17 July 1505. One friend blamed the decision on Luther's sadness over the deaths of two friends. Luther himself seemed saddened by the move; those who attended a farewell supper walked him to the door of the Black Cloister. "This day you see me, not again," he said. His father was furious over. Luther dedicated himself to the Augustinian order, devoting himself to fasting, long hours in prayer and frequent confession. Luther described this period of his life as one of deep spiritual despair, he said, "I lost touch with Christ the Savior and Comforter, made of him the jailer and hangman of my poor soul."
Johann von Staupitz, his superior, pointed