Wiener Neustadt is a city located south of Vienna, in the state of Lower Austria, in north-east Austria. It is a self-governed city and the seat of the district administration of Wiener Neustadt-Land District; the city is the site of one of the world's oldest military academies, the Theresian Military Academy, established by Empress Maria Theresa of Austria in 1752 to train officers for the Austrian army. The area once belonged to the County of Pitten, inherited by Margrave Ottokar III of Styria in 1158. After the dynasty of the Otakars became extinct with the death of his son Ottokar IV, the Duchy of Styria passed to the Austrian House of Babenberg according to the Georgenberg Pact. Duke Leopold V of Austria established the town in 1194 and financed the construction of a fortress close to the Hungarian border with the ransom paid for the English king Richard the Lionheart, whom he had captured and held as a hostage at Dürnstein Castle. In 1241, a small Mongol squadron raided Neustadt during the Mongol invasion of Europe but was repulsed by Duke Friederich and his knights.
Wiener Neustadt, meaning more or less New Vienna, gained important privileges given to the city in order to enable it to prosper. It remained a part of Styria, which after the 1278 Battle on the Marchfeld fell to the House of Habsburg and in 1379 became a constituent duchy of Inner Austria. In the 15th century, Wiener Neustadt experienced a population boom, when Emperor Frederick III of Habsburg took up a residence here and established the Diocese of Wiener Neustadt in 1469, his wife, Eleanor of Portugal, died in Wiener Neustadt in 1467. The Wappenwand at the local castle displays the coats of arms of his possessions in the middle, his son Maximilian I maintained his court in Wiener Neustadt and is buried here at St. George's Cathedral; the town also had a significant Jewish commune with Rabbi Israel Isserlin as its most notable member, until all Jews were expelled by order of Emperor Maximilian I in 1496. Habsburg's long-time rival King Matthias Corvinus of Hungary conquered the city in August 1487 after having laid siege to it for two years.
According to legend he dedicated the magnificent Corvinus Cup to the inhabitants after his victory. Maximilian I managed to reconquer his native city in 1490. During the 16th century, Wiener Neustadt lost its status as imperial residence and much of its importance. However, it still fulfilled its function as bulwark against the Kuruc. In 1751 the city received greater attention when Empress Maria Theresa of Austria decided to dedicate the First Military Academy, inside the imperial castle. In 1752, the Theresian Military Academy took up its operations, which have continued to this day with only a few interruptions. In 1768, Wiener Neustadt was destroyed by an earthquake that damaged the castle, rebuilt using plans made by the architect Nicolò Pacassi. In 1785, Emperor Joseph II of Habsburg transferred the see of the Wiener Neustadt diocese to Sankt Pölten. In the 19th century the city became an industrial town after the opening of the Austrian Southern Railway in 1841. In 1909, the "first official Austrian airfield" was inaugurated north of the city.
It served as a training ground for the flight pioneers Igo Etrich, Karl Illner and Adolf Warchalowski, who conducted their tests there. The 1918 Austro-Hungarian January Strike was started in Wiener Neustadt by workers from the Austro-Daimler factory, engaged in arms production, inspired by the Bolshevik seizure of power to take strike action to oppose the war. A key factor in the strike was the halving of the flour ration. Porsche agreed to drive to Vienna to speak to the Minister of Food; however his plea to the workers to return to work was ignored and they marched on the Town Hall. Here they were joined by other workers from the locomotive factory, the radiator works, the aircraft factory and local ammunition plants of G. Rath and the Lichtenwörther. On 14 January over 10,000 workers gathered outside the town hall to complain about the halving of the flour ration. Inspired by the Russian Revolution the workers set up Workers Councils. During World War II, strategic targets in Wiener Neustadt, including the marshalling yards, the Wiener Neustädter Flugzeugwerke factory, two Raxwerke plants which used forced laborers imprisoned at Mauthausen-Gusen concentration camp, were bombed.
Bombing operations such as Operation Pointblank left only 18 of 4,000 buildings undamaged. The average monthly temperatures are cool, with summer months reaching 21–26 °C and winter months reaching a few degrees above freezing in the daytime; the Late-Romanesque cathedral, the Dom, consecrated in 1279 and cathedral from 1469 to 1785. The choir and transept, in Gothic style, are from the 14th century. In the late 15th century 12 statues of the Apostles were added in the apse, while the bust of Cardinal Melchior Klesl is attributed to Gian Lorenzo Bernini. Former church of St. Peter an der Sperr, erected in the 13th century and modified in the mid-15th century by the imperial architect Peter von Pusica. Secularized in the 19th century, it is now used for exhibitions; the Theresian Military Academy, a 13th-century four-towered castle, used as residence by Frederick III of Habsburg. The latter had it enlarged and the St. George Chapel built in the mid-15th century: it has notable glassworks and houses the tomb of Emperor Maximilian I.
It became seat of the Academy in 1752. Destroyed during World War II, it has been rebuilt to the original appearance. Water tower Tower of Tortures (Reckturm, early
Slovenia the Republic of Slovenia, is a sovereign state located in southern Central Europe at a crossroads of important European cultural and trade routes. It is bordered by Italy to the west, Austria to the north, Hungary to the northeast, Croatia to the southeast, the Adriatic Sea to the southwest, it has a population of 2.07 million. One of the successor states of the former Yugoslavia, Slovenia is a parliamentary republic and a member of the United Nations, of the European Union, of NATO; the capital and largest city is Ljubljana. Slovenia has a mountainous terrain with a continental climate, with the exception of the Slovene Littoral, which has a sub-Mediterranean climate, of the northwest, which has an Alpine climate. Additionally, the Dinaric Alps and the Pannonian Plain meet on the territory of Slovenia; the country, marked by a significant biological diversity, is one of the most water-rich in Europe, with a dense river network, a rich aquifer system, significant karst underground watercourses.
Over half of the territory is covered by forest. The human settlement of Slovenia is uneven. Slovenia has been the crossroads of Slavic and Romance languages and cultures. Although the population is not homogeneous, Slovenes comprise the majority; the South Slavic language Slovene is the official language throughout the country. Slovenia is a secularized country, but Catholicism and Lutheranism have influenced its culture and identity; the economy of Slovenia is small and export-oriented and has been influenced by international conditions. It has been hurt by the Eurozone crisis which started in 2009; the main economic field is services, followed by construction. The current territory of Slovenia has formed part of many different states, including the Roman Empire, Byzantine Empire, Carolingian Empire and the Holy Roman Empire, the Habsburg Monarchy, the Republic of Venice, the French-administered Illyrian Provinces of Napoleon I, the Austrian Empire and Austria-Hungary. In October 1918 the Slovenes exercised self-determination for the first time by co-founding the State of Slovenes and Serbs.
In December 1918 they merged with the Kingdom of Serbia into the Kingdom of Serbs and Slovenes. During World War II Germany and Hungary occupied and annexed Slovenia, with a tiny area transferred to the Independent State of Croatia, a Nazi puppet state. In 1945 Slovenia became a founding member of the Federal People's Republic of Yugoslavia, renamed in 1963 as the Socialist Federal Republic of Yugoslavia. In the first years after World War II this state was allied with the Eastern Bloc, but it never subscribed to the Warsaw Pact and in 1961 became one of the founders of the Non-Aligned Movement. In June 1991, after the introduction of multi-party representative democracy, Slovenia became the first republic that split from Yugoslavia and became an independent country. In 2004, it entered the European Union. Slovenia's name means the "Land of the Slavs" in Slovene and other South Slavic languages; the etymology of Slav itself remains uncertain. The reconstructed autonym *Slověninъ is derived from the word slovo denoting "people who speak," i. e. people who understand each other.
This is in contrast to the Slavic word denoting German people, namely *němьcь, meaning "silent, mute people". The word slovo and the related slava and slukh originate from the Proto-Indo-European root *ḱlew-, cognate with Ancient Greek κλέος, as in the name Pericles, Latin clueo, English loud; the modern Slovene state originates from the Slovene National Liberation Committee held on 19 February 1944. They named the state as Federal Slovenia, a unit within the Yugoslav federation. On 20 February 1946, Federal Slovenia was renamed the People's Republic of Slovenia, it retained this name until 9 April 1963, when its name was changed again, this time to Socialist Republic of Slovenia. On 8 March 1990, SR Slovenia removed the prefix "Socialist" from its name, becoming the Republic of Slovenia. Present-day Slovenia has been inhabited since prehistoric times. There is evidence of human habitation from around 250,000 years ago. A pierced cave bear bone, dating from 43100 ± 700 BP, found in 1995 in Divje Babe cave near Cerkno, is considered a kind of flute, the oldest musical instrument discovered in the world.
In the 1920s and 1930s, artifacts belonging to the Cro-Magnon, such as pierced bones, bone points, a needle were found by archaeologist Srečko Brodar in Potok Cave. In 2002, remains of pile dwellings over 4,500 years old were discovered in the Ljubljana Marshes, now protected as a UNESCO World Heritage Site, along with the Ljubljana Marshes Wooden Wheel, the oldest wooden wheel in the world, it shows that wooden wheels appeared simultaneously in Mesopotamia and Europe. In the transition period between the Bronze age to the Iron age, the Urnfield culture flourished. Archaeological remains dating from the Hallstatt period have been found in southeastern Slovenia, among them a number of situl
Neunkirchen is the capital of the district of Neunkirchen in the Austrian state of Lower Austria. As of 2006 it has a population of 11,564, it was first mentioned in 1094 as "Niuwenchirgun". The town was given city status in 1920. Anton Burger, Austrian-German commandant of Theresienstadt concentration camp, Nazi SS war criminal, born in Neunkirchen. Christian Fuchs, Austrian footballer, born in Neunkirchen. Julius Steinfeld, politician Agudath Israel, coorganizer of the Kindertransport Alfons Maria Stickler, Austrian prelate, was born in Neunkirchen
Ministerialis were people raised up from serfdom to be placed in positions of power and responsibility. In the Holy Roman Empire, in the High Middle Ages, the word and its German translations and Dienstmann, came to describe those unfree nobles who made up a large majority of what could be described as the German knighthood during that time. What began as an irregular arrangement of workers with a wide variety of duties and restrictions rose in status and wealth to become the power brokers of an empire; the ministeriales were not free people, but held social rank. Their liege lord determined whom they could or could not marry, they were not able to transfer their lords' properties to heirs or spouses, they were, considered members of the nobility since, a social designation, not a legal one. Ministeriales were trained knights, held military responsibilities and surrounded themselves with the trappings of knighthood, so were accepted as noblemen. Both women and men held the ministerial status, the laws on ministeriales made no distinction between the sexes in how they were treated.
The origin of the ministerial pedigree is obscure. A mediaeval chronicler reported that Julius Caesar defeated the Gauls and rewarded his Germanic allies with Roman rank. Princes were awarded senatorial status and their lesser knights received Roman citizenship, he assigned these'knights' to princes but urged the princes "to treat the knights not as slaves and servants but rather to receive their services as the knights' lords and defenders. "Hence it is," the chronicler explained, "that German knights, unlike their counterparts in other nations, are called servants of the royal fisc and princely ministerials." In England there was no group of knights referred to as ministeriales, for the tight grip that English lords held upon their knights gave them less freedom than their German counterparts who had codified rights. Abbot Adalard of Corbie was Emperor Charlemagne's chief adviser, described the running of the government in his work De ordine palatii. There he praises the great merits of his imperial staff, made up of household servii proprii who were the first ministerials authoritatively recorded.
His letters specify that not only were they considered exceptional by their superiors, but the ministerials mentored their successors in a form of administrative apprenticeship program. This may be the origin of ministerials as individuals in a set position, it was Emperor Conrad II. He had them organized into a staff of administrators. In documents they are referred to ministerial men. Ministeriales of the post-Classical period who were not in the royal household were at first bondsmen or serfs taken from the servi proprii, or household servants These servants were entrusted with special responsibilities by their overlords, such as the management of a farm, administration of finances or of various possessions. Free nobles disliked entering into servile relationships with other nobles, so lords of a necessity recruited bailiffs and officials from among their unfree servants who could fulfill a household warrior role. From the 11th century the term came to denote functionaries living as members of the knightly class with either a lordship of their own or one delegated from a higher lord as well as some political influence.
Kings placed military requirements upon their princes, who in turn, placed requirements upon their vassals. The free nobles under a prince may have a bond of vassalage that let them get out of serving, so kings, princes and archbishops were able to recruit unfree persons into military service; such a body made up the group called ministeriales. There were two sorts of ministerials: casati, who administered lands and estates for a liege and were paid from the proceeds of the land and non-casati, who held administrative and military positions but were paid in either a fixed amount of coin or by a portion of the proceeds of mills, road or bridge tolls, or ferry fees or port taxes; as the need for such service functions became more acute, their duties and privileges, at first nebulous, became more defined, the ministeriales developed in the Salian period into a new and much differentiated class. They received fiefs, which to begin with were not heritable, in return for which they provided knightly services.
They were allowed to possess, did hold, allods: ownership of real property, independent of any superior landlord, but it should not be confused with anarchy as the owner of allodial land is not independent of his sovereign. Ministerials were found holding the four great offices necessary to run a great household: seneschal, butler and chamberlain, they were castellans, having both military and administrative responsibilities. Conrad II of Kuchl was the financial adviser to four archbishops over the course of 40 years. From the reign of Archbishop Conrad II they were employed as stewards and judges in the administration of the imperial territories, in the lay principalities; as Imperial ministerials they upheld the Salian, the Hohenst
The Habsburg Monarchy – Habsburg Empire, Austrian Monarchy or Danube Monarchy – is an unofficial umbrella term among historians for the countries and provinces that were ruled by the junior Austrian branch of the House of Habsburg between 1526 and 1780 and by the successor branch of Habsburg-Lorraine until 1918. The Monarchy was a typical composite state composed of territories within and outside the Holy Roman Empire, united only in the person of the monarch; the dynastic capital was Vienna, except from 1583 to 1611. From 1804 to 1867 the Habsburg Monarchy was formally unified as the Austrian Empire, from 1867 to 1918 as the Austro-Hungarian Empire; the head of the Austrian branch of the House of Habsburg was elected Holy Roman Emperor: from 1452 until the Empire's dissolution in 1806, Charles VII of Bavaria was the only Holy Roman Emperor, not Habsburg ruler of Austria. The two entities were never coterminous, as the Habsburg Monarchy covered many lands beyond the Holy Roman Empire, most of the Empire was ruled by other dynasties.
This Austrian Habsburg Monarchy must not be confused with the House of Habsburg, existing since the 11th century, whose vast domains were split up in 1521 between this "junior" Austrian branch and the "senior" Spanish branch. The monarchy had no official name. Instead, various names included: Habsburg Monarchy Habsburg Empire Habsburg/Austrian Hereditary Lands Austrian Monarchy Danubian Monarchy The Habsburg family originated with the Habsburg Castle in modern Switzerland, after 1279 came to rule in Austria; the Habsburg family grew to European prominence with the marriage and adoption treaty by Emperor Maximilian I at the First Congress of Vienna in 1515, the subsequent death of adopted Louis II of Hungary and Bohemia in 1526. Following the death of Louis II of Hungary and Bohemia in the Battle of Mohács against the Turks, his brother-in-law Archduke Ferdinand of Austria was elected the next King of Bohemia and Hungary. Names of the territory that became Austria-Hungary: Habsburg monarchy: This was an unofficial umbrella term, but frequent, name during that time.
The entity had no official name. Austrian Empire: This was the official name. Note that the German version is Kaisertum Österreich, i.e. the English translation empire refers to a territory ruled by an emperor, not just to a "widespreading domain". Austria-Hungary: This name was used in the international relations, though the official name was Austro-Hungarian Monarchy. An unofficial popular name was the Danubian Monarchy often used was the term Doppel-Monarchie meaning two states under one crowned ruler. Crownlands or crown lands: This is the name of all the individual parts of the Austrian Empire, of Austria-Hungary from 1867 on; the Kingdom of Hungary was not considered a "crownland" after the establishment of Austria-Hungary 1867, so that the "crownlands" became identical with what was called the Kingdoms and Lands represented in the Imperial Council. The Hungarian parts of the Empire were called "Lands of the Crown of Saint Stephen" or "Lands of Holy Stephen's Crown"; the Bohemian Lands were called "Lands of the St. Wenceslaus' Crown".
Names of some smaller territories: Austrian lands or "Archduchies of Austria" – Lands up and below the Enns: This is the historical name of the parts of the Archduchy of Austria that became the present-day Republic of Austria on 12 November 1918. Modern day Austria is a semi-federal republic of nine states that are: Lower Austria, Upper Austria, Styria, Carinthia and Burgenland and the Capital of Vienna, a state of its own. Burgenland came to Austria in 1921 from Hungary. Salzburg became Austrian in 1816 after the Napoleonic wars. Vienna, Austria's capital became a state 1 January 1922, after being residence and capital of the Austrian Empire for the Habsburg monarchs for centuries. Upper and Lower Austria were split into "Austria above the Enns" and "Austria below the Enns". Upper Austria was enlarged after the Treaty of Teschen following the "War of the Bavarian Succession" by the so-called Innviertel part of Bavaria. Hereditary Lands or German Hereditary Lands or Austrian Hereditary Lands: In a narrower sense these were the "original" Habsburg Austrian territories, i.e. the Austrian lands and Carniola.
In a wider sense the Lands of the Bohemian Crown were included in the Hereditary lands. The term was replaced by the term "Crownlands" in the 1849 March Constitution, but it was used afterwards; the Er
Traun is a river in the Austrian state of Upper Austria. Its source is in the Totes Gebirge mountain range in Styria, it flows through the lakes Hallstätter See and Traunsee. The Traun is a right tributary of the Danube. Other towns along the river are Bad Aussee, Bad Ischl, Gmunden and Traun; until the late 19th century, it was only possible to reach Hallstatt via narrow trails. However this secluded and inhospitable landscape counts as one of the first places of human settlement due to the rich sources of natural salt, mined for thousands of years in the shape of hearts; some of Hallstatt's oldest archaeological finds, such as a shoe-last celt - a long thin stone tool used to fell trees and to work wood - date back to around 5000 B. C. One of the first blacksmith's sites was excavated there. Active trade and thus wealth allowed for the development of a sophisticated society, hence the term Hallstatt culture. In 1846, a large prehistoric cemetery was discovered close by the current location of Hallstatt.
There is little room for cemeteries so every ten years bones used to be exhumed and removed into an ossuary to make room for new burials. A collection of elaborately decorated skulls with the owners' names, death dates inscribed on them is on display at the local chapel
Styria Slovenian Styria or Lower Styria, is a traditional region in northeastern Slovenia, comprising the southern third of the former Duchy of Styria. The population of Styria in its historical boundaries amounts to around 705,000 inhabitants, or 34.5% of the population of Slovenia. The largest city is Maribor. In the 19th century the Styrian duchy, which existed as a distinct political-administrative entity from 1180 to 1918, used to be divided into three traditional regions: Upper Styria and Central Styria, as well as Lower Styria, stretching from the Mur River and the Slovene Hills in the north down to the Sava. Upper and central, predominantly German-speaking, today form the Austrian state of Styria; the southern third, lower Styria predominantly Slovene-speaking, became part of the Kingdom of Serbs and Slovenes after World War I. After World War II, it became part of the predecessor of modern Slovenia, the Socialist Republic of Slovenia. Although used interchangeably at times, the term "Southern Styria" refers to the southern districts within the Austrian state of Styria, whereas the term "Lower Styria" refers to the northeastern region of Styria within Slovenia.
In the Middle Ages, the Lower Styrian lands were ruled by several immediate dynasties like the Counts of Celje, whose large possessions were not incorporated by the Habsburg dukes until the 15th century. The Austrian rulers had the estates developed benefitting the Lower Styrian towns and its predominantly German-Speaking citizens. According to the last Austro-Hungarian census of 1910, Lower Styria had around 498,000 inhabitants, of which around 82% were Slovene and around 18% German speakers. In 1918, after the disintegration of the Austro-Hungarian monarchy following World War I, the Duchy of Styria was divided between the newly established states of German Austria and the Yugoslav State of Slovenes and Serbs. In early November 1918, Rudolf Maister, a Slovene major of the former Austro-Hungarian Army, with about 4,000 local volunteers occupied Lower Styria and the town of Maribor and claimed it for Yugoslavia. After a short fight with German-Austrian paramilitary units, the current border was established, acknowledged by the provisional Styrian assembly at Graz.
By December 1918, all of Lower Styria was de facto included in the Kingdom of Serbs and Slovenes. A protest by German-speaking Marburg citizens resulted in the Marburg Bloody Sunday, when 13 people were killed and about 60 wounded. Confirmed by the 1919 Treaty of Saint-Germain-en-Laye, the border between Yugoslav and Austrian Styria followed the ethnic-linguistic dividing line between Slovenes and ethnic Germans. Several Slovene-speaking villages around Leutschach, Spielberg and Bad Radkersburg remained in Austria. On the other hand, several predominantly German-speaking towns remained in Yugoslavia Maribor and Celje. According to the 1921 Yugoslav census, some 22,500 ethnic Germans lived in Yugoslav Styria, they represented around 4.5% of the overall population of the region, around 57% of all ethnic Germans in Slovenia. In 1931, this number dropped to around 12,500 or 2.3% of the regional population, around 45% of all ethnic Germans in Slovenia. In 1922, the County of Maribor was formed, comprising most of the territory of Slovene Styria, plus the Prekmurje and the Medjimurje regions.
After the coup d'etat of King Alexander I of Yugoslavia in January 1929, the counties were abolished and replaced with nine Banates. Following the reorganization implemeted by the Yugoslav constitution of 1931, Slovene Styria was incorporated in the newly established Drava Banovina, more or less identical with Slovenia, with Ljubljana as its capital city. In April 1941, Nazi Germany invaded Slovene Styria was annexed to the Third Reich. A policy of violent Germanization was introduced. Public use of Slovene language was prohibited, all Slovene associations were dissolved. Members of all professional and intellectual groups, including many clergymen, were expelled. Between April 1941 and May 1942, around 80,000 Slovenes were expelled from Lower Styria, or resettled to other parts of the Reich; as a reaction, a resistance movement developed. Many areas of Lower Styria witnessed fierce fighting between German troops and Slovene partisan units. After World War II, Yugoslav authority over the region was established and Slovene Styria became an integral part of the Socialist Republic of Slovenia.
According to prior decisions made by the Anti-Fascist Council of the People's Liberation of Yugoslavia, an expulsion of the remaining ethnic German population was carried out, regardless of their links to the Nazi regime. Between the 1950s and 1970s, many areas of the region underwent rapid industrializations. Towns like Maribor and Velenje became among the most important industrial centers of Slovenia and Yugoslavia. Lower Styria has no official status as an administrative or statistical unit within Slovenia, although it is considered a traditional region; the bulk of Lower Styria is subdivided between the Drava Statistical Region with its seat in Maribor, the Savinja Statistical Region with its seat in Celje. Smaller areas of Lower Styria are included in: The Mura Statistical Region: the subregion called Prlekija, with the municipalities of Apače, G