The Netherlands is a country located in Northwestern Europe. The European portion of the Netherlands consists of twelve separate provinces that border Germany to the east, Belgium to the south, the North Sea to the northwest, with maritime borders in the North Sea with Belgium and the United Kingdom. Together with three island territories in the Caribbean Sea—Bonaire, Sint Eustatius and Saba— it forms a constituent country of the Kingdom of the Netherlands; the official language is Dutch, but a secondary official language in the province of Friesland is West Frisian. The six largest cities in the Netherlands are Amsterdam, The Hague, Utrecht and Tilburg. Amsterdam is the country's capital, while The Hague holds the seat of the States General and Supreme Court; the Port of Rotterdam is the largest port in Europe, the largest in any country outside Asia. The country is a founding member of the EU, Eurozone, G10, NATO, OECD and WTO, as well as a part of the Schengen Area and the trilateral Benelux Union.
It hosts several intergovernmental organisations and international courts, many of which are centered in The Hague, dubbed'the world's legal capital'. Netherlands means'lower countries' in reference to its low elevation and flat topography, with only about 50% of its land exceeding 1 metre above sea level, nearly 17% falling below sea level. Most of the areas below sea level, known as polders, are the result of land reclamation that began in the 16th century. With a population of 17.30 million people, all living within a total area of 41,500 square kilometres —of which the land area is 33,700 square kilometres —the Netherlands is one of the most densely populated countries in the world. It is the world's second-largest exporter of food and agricultural products, owing to its fertile soil, mild climate, intensive agriculture; the Netherlands was the third country in the world to have representative government, it has been a parliamentary constitutional monarchy with a unitary structure since 1848.
The country has a tradition of pillarisation and a long record of social tolerance, having legalised abortion and human euthanasia, along with maintaining a progressive drug policy. The Netherlands abolished the death penalty in 1870, allowed women's suffrage in 1917, became the world's first country to legalise same-sex marriage in 2001, its mixed-market advanced economy had the thirteenth-highest per capita income globally. The Netherlands ranks among the highest in international indexes of press freedom, economic freedom, human development, quality of life, as well as happiness; the Netherlands' turbulent history and shifts of power resulted in exceptionally many and varying names in different languages. There is diversity within languages; this holds for English, where Dutch is the adjective form and the misnomer Holland a synonym for the country "Netherlands". Dutch comes from Theodiscus and in the past centuries, the hub of Dutch culture is found in its most populous region, home to the capital city of Amsterdam.
Referring to the Netherlands as Holland in the English language is similar to calling the United Kingdom "Britain" by people outside the UK. The term is so pervasive among potential investors and tourists, that the Dutch government's international websites for tourism and trade are "holland.com" and "hollandtradeandinvest.com". The region of Holland consists of North and South Holland, two of the nation's twelve provinces a single province, earlier still, the County of Holland, a remnant of the dissolved Frisian Kingdom. Following the decline of the Duchy of Brabant and the County of Flanders, Holland became the most economically and politically important county in the Low Countries region; the emphasis on Holland during the formation of the Dutch Republic, the Eighty Years' War and the Anglo-Dutch Wars in the 16th, 17th and 18th century, made Holland serve as a pars pro toto for the entire country, now considered either incorrect, informal, or, depending on context, opprobrious. Nonetheless, Holland is used in reference to the Netherlands national football team.
The region called the Low Countries and the Country of the Netherlands. Place names with Neder, Nieder and Nedre and Bas or Inferior are in use in places all over Europe, they are sometimes used in a deictic relation to a higher ground that consecutively is indicated as Upper, Oben, Superior or Haut. In the case of the Low Countries / Netherlands the geographical location of the lower region has been more or less downstream and near the sea; the geographical location of the upper region, changed tremendously over time, depending on the location of the economic and military power governing the Low Countries area. The Romans made a distinction between the Roman provinces of downstream Germania Inferior and upstream Germania Superior; the designation'Low' to refer to the region returns again in the 10th century Duchy of Lower Lorraine, that covered much of the Low Countries. But this time the corresponding Upper region is Upper Lorraine, in nowadays Northern France; the Dukes of Burgundy, who ruled the Low Countries in the 15th century, used the term les pays de par deçà for the Low Countries as opposed to les pays de par delà for their original
1978 European Cup Final
The 1978 European Cup Final was an association football match between Liverpool of England and Club Brugge of Belgium on 10 May 1978 at Wembley Stadium, England. It was the final match of the 1977 -- 78 season of the European Cup. Liverpool were appearing in their second European Cup final. Club Brugge were appearing in their first European Cup final; the two sides had met once before in European competition, when they contested the 1976 UEFA Cup Final, which Liverpool won 4–3 on aggregate. As reigning champions, Liverpool received a bye in the first round, which meant that Club Brugge played two matches more to reach the final. All but one of Liverpool's matches were comfortable victories and they won each round with an aggregate score at least two goals to the good. In the first round Club Brugge beat Finnish champions Kuopion Palloseura by 9–2 on aggregate, but they won each of their subsequent rounds by just one goal. Watched by a crowd of 92,000, the first half was goalless. Liverpool took the lead in the second half.
They held this lead to win the match 1–0, securing Liverpool's second European Cup and third European trophy in succession, they became the first English team to retain the European Cup. Liverpool were the reigning European Cup champions after defeating Borussia Mönchengladbach 3–1 to win the 1977 European Cup Final. Liverpool were the reigning English champions, having won the English league during the 1976–77 season; as reigning European Cup champions, they received a bye in the first round. They were drawn against East German champions Dynamo Dresden in the second round. Liverpool were expected to win the first leg, played at Anfield, their home ground, they did so with a score of 5–1. Dresden won the second leg 2–1 at their home ground, Glücksgas Stadium, giving Liverpool a 6–3 win on aggregate. In the quarter-finals Liverpool were drawn against Portuguese champions Benfica; the first leg was played at Benfica's home ground. Nené scored for Benfica in the 18th minute, Jimmy Case equalised for Liverpool in the 37th minute, Emlyn Hughes scored midway through the second half to give Liverpool a 2–1 victory.
The second leg at Anfield was won 4 -- 1 by Liverpool. Liverpool's opponents in the semi-finals were Borussia Mönchengladbach, the team they had beaten to win the European Cup the previous year; the first leg was played in Germany at the Bökelbergstadion, Borussia's home ground at that time. Borussia took an early lead. Liverpool equalised in the 88th minute, when David Johnson scored, but in the following minute Rainer Bonhof scored from a 22-yard free-kick, so Borussia won 2–1. In the second leg, at Anfield, Ray Kennedy scored for Liverpool in the sixth minute, Kenny Dalglish scored in the 35th minute, Jimmy Case scored in the 56th minute, giving Liverpool a 3–0 win in the match and a 4–2 win on aggregate, securing a place in their second consecutive European Cup final. Club Brugge gained entry to the competition by winning the 1976–77 Belgian First Division and thus becoming Belgian champions, their opponents in the first round were Kuopion Palloseura. Brugge won the first leg 4–0 at KuPS's home ground, the Kuopion keskuskenttä, the second leg 5–2 at Brugge's ground, the Jan Breydel Stadium, thus winning the round 9–2 on aggregate.
Their opponents in the second round were Greek champions Panathinaikos. The first leg was in Belgium. Brugge won 2–0 after Roger Davies scored from a penalty in the 24th minute and Julien Cools scored midway through the second half; the second leg was played at the Apostolos Nikolaidis Stadium. Panathinaikos won the match 1–0, so Brugge won the round with an aggregate score of 2–1. Brugge's opponents in the quarter-finals were Spanish champions Atlético Madrid; the first leg in Belgium was won 2–0 by Brugge. The second leg, played at the Vicente Calderón Stadium, Atlético's home ground, was a close match: Atlético scored twice in the first half, thus Brugge won the round with a 4 -- 3 aggregate score. Italian champions Juventus were their next opponents, in the semi-finals; the first leg, at the Stadio Olimpico di Torino, Juventus' home ground, was goalless until the 86th minute, when Roberto Bettega scored to give Juventus a 1–0 victory. The second leg in Belgium was a close affair. Brugge scored in the third minute, but that left a 1–1 aggregate score after 90 minutes, requiring extra time to be played.
Had the aggregate score still been tied after the extra time, there would have been a penalty shootout. However,it didn't happen, as René Vandereycken scored in the 116th minute to give Brugge a 2–0 win in the match and a 2–1 win on aggregate, granting them progress to their first European Cup final. 1978 was the first year in which Club Brugge had reached the final, while Liverpool were appearing in their second successive final. The two teams had met before in the final of a European competition: the 1976 UEFA Cup Final, which Liverpool won 4–3 on aggregate. Liverpool were the reigning champions and were aiming to become the first British team to win successive European Cups. Liverpool had won the UEFA Cup twice, in the 1972–73 and 1975–76 seasons and had a chance to win two European cups as well. Brugge were the first Belgian team to reach the final of the European Cup and thus were aiming to become the first to win the trophy; as the final was held in England, at Wembl
Trabzonspor are a professional Turkish sports club located in the city of Trabzon, Turkey. Formed in 1967 through a merger of several local clubs, the men's football department of Trabzonspor have won six Süper Lig championship titles. Trabzonspor have a women's football team and a men's basketball team. Trabzonspor are one of the most decorated clubs in Turkey, they are first non Istanbul-based club to win the league. They have got eight Federation Cup titles; the club won their first championship title in 1975–76, won three championship titles in a row in the 1978–79, 1979–80, 1980–81 seasons. From 1976 to 1984, Trabzonspor have won a total of 30 trophies: Süper Lig, Federation Cup, Süper Kupa, the Başbakanlık Kupası, Red Group Championship Second Division and Cyprus Peace Cup; the club colours are claret and blue, they have maroon and blue kits. Trabzonspor play at the Şenol Güneş Stadium which replaced the Hüseyin Avni Aker Stadium as their home ground during the 2016–17 season. In 1921 Trabzon İdman Ocağı were founded.
Trabzonspor were founded through a merger of several local clubs including İdman Ocağı in 1967. In 1975–76 season they won their first championship, won further titles in 1976–77, 1977–78,1979–80, 1980–81 and 1983–84. In the 2010–11 season Trabzonspor finished level on points to winners Fenerbahçe but were pushed into second on goal difference. Club completed Süper Lig contention between 3rd and 7th place through 1990s. 1992–93 season’s first 10 week was their worst season opening, they were down by 10 points from the leader. However, Ünal Karaman, one of the best players in Trabzonspor history, gained by the club, he was captain of the Turkey. There was Tolunay Kafkas; the club won 2 Turkish Cups, won a Presidential Cup, won 2 Chancellor Cups. In 1994–95 and 1995–96 seasons, they finished the league in the second place. In the 2010–11 season Trabzonspor finished runners-up to Fenerbahçe for points; however Fenerbahçe on goal difference. Two months had passed after the end of the season when the 2011 Turkish sports corruption scandal broke out.
The Turkish Football Federation banned Fenerbahçe from joining any UEFA competition for a year. Trabzonspor's board of directors applied to the Turkish Football Federation about this season's champions being them but their application was denied on the grounds that pertinent season's decision had been made. Although a number of theories have been put forward as to why the club colours of Trabzonspor are claret and blue, it has been claimed that they were adopted after the club were sent a set of kits by English club Aston Villa after their formation in 1967, they share the same club colours as Drogheda United, in Republic of Ireland and in 2011 the two sides became sister clubs. These were given in favor of the Ottoman Empire's assistance during Irish Famine. Since December 2016, Home ground is the Şenol Güneş Stadium, which has a capacity of 43,223. Former home ground is the Hüseyin Avni Aker Stadium, which has a capacity of 24,169; as of 21 January 2019: Note: Flags indicate national team. Players may hold more than one non-FIFA nationality.
Trabzonspor U21 is a youth team of Trabzonspor. The club competes alongside other U21 clubs around Turkey. Notable former players include Hami Mandıralı, Gökdeniz Karadeniz, Fatih Tekke, Trabzonspor Kulübü Bayan Futbol Takımı are a Turkish women's association football club affiliated with Trabzonspor; the club was founded in 2007 and they are title holders of 2008–09 season of Turkish Women's First Football League. 1461 Trabzon was founded as Trabzon Karadenizspor in 2008 as a feederclub in which Trabzonspor holds first buying option on players as well as being able to loan out youngsters to gain first-team experience. As of 21 January, 2019: Süper Lig Winners: 1975–76, 1976–77, 1978–79, 1979–80, 1980–81, 1983–84 Runners-up: 1977–78, 1981–82, 1982–83, 1994–95, 1995–96, 2003–04, 2004–05, 2010–11 Cup Winners: 1976–77, 1977–78, 1983–84, 1991–92, 1994–95, 2002–03, 2003–04, 2009–10 Runners-up: 1974–75, 1975–76, 1984–85, 1989–90, 1996–97, 2012–13 Super Cup Winners: 1977–78, 1978–79, 1979–80, 1980–81, 1981–82, 1984–85, 1996–97, 2010–11 Runners-up: 1982–83, 1985–86, 1993–94 They first competed in Europe in 1976/77, reached the group stages of the Champions League in 2011/12.
As of 3 September 2018
Saudi Arabia the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia, is a country in Western Asia constituting the bulk of the Arabian Peninsula. With a land area of 2,150,000 km2, Saudi Arabia is geographically the largest sovereign state in the Middle East, the second-largest in the Arab world, the fifth-largest in Asia, the 12th-largest in the world. Saudi Arabia is bordered by Jordan and Iraq to the north, Kuwait to the northeast, Qatar and the United Arab Emirates to the east, Oman to the southeast and Yemen to the south, it is the only nation with both a Red Sea coast and a Persian Gulf coast, most of its terrain consists of arid desert and mountains. As of October 2018, the Saudi economy was the largest in the Middle East and the 18th largest in the world. Saudi Arabia enjoys one of the world's youngest populations; the territory that now constitutes Saudi Arabia was the site of several ancient cultures and civilizations. The prehistory of Saudi Arabia shows some of the earliest traces of human activity in the world.
The world's second-largest religion, emerged in modern-day Saudi Arabia. In the early 7th century, the Islamic prophet Muhammad united the population of Arabia and created a single Islamic religious polity. Following his death in 632, his followers expanded the territory under Muslim rule beyond Arabia, conquering huge and unprecedented swathes of territory in a matter of decades. Arab dynasties originating from modern-day Saudi Arabia founded the Rashidun, Umayyad and Fatimid caliphates as well as numerous other dynasties in Asia and Europe; the area of modern-day Saudi Arabia consisted of four distinct regions: Hejaz and parts of Eastern Arabia and Southern Arabia. The Kingdom of Saudi Arabia was founded in 1932 by Ibn Saud, he united the four regions into a single state through a series of conquests beginning in 1902 with the capture of Riyadh, the ancestral home of his family, the House of Saud. Saudi Arabia has since been a totalitarian absolute monarchy a hereditary dictatorship governed along Islamist lines.
The ultraconservative Wahhabi religious movement within Sunni Islam has been called "the predominant feature of Saudi culture", with its global spread financed by the oil and gas trade. Saudi Arabia is sometimes called "the Land of the Two Holy Mosques" in reference to Al-Masjid al-Haram and Al-Masjid an-Nabawi, the two holiest places in Islam; the state's official language is Arabic. Petroleum was discovered on 3 March 1938 and followed up by several other finds in the Eastern Province. Saudi Arabia has since become the world's second largest oil producer and the world's largest largest oil exporter, controlling the world's second largest oil reserves and the sixth largest gas reserves; the kingdom is categorized as a World Bank high-income economy with a high Human Development Index and is the only Arab country to be part of the G-20 major economies. The state has attracted criticism for a multitude of reasons including but not limited to: its archaic treatment of women, its excessive and extrajudicial use of capital punishment, state-sponsored discrimination against religious minorities and atheists, its role in the Yemeni Civil War, sponsorship of Islamic terrorists, its strict interpretation of Sharia Law.
An autocratic monarchy, the kingdom has the world's third-highest military expenditure and, according to SIPRI, was the world's second largest arms importer from 2010 to 2014. Saudi Arabia is considered a middle power. In addition to the GCC, it is an active member of the Organisation of Islamic Cooperation and OPEC. Following the unification of the Hejaz and Nejd kingdoms, the new state was named al-Mamlakah al-ʻArabīyah as-Suʻūdīyah by royal decree on 23 September 1932 by its founder, Abdulaziz Al Saud. Although this is translated as "the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia" in English, it means "the Saudi Arab kingdom", or "the Arab Saudi Kingdom"; the word "Saudi" is derived from the element as-Suʻūdīyah in the Arabic name of the country, a type of adjective known as a nisba, formed from the dynastic name of the Saudi royal family, the Al Saud. Its inclusion expresses the view. Al Saud is an Arabic name formed by adding the word Al, meaning "family of" or "House of", to the personal name of an ancestor.
In the case of the Al Saud, this is the father of the dynasty's 18th-century founder, Muhammad bin Saud. There is evidence that human habitation in the Arabian Peninsula dates back to about 125,000 years ago, it is now believed that the first modern humans to spread east across Asia left Africa about 75,000 years ago across the Bab-el-Mandeb connecting the Horn of Africa and Arabia. The Arabian peninsula is regarded as a central figure in our understanding of hominin evolution and dispersals. Arabia underwent an extreme environmental fluctuation in the Quaternary that led to profound evolutionary and demographic changes. Arabia has a rich Lower Paleolithic record, the quantity of Oldwan-like sites in the region indicate a significant role that Arabia had played in the early hominin colonization of Eurasia. In the Neolithic period, prominent cultures such as al-Magar whose epicenter lay in mod
UEFA Champions League
The UEFA Champions League is an annual club football competition organised by the Union of European Football Associations and contested by top-division European clubs. It is one of the most prestigious tournaments in the world and the most prestigious club competition in European football, played by the national league champions of the strongest UEFA national associations. Introduced in 1955 as the European Champion Clubs' Cup, more known as the European Cup, it was a straight knockout tournament open only to the champion club of each national championship; the competition took on its current name in 1992, adding a round-robin group stage and allowing multiple entrants from certain countries. It has since been expanded, while most of Europe's national leagues can still only enter their champion, the strongest leagues now provide up to five teams. Clubs that finish next-in-line in their national league, having not qualified for the Champions League, are eligible for the second-tier UEFA Europa League competition.
In its present format, the Champions League begins in late June with four knockout qualifying rounds and a play-off round. The 6 surviving teams enter the group stage; the 32 teams are drawn into eight groups of four teams and play each other in a double round-robin system. The eight group winners and eight runners-up proceed to the knockout phase that culminates with the final match in May; the winner of the Champions League qualifies for the FIFA Club World Cup. The competition has been won by 22 clubs. Real Madrid is the most successful club in the tournament's history, having won it 13 times, including its first five seasons. Real Madrid are the reigning champions. Spanish clubs have the highest number of victories, followed by Italy. England has the largest number of winning teams, with five clubs having won the title; the first pan-European tournament was the Challenge Cup, a competition between clubs in the Austro-Hungarian Empire. The Mitropa Cup, a competition modelled after the Challenge Cup, was created in 1927, an idea of Austrian Hugo Meisl, played between Central European clubs.
In 1930, the Coupe des Nations, the first attempt to create a cup for national champion clubs of Europe, was played and organised by Swiss club Servette. Held in Geneva, it brought together ten champions from across the continent; the tournament was won by Újpest of Hungary. Latin European nations came together to form the Latin Cup in 1949. After receiving reports from his journalists over the successful Campeonato Sudamericano de Campeones of 1948, Gabriel Hanot, editor of L'Équipe, began proposing the creation of a continent-wide tournament. After Stan Cullis declared Wolverhampton Wanderers "Champions of the World" following a successful run of friendlies in the 1950s, in particular a 3–2 friendly victory against Budapest Honvéd, Hanot managed to convince UEFA to put into practice such a tournament, it was conceived in Paris in 1955 as the European Champion Clubs' Cup. The first edition of the European Cup took place during the 1955–56 season. Sixteen teams participated: Milan, AGF Aarhus, Djurgården, Gwardia Warszawa, Partizan, PSV Eindhoven, Rapid Wien, Real Madrid, Rot-Weiss Essen, Saarbrücken, Sporting CP, Stade de Reims, Vörös Lobogó.
The first European Cup match took place on 4 September 1955, ended in a 3–3 draw between Sporting CP and Partizan. The first goal in European Cup history was scored by João Baptista Martins of Sporting CP; the inaugural final took place at the Parc des Princes between Stade de Real Madrid. The Spanish squad came back from behind to win 4–3 thanks to goals from Alfredo Di Stéfano and Marquitos, as well as two goals from Héctor Rial. Real Madrid defended the trophy next season in their home stadium, the Santiago Bernabéu, against Fiorentina. After a scoreless first half, Real Madrid scored twice in six minutes to defeat the Italians. In 1958, Milan failed to capitalise after going ahead on the scoreline twice, only for Real Madrid to equalise; the final held in Heysel Stadium went to extra time where Francisco Gento scored the game-winning goal to allow Real Madrid to retain the title for the third consecutive season. In a rematch of the first final, Real Madrid faced Stade Reims at the Neckarstadion for the 1958–59 season final winning 2–0.
West German side Eintracht Frankfurt became the first non-Latin team to reach the European Cup final. The 1959–60 season finale still holds the record for the most goals scored, with Real Madrid beating Eintracht Frankfurt 7-3 in Hampden Park, courtesy of four goals by Ferenc Puskás and a hat-trick by Alfredo Di Stéfano; this was a record that still stands today. Real Madrid's reign ended in the 1960–61 season when bitter rivals Barcelona dethroned them in the first round. Barcelona themselves, would be defeated in the final by Portuguese side Benfica 3–2 at Wankdorf Stadium. Reinforced by Eusébio, Benfica defeated Real Madrid 5–3 at the Olympic Stadium in Amsterdam and kept the title for a second, consecutive season. Benfica wanted to repeat Real Madrid's successful run of the 1950s after reaching the showpiece event of the 1962–63 European Cup, but a brace from Brazilian-Italian José Altafini at the Wembley Stadi
Belgium national football team
The Belgian national football team has represented Belgium in association football since their maiden match in 1904. The squad is under the global jurisdiction of FIFA and is governed in Europe by UEFA—both of which were co-founded by the Belgian team's supervising body, the Royal Belgian Football Association. Periods of regular Belgian representation at the highest international level, from 1920 to 1938, from 1982 to 2002 and again from 2014 onwards, have alternated with unsuccessful qualification rounds. Most of Belgium's home matches. Belgium's national team have participated in three quadrennial major football competitions, it appeared in the end stages of thirteen FIFA World Cups and five UEFA European Championships, featured at three Olympic football tournaments, including the 1920 Olympic tournament which they won. Other notable performances are victories over four reigning world champions—West Germany, Brazil and France—between 1954 and 2002. Belgium has long-standing football rivalries with its Dutch and French counterparts, having played both teams nearly every year from 1905 to 1967.
The squad has been known as the Red Devils since 1906. During the national player career of forward Paul Van Himst, the most-praised Belgian footballer of the 20th century, Belgium took third place at Euro 1972. After that, they experienced two golden ages with many gifted players. In the first period, which lasted from the 1980s to the early 1990s, the team finished as runners-up at Euro 1980 and fourth in the 1986 World Cup. In the second, under guidance of Marc Wilmots and Roberto Martínez in the 2010s, Belgium topped the FIFA World Rankings for the first time in November 2015 and finished third at the 2018 World Cup. Belgium participates in League A of the first UEFA Nations League edition. Belgium was one of the first mainland European countries to play association football, its practice in Belgium began on 26 October 1863, after an Irish student walked into the Josephites College of Melle with a leather ball. An elitist pastime, during the following decades association football supplanted rugby as Belgium's most popular football sport.
On 1 September 1895, ten clubs for football, athletics and cycling founded the Belgian sports board Union Belge des Sociétés de Sports Athlétiques. On 11 October 1900, Beerschot AC honorary president Jorge Díaz announced that Antwerp would host a series of challenge matches between Europe's best football teams. After some organisational problems, on 28 April 1901, Beerschot's pitch hosted its first tournament, in which a Belgian A-squad and a Dutch B-team contested the Coupe Vanden Abeele. Belgium won, beat the Netherlands in all three follow-up matches. On 1 May 1904, the Belgians played their first official match, against France at the Stade du Vivier d'Oie in Uccle. Twenty days the football boards of both countries were among the seven FIFA founders. At that time, the Belgian squad was chosen by a committee drawn from the country's six or seven major clubs. In 1906, the national team players received the nickname Red Devils because of their red jerseys, four years Scottish ex-footballer William Maxwell replaced the UBSSA committee as their manager.
From 1912, UBSSA governed football only and was renamed UBSFA. During the Great War, the national team only played unrecognised friendlies, with matches in and against France. At the 1920 Summer Olympics, in their first official Olympic appearance, the Red Devils won the gold medal on home soil after a controversial final in which their Czechoslovak opponents left the pitch. In the three 1920s Summer Olympics, they achieved fair results, played their first intercontinental match, against Argentina. However, over the following decade, Belgium lost all of their matches at the first three FIFA World Cup final tournaments. According to historian Richard Henshaw, "he growth of in Scandinavia, Central Europe, South America left Belgium far behind". Although World War II hindered international football events in the 1940s, the Belgian team remained active with unofficial matches against squads of other allied nations. Belgium qualified for only one of eight major tournaments during the 1950s and the 1960s: the 1954 World Cup.
The day before the tournament began, the RBFA was among the three UEFA founders. Dutch journalists considered the draw of the 1954 Belgian team in their opener against England to be the most surprising result of that match day more than Switzerland's victory over the Italian "football stars". However, Belgium were eliminated after a loss to Italy in the second group match. Two bright spots in these decades were wins against World Cup holders: West Germany in 1954, Brazil in 1963. Between these, Belgium defeated Hungary's Golden Team in 1956; the combination of failure in competitive matches, success in exhibition matches, gave the Belgians the mock title of "world champion of the friendlies". The team's performance improved under manager Raymond Goethals. Dressed in white, as the White Devils, Belgium had their first victories at World and European Championships at the 1970 World Cup and Euro 1972. En route to that Euro appearance, their first, they eliminated reigning European champions Italy by winning the two-legged quarter-final on aggregate.
At the end stage, they finished third by winning the consolation match against Hungary. In 1973, the denial of a match-winning goal in their last 1974 FIFA World C
Liverpool Football Club is a professional football club in Liverpool, that competes in the Premier League, the top tier of English football. The club has won 5 European Cups, more than any other English club, 3 UEFA Cups, 3 UEFA Super Cups, 18 League titles, 7 FA Cups, a record 8 League Cups, 15 FA Community Shields. Founded in 1892, the club joined the Football League the following year and has played at Anfield since its formation. Liverpool established itself as a major force in English and European football in the 1970s and 1980s when Bill Shankly and Bob Paisley led the club to 11 League titles and seven European trophies. Under the management of Rafael Benítez and captained by Steven Gerrard, Liverpool became European champions for the fifth time in 2005. Liverpool was the ninth highest-earning football club in the world in 2016–17, with an annual revenue of €424.2 million, the world's eighth most valuable football club in 2018, valued at $1.944 billion. The club is one of the best supported teams in the world.
Liverpool has long-standing rivalries with Manchester Everton. The club's supporters have been involved in two major tragedies: the Heysel Stadium disaster, where escaping fans were pressed against a collapsing wall at the 1985 European Cup Final in Brussels, with 39 people – Italians and Juventus fans – dying, after which English clubs were given a five-year ban from European competition, the Hillsborough disaster in 1989, where 96 Liverpool supporters died in a crush against perimeter fencing; the team changed from red shirts and white shorts to an all-red home strip in 1964, used since. The club's anthem is "You'll Never Walk Alone". Liverpool F. C. was founded following a dispute between the Everton committee and John Houlding, club president and owner of the land at Anfield. After eight years at the stadium, Everton relocated to Goodison Park in 1892 and Houlding founded Liverpool F. C. to play at Anfield. Named "Everton F. C. and Athletic Grounds Ltd", the club became Liverpool F. C. in March 1892 and gained official recognition three months after The Football Association refused to recognise the club as Everton.
The team won the Lancashire League in its début season, joined the Football League Second Division at the start of the 1893–94 season. After finishing in first place the club was promoted to the First Division, which it won in 1901 and again in 1906. Liverpool reached its first FA Cup Final in 1914, it won consecutive League championships in 1922 and 1923, but did not win another trophy until the 1946–47 season, when the club won the First Division for a fifth time under the control of ex-West Ham Utd centre half George Kay. Liverpool suffered its second Cup Final defeat in 1950; the club was relegated to the Second Division in the 1953–54 season. Soon after Liverpool lost 2–1 to non-league Worcester City in the 1958–59 FA Cup, Bill Shankly was appointed manager. Upon his arrival he released 24 players and converted a boot storage room at Anfield into a room where the coaches could discuss strategy; the club was promoted back into the First Division in 1962 and won it in 1964, for the first time in 17 years.
In 1965, the club won its first FA Cup. In 1966, the club won the First Division but lost to Borussia Dortmund in the European Cup Winners' Cup final. Liverpool won both the League and the UEFA Cup during the 1972–73 season, the FA Cup again a year later. Shankly was replaced by his assistant, Bob Paisley. In 1976, Paisley's second season as manager, the club won another UEFA Cup double; the following season, the club retained the League title and won the European Cup for the first time, but it lost in the 1977 FA Cup Final. Liverpool retained the European Cup in 1978 and regained the First Division title in 1979. During Paisley's nine seasons as manager Liverpool won 21 trophies, including three European Cups, a UEFA Cup, six League titles and three consecutive League Cups. Paisley was replaced by his assistant, Joe Fagan. Liverpool won the League, League Cup and European Cup in Fagan's first season, becoming the first English side to win three trophies in a season. Liverpool reached the European Cup final again in 1985, against Juventus at the Heysel Stadium.
Before kick-off, Liverpool fans breached a fence which separated the two groups of supporters, charged the Juventus fans. The resulting weight of people caused a retaining wall to collapse, killing 39 fans Italians; the incident became known as the Heysel Stadium disaster. The match was played in spite of protests by both managers, Liverpool lost 1–0 to Juventus; as a result of the tragedy, English clubs were banned from participating in European competition for five years. Fourteen Liverpool fans received convictions for involuntary manslaughter. Fagan had announced his retirement just before the disaster and Kenny Dalglish was appointed as player-manager. During his tenure, the club won another three league titles and two FA Cups, including a League and Cup "Double" in the 1985–86 season. Liverpool's success was overshadowed by the Hillsborough disaster: in an FA Cup semi-final against Nottingham Forest on 15 April 1989, hundreds of Liverpool fans were crushed against perimeter fencing. Ninety-four fans died that day.
After the Hillsborough disaster there was a government review of stadium saf