1900 Summer Olympics
The 1900 Summer Olympics, today known as the Games of the II Olympiad, was an international multi-sport event that took place in Paris, France, in 1900. No opening or closing ceremonies were held; the Games were held as part of the 1900 World's Fair. In total, 997 competitors took part in 19 different sports; this number relies on certain assumptions about which events were and were not "Olympic". Many athletes, among them some who won events, didn't know that they had competed in the Olympic Games. Women took part in the games for the first time, sailor Hélène de Pourtalès, born Helen Barbey in New York City, became the first female Olympic champion; the decision to hold competitions on a Sunday brought protests from many American athletes, who travelled as representatives of their colleges and were expected to withdraw rather than compete on their religious day of rest. At the Sorbonne conference of 1894, Pierre de Coubertin proposed that the Olympic Games should take place in 1900 in Paris.
The delegates to the conference were unwilling to wait six years and lobbied to hold the first games in 1896. A decision was made to hold the first Olympic Games in 1896 in Athens and that Paris would host the second celebration. Most of the winners in 1900 were given cups or trophies. Professionals competed in fencing and Albert Robert Ayat, who won the épée for amateurs and masters, was awarded a prize of 3000 francs; some events were contested for the only time in the history of the Games, including automobile and motorcycle racing, cricket, Basque pelota, 200m swimming obstacle race and underwater swimming. This was the only Olympic Games in history to use live animals as targets during the shooting event; the host nation of France flooded the field. The 1900 Games were held as part of the 1900 Exposition Universelle; the Baron de Coubertin believed that this would help public awareness of the Olympics and submitted elaborate plans to rebuild the ancient site of Olympia, complete with statues, temples and gymnasia.
The director of the Exposition Universelle, Alfred Picard, thought holding an ancient sport event at the Exposition Universelle was an "absurd anachronism". After thanking de Coubertin for his plans, Picard filed them away and nothing more came of it. A committee was formed for the organization of the Games, consisting of some of the more able sports administrators of the day and a provisional program was drawn up. Sports to be included at the games were track and field athletics, wrestling, fencing and British boxing and ocean yacht racing, golf, archery, rowing and water polo. British and Irish sports associations announced a desire to compete, as did a number of powerful American universities and sports clubs. Competitors from Russia and Australia confirmed their intentions to travel to Paris. On 9 November 1898, the Union des Sociétés Françaises de Sports Athlétiques put out an announcement that it would have sole right to any organised sport held during the World's Fair, it was an empty threat but Viscount Charles de La Rochefoucauld, the nominated head of the organizing committee, stepped down rather than be embroiled in the political battle.
The Baron de Coubertin, secretary-general of the USFSA, was urged to withdraw from active involvement in the running of the Games and did so, only to comment "I surrendered – and was incorrect in doing so." The IOC ceded control of the Games to a new committee, to oversee every sporting activity connected to the 1900 Exposition Universelle. Alfred Picard appointed Daniel Mérillon, the head of the French Shooting Association, as president of this organization in February 1899. Mérillon proceeded to publish an different schedule of events, with the result that many of those that had made plans to compete in concordance with the original program withdrew, refused to deal with the new committee. Between May and October 1900, the new organizing committee held an enormous number of sporting activities alongside the Paris Exposition; the sporting events used the term of "Olympic". Indeed, the term "Olympic Games" was replaced by "Concours internationaux d'exercices physiques et de sport" in the official report of the sporting events of the 1900 Exposition Universelle.
The press reported competitions variously as "International Championships", "International Games", "Paris Championships", "World Championships" and "Grand Prix of the Paris Exposition". De Coubertin commented to friends: "It's a miracle that the Olympic Movement survived that celebration"; these Olympic Games were the first organised under the IOC Presidency of Pierre de Coubertin Alvin Kraenzlein won the 60 metres, the 110 metre hurdles, the 200 metre hurdles and the long jump events. For his victory in the long jump, he was punched in the face by his rival Meyer Prinstein, prevented from competing in the final by officials of Syracuse University because it was scheduled for a Sunday. Hélène de Pourtalès became the first female Olympic
Villepreux is a commune in the Yvelines department in the Île-de-France in north-central France located about 12 km west of Versailles, in the plaine de Versailles in line with the perspective of the Grand Canal. The municipality, in low relief, is marked in the northern part of the depression of the valley ru Gally, its tributaries, the rue de l'Oisemont and the rue de l'Arcy; the municipality is still rural. Urbanization is about 15% of the area, developed in the southern part, in the vicinity of Clayes-sous-Bois in the area served by railway services from Paris and Versailles. Villepreux position in the Yvelines The commune is a historical village established around a castle built by the Francini family which today belongs to the family of the counts of Saint-Seine. Further south, towards the SNCF train station, is the La Haie Bergerie quarter, a subdivision created by Jacques Riboud and his architect Roland Predieri -who became the Mayor of Villepreux. Since the early 1960s terraced houses have since been rehabilitated by new generations of owners.
Towards the west, is a new division called Trianon, near the Pointe-à-l'Ange area, with built-up quality buildings and lush fields on the edge of the municipality of Chavenay. This is the Val Joyeux area, another subdivision of 400 houses, dating from the post-war period and small newer residential houses and apartments on the edge of the forest of Bois d'Arcy; the center has moved from the old village to the new neighborhoods. The town is crossed in its southeastern part by the l'aqueduc de l'Avre. Preschools: Le Clos Crozatier Le Prieuré Le Val JoyeuxElementary schools: Jacques Gillet Jean de la Fontaine Gérard Philipe Le RasedThere is one junior high school, Collège Léon Blum, one senior high school/sixth form college, Lycée Sonia Delaunay. Communes of the Yvelines department INSEE Home page Villepreux FC
The United States of America known as the United States or America, is a country composed of 50 states, a federal district, five major self-governing territories, various possessions. At 3.8 million square miles, the United States is the world's third or fourth largest country by total area and is smaller than the entire continent of Europe's 3.9 million square miles. With a population of over 327 million people, the U. S. is the third most populous country. The capital is Washington, D. C. and the largest city by population is New York City. Forty-eight states and the capital's federal district are contiguous in North America between Canada and Mexico; the State of Alaska is in the northwest corner of North America, bordered by Canada to the east and across the Bering Strait from Russia to the west. The State of Hawaii is an archipelago in the mid-Pacific Ocean; the U. S. territories are scattered about the Pacific Ocean and the Caribbean Sea, stretching across nine official time zones. The diverse geography and wildlife of the United States make it one of the world's 17 megadiverse countries.
Paleo-Indians migrated from Siberia to the North American mainland at least 12,000 years ago. European colonization began in the 16th century; the United States emerged from the thirteen British colonies established along the East Coast. Numerous disputes between Great Britain and the colonies following the French and Indian War led to the American Revolution, which began in 1775, the subsequent Declaration of Independence in 1776; the war ended in 1783 with the United States becoming the first country to gain independence from a European power. The current constitution was adopted in 1788, with the first ten amendments, collectively named the Bill of Rights, being ratified in 1791 to guarantee many fundamental civil liberties; the United States embarked on a vigorous expansion across North America throughout the 19th century, acquiring new territories, displacing Native American tribes, admitting new states until it spanned the continent by 1848. During the second half of the 19th century, the Civil War led to the abolition of slavery.
By the end of the century, the United States had extended into the Pacific Ocean, its economy, driven in large part by the Industrial Revolution, began to soar. The Spanish–American War and World War I confirmed the country's status as a global military power; the United States emerged from World War II as a global superpower, the first country to develop nuclear weapons, the only country to use them in warfare, a permanent member of the United Nations Security Council. Sweeping civil rights legislation, notably the Civil Rights Act of 1964, the Voting Rights Act of 1965 and the Fair Housing Act of 1968, outlawed discrimination based on race or color. During the Cold War, the United States and the Soviet Union competed in the Space Race, culminating with the 1969 U. S. Moon landing; the end of the Cold War and the collapse of the Soviet Union in 1991 left the United States as the world's sole superpower. The United States is the world's oldest surviving federation, it is a representative democracy.
The United States is a founding member of the United Nations, World Bank, International Monetary Fund, Organization of American States, other international organizations. The United States is a developed country, with the world's largest economy by nominal GDP and second-largest economy by PPP, accounting for a quarter of global GDP; the U. S. economy is post-industrial, characterized by the dominance of services and knowledge-based activities, although the manufacturing sector remains the second-largest in the world. The United States is the world's largest importer and the second largest exporter of goods, by value. Although its population is only 4.3% of the world total, the U. S. holds 31% of the total wealth in the world, the largest share of global wealth concentrated in a single country. Despite wide income and wealth disparities, the United States continues to rank high in measures of socioeconomic performance, including average wage, human development, per capita GDP, worker productivity.
The United States is the foremost military power in the world, making up a third of global military spending, is a leading political and scientific force internationally. In 1507, the German cartographer Martin Waldseemüller produced a world map on which he named the lands of the Western Hemisphere America in honor of the Italian explorer and cartographer Amerigo Vespucci; the first documentary evidence of the phrase "United States of America" is from a letter dated January 2, 1776, written by Stephen Moylan, Esq. to George Washington's aide-de-camp and Muster-Master General of the Continental Army, Lt. Col. Joseph Reed. Moylan expressed his wish to go "with full and ample powers from the United States of America to Spain" to seek assistance in the revolutionary war effort; the first known publication of the phrase "United States of America" was in an anonymous essay in The Virginia Gazette newspaper in Williamsburg, Virginia, on April 6, 1776. The second draft of the Articles of Confederation, prepared by John Dickinson and completed by June 17, 1776, at the latest, declared "The name of this Confederation shall be the'United States of America'".
The final version of the Articles sent to the states for ratification in late 1777 contains the sentence "The Stile of this Confederacy shall be'The United States of America'". In June 1776, Thomas Jefferson wrote the phrase "UNITED STATES OF AMERICA" in all capitalized letters in the headline of his "original Rough draught" of the Declaration of Independence; this draft of the document did not surface unti
Kasaba or Kasabaköy is a village 17 kilometres outside Kastamonu, Turkey. It has since shrunk to only a few dozen households. Kasaba does not contain any ancient sites but does have a mosque, the Mahmut Bey Camii, built by a representative of Jandarid dynasty in the second half of the 14th century. Kasaba — Google maps
The Franco-Prussian War or Franco-German War referred to in France as the War of 1870, was a conflict between the Second French Empire and the Third French Republic, the German states of the North German Confederation led by the Kingdom of Prussia. Lasting from 19 July 1870 to 28 January 1871, the conflict was caused by Prussian ambitions to extend German unification and French fears of the shift in the European balance of power that would result if the Prussians succeeded; some historians argue that the Prussian chancellor Otto von Bismarck deliberately provoked the French into declaring war on Prussia in order to draw the independent southern German states—Baden, Württemberg and Hesse-Darmstadt—into an alliance with the North German Confederation dominated by Prussia, while others contend that Bismarck did not plan anything and exploited the circumstances as they unfolded. None, dispute the fact that Bismarck must have recognized the potential for new German alliances, given the situation as a whole.
On 16 July 1870, the French parliament voted to declare war on Prussia and hostilities began three days when French forces invaded German territory. The German coalition mobilised its troops much more than the French and invaded northeastern France; the German forces were superior in numbers, had better training and leadership and made more effective use of modern technology railroads and artillery. A series of swift Prussian and German victories in eastern France, culminating in the Siege of Metz and the Battle of Sedan, saw French Emperor Napoleon III captured and the army of the Second Empire decisively defeated. A Government of National Defence declared the Third French Republic in Paris on 4 September and continued the war for another five months. Following the Siege of Paris, the capital fell on 28 January 1871, a revolutionary uprising called the Paris Commune seized power in the city and held it for two months, until it was bloodily suppressed by the regular French army at the end of May 1871.
The German states proclaimed their union as the German Empire under the Prussian king Wilhelm I uniting Germany as a nation-state. The Treaty of Frankfurt of 10 May 1871 gave Germany most of Alsace and some parts of Lorraine, which became the Imperial territory of Alsace-Lorraine; the German conquest of France and the unification of Germany upset the European balance of power that had existed since the Congress of Vienna in 1815, Otto von Bismarck maintained great authority in international affairs for two decades. French determination to regain Alsace-Lorraine and fear of another Franco-German war, along with British apprehension about the balance of power, became factors in the causes of World War I; the causes of the Franco-Prussian War are rooted in the events surrounding the unification of Germany. In the aftermath of the Austro-Prussian War of 1866, Prussia had annexed numerous territories and formed the North German Confederation; this new power destabilized the European balance of power established by the Congress of Vienna in 1815 after the Napoleonic Wars.
Napoleon III the emperor of France, demanded compensations in Belgium and on the left bank of the Rhine to secure France's strategic position, which the Prussian chancellor, Otto von Bismarck, flatly refused. Prussia turned its attention towards the south of Germany, where it sought to incorporate the southern German kingdoms, Bavaria, Württemberg and Hesse-Darmstadt, into a unified Prussia-dominated Germany. France was opposed to any further alliance of German states, which would have strengthened the Prussian military. In Prussia, some officials considered a war against France both inevitable and necessary to arouse German nationalism in those states that would allow the unification of a great German empire; this aim was epitomized by Prussian Chancellor Otto von Bismarck's statement: "I did not doubt that a Franco-German war must take place before the construction of a United Germany could be realised." Bismarck knew that France should be the aggressor in the conflict to bring the southern German states to side with Prussia, hence giving Germans numerical superiority.
He was convinced that France would not find any allies in her war against Germany for the simple reason that "France, the victor, would be a danger to everybody – Prussia to nobody," and he added, "That is our strong point." Many Germans viewed the French as the traditional destabilizer of Europe, sought to weaken France to prevent further breaches of the peace. The immediate cause of the war resided in the candidacy of Leopold of Hohenzollern-Sigmaringen, a Prussian prince, to the throne of Spain. France feared encirclement by an alliance between Spain; the Hohenzollern prince's candidacy was withdrawn under French diplomatic pressure, but Otto von Bismarck goaded the French into declaring war by releasing an altered summary of the Ems Dispatch, a telegram sent by William I rejecting French demands that Prussia never again support a Hohenzollern candidacy. Bismarck's summary, as mistranslated by the French press Havas, made it sound as if the king had treated the French envoy in a demeaning fashion, which inflamed public opinion in France.
French historians François Roth and Pierre Milza argue that Napoleon III was pressured by a bellicose press and public opinion and thus sought war in response to France's diplomatic failures to obtain any territorial gains following the Austro-Prussian War. Napoleon III believed. Many in his court, such as Empress Eugénie wanted a
George Mortimer Pullman was an American engineer and industrialist. He designed and manufactured the Pullman sleeping car and founded a company town, for the workers who manufactured it, his Pullman Company hired African-American men to staff the Pullman cars, who became known and respected as Pullman porters, providing elite service. Struggling to maintain profitability during an 1894 downturn in manufacturing demand, he halved wages and required workers to spend long hours at the plant, but did not lower prices of rents and goods in his company town, he gained presidential support by Grover Cleveland for the use of federal military troops which left 30 strikers dead in the violent suppression of workers there to end the Pullman Strike of 1894. A national commission was appointed to investigate the strike, which included assessment of operations of the company town. In 1898 the Supreme Court of Illinois ordered the Pullman Company to divest itself of the town, which became a neighbourhood of the city of Chicago.
Pullman was born in 1831 in Brocton, New York, the son of Emily Caroline and carpenter James Lewis Pullman. His family moved to Albion, New York, along the Erie Canal in 1845, so his father could help widen the canal, his father had invented a machine using jackscrews that could move buildings or other structures out of the way and onto new foundations and had patented it in 1841. By that time, packet boats carried people on day excursions along the canal, plus travellers and freight craft would be towed across the state along the busy canal. Pullman attended local schools and helped his father, learning other skills that contributed to his success. However, the youth dropped out of school. In 1855 his father died. Pullman had first worked as a clerk for a country merchant, but now he took over the family business and a year after his father's death won a contract with the State of New York to move 20 buildings out of the way of the widening canal, he moved to Chicago as a young engineer in 1857.
Chicago was a boom town expanding rapidly. Pullman arrived in Chicago as that city prepared to build the nation's first comprehensive sewer system, he soon formed a partnership known as Smith & Pullman. Chicago was built on a low-lying bog, people described the mud in the streets as deep enough to drown a horse; the growing city needed a sewer system, Pullman's became one of several companies hired to lift multi-story buildings four to six feet—to both allow sewers to be constructed and to improve the foundations. The project would involve raising the street level 6–8 feet, first constructing the sewers at ground level covering them; the Ely, Smith & Pullman partnership gained favorable publicity for raising the massive Tremont House, a six-story brick hotel, while the guests remained inside. He developed a railroad sleeping car, the Pullman sleeper or "palace car." These were designed after the packet boats. The first one was finished in 1864. After President Abraham Lincoln was assassinated, Pullman arranged to have his body carried from Washington, D.
C. to Springfield on a sleeper, for which he gained national attention, as hundreds of thousands of people lined the route in homage. Lincoln's body was carried on the Presidential train car that Lincoln himself had commissioned that year. Pullman had cars in the train, notably for the President's surviving family; the pullman had a wider wheel set. And as a result of the many people seeing the Palace car, it became sought after and resulted in a major change to all rail track widths. Orders for his new car began to pour into his company; the sleeping cars proved successful although each cost more than five times the price of a regular railway car. They were marketed as "luxury for the middle class." In 1867 Pullman introduced his first "hotel on wheels," the President, a sleeper with an attached kitchen and dining car. The food rivaled the best restaurants of the service was impeccable. A year in 1868, he launched the Delmonico, the world's first sleeping car devoted to fine cuisine; the Delmonico menu was prepared by chefs from New York's famed Delmonico's Restaurant.
Both the President and the Delmonico and subsequent Pullman sleeping cars offered first-rate service. The company hired African-American freedmen as Pullman porters. Many of the men had been former domestic slaves in the South, their new roles required them to act as porters, waiters and entertainers, all rolled into one person. As they were paid well and got to travel the country, the position became considered prestigious, Pullman porters were respected in the black communities. Pullman believed that if his sleeper cars were to be successful, he needed to provide a wide variety of services to travelers: collecting tickets, selling berths, dispatching wires, fetching sandwiches, mending torn trousers, converting day coaches into sleepers, etc. Pullman believed that former house slaves of the plantation South had the right combination of training to serve the businessmen who would patronize his "Palace Cars." Pullman became the biggest single employer of African Americans in post-Civil War America.
In 1869 Pullman bought out the Detroit Manufacturing Company. He bought the patents and business of his eastern competitor, the Central Transportation Company in 1870. In the spring of 1871, Andrew Carnegie, others bailed out the financially troubled Union Pacific. By 1875 the Pullman firm owned $100,000 worth of patents, had 700 cars in operation, had several hundred thousand dollars in the bank. In 1887, Pullman designed and established the system of "vestibuled trains," with cars lin
Système universitaire de documentation
The système universitaire de documentation or SUDOC is a system used by the libraries of French universities and higher education establishments to identify and manage the documents in their possession. The catalog, which contains more than 10 million references, allows students and researcher to search for bibliographical and location information in over 3,400 documentation centers, it is maintained by the Bibliographic Agency for Higher Education. Official website